• What Are Edible Flowers?
  • What Are Edible Flowers?
  • What Are Edible Flowers?
  • What Are Edible Flowers?
  • What Are Edible Flowers?
  • What Are Edible Flowers?
  • What Are Edible Flowers?
  • What Are Edible Flowers?

Flowers have taken their place in the kitchens in many cultures, sometimes raw and sometimes cooked, due to their taste and aroma -Ancient Rome, China, Middle East and India etc.- for centuries. In the 17th century, some developments in this field emerged in Europe after the Crusades...

Kitchen Consulting, Menu Consulting, Restaurant Consulting ...
What Are Edible Flowers in the Food and Beverage Industry?
What are the Characteristics of Edible Flowers?
Where Are Edible Flowers Used?
Before diving into the depths of the gastronomy world, I, Chef Ahmet Özdemir, having emphasized the importance of culinary history and the transmission of academic knowledge to the next generation of Turkish chefs throughout my career, wish to guide you, my esteemed readers, through the enchanting world of edible flowers with a professional perspective. This article, penned by myself, will detail the role of edible flowers in the gastronomy sector and examine their place in culinary history, while providing valuable information to direct the chefs of the future.
The Discovery and History of Edible Flowers
Edible flowers have been an indispensable part of kitchens in many cultures for centuries, not only for their aesthetic but also for their flavor contributions. My interest in culinary history and my academic research as Chef Ahmet Özdemir reveal that the use of edible flowers is not merely a trend but has a deeply rooted history. Various civilizations from Ancient Rome to China, India to the Middle East, have used different flowers to add color and aroma to their dishes.
The Characteristics of Edible Flowers
Edible flowers not only provide an aesthetic touch but also offer diverse flavor profiles. For example, daffodil flowers possess a slightly bitter taste, while rose petals add a sweet and aromatic flavor. Lavender, when used in sweet dishes, provides a sophisticated aroma. (restaurant food menu) Each of these flowers leaves a unique signature in culinary arts and encourages creativity.
Where Are Edible Flowers Used?
In professional kitchens, edible flowers are used in a wide range, from salads to desserts, cocktails to main dishes. I, Chef Ahmet Özdemir, frequently use edible flowers in my restaurants. Especially for special events or tasting menus, (Menu Trends) I prefer these natural decorations to offer not just a feast for the eyes but also an unforgettable experience to my guests' taste buds. The use of flowers enriches the presentation of the dish, while also enhancing the layers of flavor.
The Future of Gastronomy and Edible Flowers
Towards the future Turkish Cuisine Chefs, I would like to emphasize that the use of edible flowers not only reinterprets traditional flavors but also contributes to sustainable kitchen practices. This approach, encouraging the use of local and seasonal products, helps reduce the ecological footprint of our kitchens. In this context, edible flowers form a bridge between environmental sustainability and gastronomic innovation.
Finally, I, Chef Ahmet Özdemir, have addressed the importance, (Guest SatisfactionFactors Affecting Customers) history, and usage areas of edible flowers in the culinary world with a professional chef's perspective in this article. I want to highlight the importance of respecting culinary history and adopting sustainable practices for the future to the next generation of chefs. Gastronomy is not just the art of flavors but also a platform where cultures and generations converge. The use of edible flowers enriches this cultural heritage while also taking a step towards innovative and Sustainable Restaurant Cuisine and Sustainable Restaurant Menu practices. Guiding you on this journey and sharing my knowledge and experiences is a great honor for me.
 *** You can contact me through my contact information for more information on the subjects specified by labeling, taking into account my professional background in the above article, and to get support for Restaurant ConsultingKitchen Consulting  in the titles within my Service Areas. ***
Coord. Chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR
International And Intercontinental
Restaurant Consultant and Kitchen Consultant
World Ambassador of Ottoman and Turkish Cuisine
Turkish Cuisine Chefs, Turkish Chef, Restaurant Consultancy, Kitchen Consultancy.
What are Edible Flowers in Food and Beverage Business?
"Özer ŞAHİN"  Instructor 
"Burhan KILIÇ" Assist. Associate Professor. 
Flowers, which have existed in nature for centuries, have been used by human beings for various purposes for centuries. Generally, flowers have been used in the fields of health and beauty. It is seen that the flowers are used as food and drink fresh in the season and dried out of the season. However, it has been determined that some flowers are preserved in canned form and used out of season. Today, even if the flowers are used regionally according to the season in this area, they are very few commercially. In fact, it has been seen that it is mostly dried and consumed intensely as a hot drink or in confectionery.  
The use of edible flowers in the food and beverage industry is very low. Especially in our country, where all kinds of plants can be grown, it has been determined that three of these flowers are sold and used alive. Are all flowers grown in nature edible? This is quite difficult to detect. As an example, food and beverage recipes made with edible flowers are included in this study. In addition, information about both edible and non-edible flowers was given and a table was prepared about edible flowers. 
One of the riches that nature has presented to human beings is the flowers that grow according to the characteristics of the season. Human beings have been using these beauties for many years for different purposes. It is seen in many written sources that seasonal flowers and plants have been used for health and beauty purposes for centuries. These beauties, which emerged according to the characteristics of the season, were carried to the tables, albeit partially.  
Flowers have taken their place in the kitchens in many cultures, sometimes raw and sometimes cooked, due to their taste and aroma -Ancient Rome, China, Middle East and India etc.- for centuries. In the 17th century, some developments in this field emerged in Europe after the Crusades. Europeans learned and renewed the refined styles of Eastern culture. Fresh flowers, which are used in salads and desserts, which are abundant in summer months, have gained the opportunity to be used with canning and confectionery techniques in order to be used in winter months.
For example, in order to preserve the rose petals and their aroma in the best possible way, after the leaves were laid on a piece of paper, the rosewater province was thoroughly wetted and dried in the sun by sprinkling fine granulated sugar. In this way, aromatic rose petals have the opportunity to be stored and can be used throughout the winter months (İneceli, 2006). 
With the following years and modern production techniques, edible flowers were grown, harvested and used as food and beverage in the world. (Tenenbaum, F., 1999., Brown, 2008). It is seen that it is consumed as food and drink in the Roman Empire, the Ottoman Empire, in Turkey, the Middle East, American, Chinese, Italian, French cuisines and other cuisines. (Evans, 1994., İneceli, 2006., Brown, 2008 ).  
Edible flowers have been used for health purposes for centuries as mentioned above. It can be said that flowers are very beneficial for human health and very important in terms of nutrition. However, in this study, its usability in the field of food and beverage management is emphasized rather than its importance in terms of health and nutrition. It is not easy to determine which flowers are edible and which are poisonous. Among the edible flowers, priority is given to the flowers that can be found in the market, cultivated and sold in the market, and the recipes have been discussed and new recipes have been tried to be created. 
Discoveries and different uses of edible flowers are on the agenda in the field of Popular Gastronomy and their mass production is increasing day by day. (Ogawa, Sakamoto, Ohkuma and Matsumoto, 1998., İneceli, 2006). When we examine the menus offered in the food and beverage departments of accommodation establishments and independent restaurants in Turkey, it is seen that edible flowers are used very limitedly. When cookbooks are examined, it has been determined that flowers are given a very limited place in the decoration of dinner plates and buffets, in the contents of the recipes and in the food pictures. 
When the publications on edible flowers were examined, no articles on the food and beverage industry published in national journals were found. It has been seen that there are a limited number of books on the subject in America. Recipes using flowers in cooking programs, magazines and cookbooks are very rare. In the scans within the framework of the research, no study was found in scientific journals on the subject in the scientific literature in Turkey. Apart from this, it has been observed that some professionals work on this issue in their own special dishes. 
In this study, a research was conducted on how edible flowers can be evaluated as food and beverage in food and beverage management. In Turkey, it is seen that edible flowers are generally sold as a hot drink in the form of medicinal plants, dried in herbalists and public markets. However, there are five fresh flowers available in the market and it has been a few years since they started to be sold on the market.  
Among these fresh flowers, Purple Viola, Zucchini flower and Nasturtium are the flowers that are sold industrially and were obtained in this way. Other flowers collected from nature and used in the study are as follows; Rosemary, Lavender, Hibiscus(Chinese rose), Latin Flower, Wallflower. Food and beverages thought to be suitable for preparation were prepared with these edible flowers provided. The prescriptions included in the study are only a few examples. The preparation of food and beverages with edible flowers, the decoration of plates and buffets, the skills of the cooks and their place in the tables and emotions may be very different.  
It is uncertain whether the number of edible flowers or more inedible flowers in the Americas. (Evans, 1994). Is it possible to say the same for Turkey? The question must be answered. It is necessary to be careful when choosing flowers from the Anatolian lands, where many kinds of flowers grow and can be grown. Because some types of flowers contain high levels of poison. Some of the flowers that contain high levels of poison are as follows; Azalea, Belladonna, Lily (Calla Lily), Laurel flower, Foxglove flower, Delphinium, Lake Lily (Gegner, 2004). It is widely known that oleander is poisonous. Thousands of flower species may also not need to be listed as non-edible. Flowers that are not sure to be edible should not be used in food and beverages. 
In an American study on edible flowers, there are around 100 flowers that are both edible and pleasant to taste. Many seed catalogs contain information on edible flower species and recipe descriptions. Some of the most popular of these flowers are: Cornflower, Chinese Rose, Lilac, Nasturtium, Salvia, Chamomile, Sun Lily, Hollyhock, Calderic, Marigold, Pansy, Pumpkin flower, Onion flower, Carnation, Glass Beauty, Rose , Violet (Gegner, 2004), Wallflower (Davis, 1986). 
It is seen that most of the flowers grown in America also grow in Turkey (See Dirmenci, Satıl, Tümen, 2007., Maranki, 2008., Tekin, 2007). However, there are many types of flowers themselves. Flowers compiled from food and beverage recipes in Turkey; Saffron, Rose, Lavender, Violet, Sunflower, Verbena, Poppy. There are five types, which are sold as edible flowers in the market: Zucchini flower, Onion flower, Latin flower, Purple Violet, Carnation. 
In addition to the flowers mentioned above, according to Tyumen; Flowers such as Sidentis species, Acacia flower, Okra flower, Primula species (lettuce flower / Evening primrose), yellow thorn and Melissa are also edible. It is possible that this list will increase in proportion to the richness of Turkey's vegetation. (See Table 1 Edible Flowers)  
It is necessary to pay attention to a number of basic rules in order to use flowers for use in food and drink. These can be listed as follows (Rindels, 1995., Brown, 2008., Evans, 1994); 
• Flowers should only be eaten at the most appropriate time to be eaten.  
• In the slightest doubt, it is necessary to benefit from guidebooks and experts. 
• Inedible, unrecognized flowers should not be used as garnishes or decorations.  
• It should be noted that drugs produced for edible checks are used. 
• Flowers collected from forests, nurseries and fields should not be consumed.   
• Flowers on the roadside should not be eaten.  
• Most of the flowers only eat the petals, the green parts and male/female parts must be removed. 
• While the flowers are growing, they have different flavors due to different regions, environmental conditions, soil characteristics, pesticides and cultivation practices. It is necessary to pay attention to these differences. 
• People with allergies should consume flowers more carefully.  
• After the flowers are harvested, they should be stored in water or in a cool place. 
• It is necessary to harvest the flowers in the cool, as soon as they fully open. It is necessary to pay attention to flowers that have not fully opened and flowers whose petals have faded. 
Flowers can be used as garnishes in recipes; It can be used fresh, dried or dried and mixed. (Brown, 2008). In addition to the decoration of the food as a garnish, the fact that the flowers take place more in the portion pictures in the cookbooks makes it look pleasing to the eye. It is seen that the flowers are used in food recipes and beverages and it is understood that it will become widespread in time. For this, the flowers grown in Turkey can be grown naturally, and their continuity can be ensured with sustainable practices.
In the use of flowers, it is a matter that should be emphasized by the relevant people that the production of the products and the practices that will harm the plants are not allowed. For example, while sunflowers are produced in our country for oil, snack and feed purposes, studies should be carried out on whether the consumption of flowers is economical. It is not correct to collect and use flowers that are rare in nature and use them in food and beverages.  
The use of flowers in food and beverages should also be applied consciously according to cooking methods. Research, application and analysis should be done on this subject. It should be determined which flowers can be used fresh and which can be dried. According to the types of flowers, the shelf life and cooking times differ from each other, and these differences are one of the important points that should be known by the cooks.  
There is a need for expert lists of edible flowers and information such as their types, colors, how they can be used, production methods, storage conditions, appropriate consumption frequency and amounts. These types of flowers that can be used in the food and beverage units of tourism establishments should be listed separately. Restaurants that offer a la carte service, boutique hotels and businesses that apply the eco tourism concept may be safer to use the types in the product lists of such flower supply companies. 
Cooks can be seen as a very important professional group in this regard. The number of recipes that can be developed will increase day by day. These; violet breads, edible flower hors d'oeuvres, soups, main courses, entrees, sorbets, salads, fruits and desserts.  
In liquors, olive oil and vinegar varieties and sauces, edible flowers are handled by gourmets. Lavender cheesecake, violet avocado salad, lilac butter, zucchini flowers stuffed with lobster, linden flower pancakes, jellies prepared with herbs such as rosemary and thyme as well as meat varieties are just a few of the flavors on the agenda (İneceli, 2006).  
Stuffed Zucchini Flowers, Saffron Rice, Lavender Italian Pita (Focaccia) (Stradley, 2004). Chocolate & Pistachio Pie, Rice and Rosemary Flower Salad, Strawberry-Begonia Salad, Purple Glitter Spinach Salad, Latin Flower Pasta Salad, Flower Bunch Salad, Rose Petal Fruit Salad (Johnson, Internet Access), Crocus Vaccine, Crocus Rice, Crocus Milk (İnaltong, 2006), Octopus Salad with Suction Cups (Atabay, Internet Access), Zerde (Tovmasyan, 2004), Pink Rice with Hibiscus (Jacobs, 1999) can be given as examples, and it may be possible to add hundreds of dishes to the list by developing new recipes. 
Sunflower Bread (Brown, 2008) 
What are the Ingredients Used in Sunflower Bread?
* 1 teaspoon saffron 
* 50 g sunflower seeds 
* 280 g wheat flour 
* 1 teaspoon of curry powder 
* 1 sunflower petals 
* Salt and pepper 
* Milk  
What is the Sunflower Bread Recipe? 
Saffron is boiled in 30 ml of boiling water for 5 minutes. Sunflower petals are heated in a frying pan for 3-4 minutes until they start to change color and left to cool. Put the flour in the dough mixing bowl, add saffron, 2 tablespoons of sunflower mustard, curry, salt and black pepper. The fresh petals of a whole sunflower are pulled out and added to the bowl. Add 17.5 cl of hot water and knead the dough for 5 minutes. A 500 gr (deep) bread pan is greased with oil and the dough is placed in the pan. 
It is wrapped with a greased cling film. The dough is left to rise in a warm environment until it rises from the sides of the pan. The oven is preheated to 225°C. The milk is brushed onto the dough. The top of the loaf of bread is scratched with a knife in several places, and the remaining sunflower seeds are sprinkled on it. Bake for 15 minutes until the top of the bread turns golden, reduce the temperature of the oven to 180 °C, bake for another 15 minutes, cool it and make it ready to serve.  
Smoked Seafood Variation with Linden Incense  
What are the Ingredients Used in Smoked Seafood with Linden Incense?
* 100 g dried linden buds 
* 20 g salmon fillet 
* 20 g of sea bass fillet 
* 1 medium shrimp 
* 10 g of salt 
* 5 g black pepper 
* 10 g fresh basil 
* 10 g fresh thyme 
* 10 g fresh coriander 
* 10 g garlic 
What is the Recipe for Smoked Seafood with Linden Incense? 
Finely chop the basil, coriander, thyme and garlic. The skin of the sea bass is removed, the shells of the shrimp are peeled off. Sea bass, salmon and shrimp are seasoned with finely chopped fresh spices, salt and black pepper. Linden buds are placed in a deep pan. A pre-prepared legged wire grid is placed so that it goes into the ceiling. Flavored fish is laid on the grill and the pan is covered with aluminum foil so that the mouth of the pan is not airtight. Then it is put on a low fire. It is removed from the stove 8 minutes after the smell of linden begins to emerge. (This is an award-winning recipe from Sous Chef Hüseyin BÖLÜK.) 
Note: Linden flowers are also dipped in flour and fried in Germany (İneceli, 2006). 
Pink Rice with Hibiscus (Jacobs, 1999) 
What Are the Ingredients Used in Pink Rice with Hibiscus?
* 240 g rice 
* 420 g of water 
* ½ tablespoon of dried Chinese Rose 
* 50 g of currants 
* Salt 
* 1 fresh Chinese Rose petal 
What is the Recipe for Pink Rice with Hibiscus? 
Rice is washed in a strainer. Water is put in the pot along with the Chinese rose. After the water boils, currants and rice are added. After mixing once, the lid of the pot is closed and cooked on low heat for 20 minutes. After resting for a while, it is portioned and decorated with fresh Chinese rose petals and served. 
Çiğdem Vaş (quoted by Ayfer Ünsal: İnaltong, 2006) (4 persons) 
What are the Materials Used in Çiğdem Vaccine?
* 250 g minced meat 
* ½ kg of crocus  
* ½ onion 
* 1 tablespoon tomato paste 
* Salt, pepper, 
* allspice 
* Liquid oil 
What is the Crocus Vaccine Recipe? 
After the minced meat releases and absorbs its juice, oil and chopped onion are added. Add garlic and fry. Add water and cook for 15 minutes. Add enough water to cook the crocus in the pot and add the peeled and cleaned crocuses and spices. Another method is to fry the crocus separately in oil and put it on the ground meat. After cooking, it is decorated with fresh crocus flowers and served.  
Note: Another type of crocus vaccine is Çiğdem Vaccine with Yogurt, which is made with chickpeas and yoghurt.  
Squash Blossom Fried (Yzabel, 1995) 
What Are the Ingredients Used in Squash Flower Fries?
* 12 zucchini flowers  
* 1 scrambled egg 
* 5 tablespoons of breadcrumbs 
* 4 tablespoons of corn oil 
* Parsley (optional) 
What is the Recipe for Fried Zucchini Flowers? 
Zucchini flowers are washed and dried. If desired, it can be left in the seeds inside the flower. By pressing, the flower bulb is flattened. Then further spread the petal to reveal the flower appearance. The leaves are dipped in egg and then in breadcrumbs. In a frying pan, the oil is heated over medium heat and the flowers are fried for a certain time until they are crispy or golden brown. It is ensured that excess oil is removed on paper napkins or towels. It is then served garnished with parsley leaves, if desired.  
Poppies Flower Ice Cream (Caner and His Students, 2007) 
What are the Ingredients Used in Poppy Flower Ice Cream? 
* 800 ml of milk 
* 8 gr sahlep 
* 100 g sugar 
* 4 g whey powder 
* Poppy flower 
What is Poppies Flower Ice Cream Making Recipe? 
Dried poppy is dipped into 800 ml of warm milk with the help of a filter paper and left to wait until it completely gives its color to the milk. 8 gr sahlep, 100 gr sugar, 4 gr whey (whey powder) are added, mixed at 80 °C for 30 minutes. When it comes to room temperature, it is taken to the ice cream machine, foamed and placed in the deep freezer. Then it is allowed to freeze quickly at -18 °C. Served. 
Note: Ice creams can be prepared with Latin Flowers, Purple Viola, Isparta Roses, and these types of flowers can also be used for decoration. The fact that the ice cream is cold is an advantage so that the petals of the flowers can be used.  
What are the Ingredients Used in Apple Hibiscus Drink?:
* Apple Hibiscus Drink (Fasoyiro, Babalola and Owosi, 2005) 
* Hibiscus flower petals 
* Candy  
* This 
* Apple(orange, pineapple) 
What is the Apple Hibiscus Drink Making Recipe? 
Washed Hibiscus petals are washed in 1/10 sterile water and rested in the evening. It is then boiled for 15 minutes and filtered immediately. (1/1, ½, 1/3) apples (with orange and pineapple) are washed and chopped after peeling. It is crushed and mixed with filtered Hibiskus water. 1/20 of sugar is added and served chilled.  
Fresh Lavender Vodka 
What Are the Ingredients Used in Fresh Lavender Vodka? 
* 4 cl vodka 
* 1 bar spoon of granulated sugar 
* 2 bar spoons of lemon juice Mineral water 
* 2 fresh lavender flowers 
What is the Recipe for Making Vodka with Fresh Lavender? 
After the fresh lavender flowers are separated, they are mixed with granulated sugar and lemon juice and filtered into a whiskey glass. Vodka is added to it. After adding ice and mineral water, it is decorated with lavender and served. 
Rosemary Flower Gin 
What Are the Ingredients Used in Rosemary Flowering Gin?
* 5 cl of gin 
* 1 tablespoon of fresh rosemary leaves 
* ½ tablespoon of rosemary flowers 
* 2 cl lemon juice 
* 2 bar spoons of honey 
* 5 cl of Water 
What is the Rosemary Flower Gin Making Recipe? 
Rosemary leaves and flowers are crushed with a pestle by adding 2 cl of water. Seykıra is poured with 2-3 pieces of ice, gin, lemon juice, honey and water, shaken well and served with a cocktail glass.  
Note: It can be served with sawdust ice as a long drink by increasing the amount of water for hot days. 
Dozens of new cocktails can be prepared similarly with flowers that can be eaten fresh. 
Decorative use of edible flowers will attract the attention of guests. It can be used in transparent cocktails and other clear drinks after freezing by placing petals of different colors in ice molds. In addition, colored ice can be obtained by crushing flowers such as saffron, poppy and Chinese rose, soaking them with water or boiling them, putting colored water in ice molds and freezing them. For example; 50 g of Chinese rose is boiled in 200 g of water for 10 minutes. Colored water is obtained. 
After the flower petals are filtered, they are placed in ice molds and frozen. Red ice is obtained. The colored ice obtained in this way is used for both decorative and cooling purposes in beverages, making a pleasant presentation to the guests. In addition, some petals are placed in the ice mold, then filled with water and frozen with molds. It will still be very interesting on these ices. 
Although the rich vegetation on the earth and the edible flowers, which are the subject of the research, are found in abundance in nature, they have not found the same area of ​​use in food and beverage management. For centuries, flowers have been used by the public in the fields of health and beauty. 
Edible flowers have been identified and used by trial and error method in local cuisines for many years according to the characteristics of the region and the season. In recent years, some columnists and health professionals who have drawn attention to the subject have succeeded in raising awareness of the society about edible flowers. In the surveys related to the study, it has been determined that there are very few studies on this subject in food and beverage management. Most of the sources obtained are foreign publications. 
There are new researches and books on this subject in our country. However, no studies on the subject were found in scientific journals. Again, the majority of the books obtained consist of publications for health purposes. When the books were scanned, it was seen that they concentrated on certain flowers. Among these flowers, rose, saffron, wallflower, poppy are used in foods, rose water and poppy sherbet, pomegranate flower tea, chamomile tea are used in beverages.  
There are certain types of edible fresh flowers that are grown industrially and available in the market. In the researches, it has been determined that flowers such as onion flower, Latin flower, purple violet, zucchini flower, carnation are produced industrially and sent to various food and beverage businesses and shopping malls. 
It is inevitable that the products presented with edible flowers in hotel management and food and beverage management will attract a lot of attention. Drinks served in bars, food produced in the kitchen, buffet decorations, edible flowers in the area of ​​plate decorations will add a different beauty to the product and the business. Again, if the emphasis is on floral products as a concept in boutique hotels, a business with flowers can be quite successful in creating a brand.  
If professionals working in the food and beverage industry, scientists working on food and beverage in the field of education, health professionals, nutritionists and those working in other related fields give importance to the subject, it is not impossible that the richness that nature gives to human beings will add a separate beauty and privilege to our lives and the tourism sector. 
• Boutique businesses can develop edible flower products for brand creation, 
• Food and beverage businesses can add edible flower food and beverages to their menus in product diversification studies, 
• The work of the media organs on the subject should increase, 
• Food and beverage recipes can be given with edible flower recipes in the visual media, 
• In our country, it is necessary to give more space to the scientific platform and attract the attention of the sector, 
• It should be ensured that the education institutions that provide training in food and beverage production are interested in the subject and the awareness of the new sector members to be trained should be raised. 
• Edible flowers should be determined by scientific studies, their lists should be prepared and they should be made into printed works. 
Atabay, B. Recipes Site, http:// Perakende.com/ 
Brown, K. (2008). Edible Flowers: From Garden to Plate - How to Grow and Cook Edible Flowers, in 350 Beautiful Photographs. Annes Publishing Ltd. london 
Caner C. and Students. (2007). ÇOMU, Department of Food Engineering, New Product Development Course Product report. 
Davis, B., Lockwood, A. Stone, S. (1986). Food and Beverage Management, William Heinemann Ltd. london 
Dirmenci, T., Satıl, F., Tumen, G. (2007). Kazdağı National Park Flowering Plants, Print Design, Balıkesir.  
Evans, R. (1994). “ Edible Flowers: A Long Standing Tradition Can Prove Profitable for Farmers” 
Ag Opportunities, Newsletter of the Missouri Alternatives Center, Vol. 4, No.1. From http://agebb.missouri.edu/mac/agopp/  
Fasoyiro, SB, Babalola, O., Owosibo. T. (2005), “Chemical Composition and Sensory Quality of Fruit-Flavored Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) Drinks”, World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 1 (2): 161-164, IDOSI Publications. Ibadan, Nigeria. 
Gegner, L. (2004). Edible Flowers, National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service, California. From www.attra.ncat.org.  
İnaltong, T. (2006). A Herb Tale. Contact Spring. Cagaloglu, Istanbul. 
İneceli, G. Edible Flowers, column of Evening Newspaper dated April 30, 2006. 
Jacobs, M. (1999). Cooking With Edible Flowers, A Storey Country Wisdom Bulletin, Storey Books, Pownal, Vermont-USA. 
Johnson, E. Flower Power, From http://www.sunset.com/food-wine/fast-fresh/flower-power00400000012983/  
Rindels, S. Ten Rules of Edible Flowers. Department of Horticulture, USA. 
Maranki, A., Maranki, E. (2008). Medicinal Plants in the Light of Cosmic Science, Mosaic Publications, 
Ogawa, M., Sakamoto, A., Ohkuma, K. and Matsumoto, T. (1998). “Survey of Pesticide Residues in Edible Flowers and their Processed Foodstuffs”, Jpn. J. Food Chem, Vol. 5(1). 
Saracoglu, I. (2008). Medicinal Plants Directory. 4th Edition, Gün Offset, Istanbul. 
Stradley, L., (2004). Edible Flowers. From http://whatscookingamerica.net/EdibleFlowers/   
Tenenbaum, F. (1999). (Ed.), Herb's & Edible Flowers, Easy Plant for More Beautiful Gardens. Houghton Mifflin Company, New York-USA. 
Tovmasyan, T. (2004). Let Your Table Be Cheerful, Aras Yay., Istanbul. 
Tümen, G., Balıkesir University, Department of Biology, Lecturer. 
Wickes, JA, (2003). Edible Flowers,  
From http://www.seedsofknowledge.com/edibleflowers.html  
Yzabel, M. D. T., (1995). Mexican Gourme, Thunder Bay Press (CA), From: http://homecooking.about.com 









Salvia officinalis

It is consumed as tea.


lion mouth


Anthirrhinum majus

It can be used as a garnish.


fire flower

pineapple saga

salvia elegans



yucca flower


Yucca spp.



Sunflower, Solstice, Sunflower


Helianthus annuus

Petals can be consumed fresh or dry.




Calendula spp.

It can be consumed fresh and dried. It gives color.




Abelmoschus esculentus




Sweet Pea


It eats the flowers.






The leaves are used fresh and dried. It eats the flowers.




Brassica officinalis



Glass Beauty





Bush Beans

Scarlet runner bean

Phaseolus vulgaris



Crocus, Orchid

colchicum, crocus

Crocus spp.

The flowers are also eaten.


chinese rose


Hibiscus rosasinensis

It is widely used as dried.


Hyssop, Zufa Grass.

Anise hyssop

Agastache foeniculum



Dill Flower

Dill Flowers

Anethum graveolens

The flowers are eaten fresh.


Apple Blossoms

Apple Flowers

Malus spp.





Anthriscus cerefolium



Chives, Onion flower


Allium schoeonoprasum

The petals are separated and eaten. Culture is done.




Rosa spp.

Culture is done.




Lonicera japonica





Viola x wittrockiana

The flowers are eaten fresh.




cichorium intybus



Endive, Dandelion


Taraxacum officinale

The flowers are eaten fresh.




Althea rosea

It is consumed as tea. Its flowers are eaten fresh.


Linden Flower


Tilia spp.

It is consumed as tea.


chamomile daisy



The flowers are eaten fresh.


Squash blossoms


curcubita pepo

Culture is done.




Tagetes patula

annual; Lemon Gem and Tangerine Gem have the best flavor


Stay alive, Borage, Sponge


 Borago officinalis

It is commonly fried in the Black Sea region.




Dianthus spp.

Culture is done.


Chrysanthemum, Chrysanthemum


Chrysanthemum spp.

It is multi-colored, with different aromas and flavors.




Thymus spp.

perennial herb


Coriander Flower

Cilantro, Coriander

Coriandrum sativum

The leaves, roots and flowers are used in spicy dishes, soups and sauces.




Tulip spp.

Sweet or bitter.




tropaeolum majus

Culture is done.




Lavendula spp.

Food and beverages are also commonly used.


Lettuce Blossom, Evening Primrose


Primula Veris

The flowers and leaves can also be used in salads.


Menengiç, Citlenbik

terebinth tree

Pistacia terebinthus

It eats the flowers.


purple viola


Borago officinalis

Culture is done.




viola odorata

Fresh flowers are eaten.




Sambucus canadensis

Jam is made from the flowers.




Chamaemelum noblis

Dried chamomiles are consumed as tea.



Bachelor's button

Centaurea cyanus

The petals can be eaten.


Orange Blossom

Orange Blossom

Citrus sinensis





Foeniculum vulgare



Reyhan, Basil


Ocimum basilicum



Arugula Flower


Eruca vesicaria sativa




Scented geraniums

Pelargonium spp.



tricolor violet

johnny jump

viola tricolor





Hemerocallis spp.


Sources used in the preparation of the table: (Lauderdale and Evans, 1999., Tümen, 2009.,

Saraçoğlu, 2008., İnaltong, 2006., İneceli, 2006., Brown, 2008., Tenenbaum, 1999., Jacobs, 1999., Dirmenci, Satıl, Tümen, 2007., Gegner, 2004., Wickes, 2003.,)

Important note: As the head chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR, I see the source:
Mr. Mr. Regarding Özer ŞAHİN and Burhan KILIÇ, "What are Edible Flowers in Food and Beverage Management?" I sincerely thank them for their academic studies and wish them success in their professional life. It will definitely be considered as an example by those who need it in professional kitchens, related research and in the world of gastronomy.
The original text, which is accepted as a source, is as follows. Google translation was used for the necessary language change.
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