• Turkish Food Culture in the Eyes of Foreign Travelers
  • Turkish Food Culture in the Eyes of Foreign Travelers
  • Turkish Food Culture in the Eyes of Foreign Travelers
  • Turkish Food Culture in the Eyes of Foreign Travelers
  • Turkish Food Culture in the Eyes of Foreign Travelers
  • Turkish Food Culture in the Eyes of Foreign Travelers
  • Turkish Food Culture in the Eyes of Foreign Travelers
  • Turkish Food Culture in the Eyes of Foreign Travelers
  • Turkish Food Culture in the Eyes of Foreign Travelers
  • Turkish Food Culture in the Eyes of Foreign Travelers

Travelogues are among the first-hand sources, especially among historians. The main reason for this is that most of the information contained in these works is directly observed by the authors themselves. Apart from being a source, these works also contain richness..

Turkish Food Culture in Different Centuries Through the Eyes of Foreign Travelers 
Prof. Dr. Hayati BEŞİRLİ 
Travel books are considered as an important data source, especially among historians. These works also show the feature of being the first ethnographic work. In travel books, it is possible to find economic, cultural, anthropological and philological information in addition to historical and geographical information. In these works, the traveler explains in more detail the elements that are different from his own culture in the society he encounters and gives information about the social structure. In this study, the food culture in different Turkish geographies was evaluated in the narratives of foreign travelers. 
While making this evaluation, it is aimed to determine the geographical conditions and nutrition relationship, and what the foods that make up the Turkish culinary culture are. Another subject emphasized in the study is to reveal both rituals related to ceremonial meals and habits related to daily life within the scope of travel books. In the study, travel books of the 13th century (Wilhelm Von Rubruk), 14th century (Ibn Battuta, Johannes Schiltberger), 15th century (Ruy Gonzales De Clavijo), 17th century (Jean-Baptiste Tavernier) and 19th century (Arminius Vámbéry) were examined. 
Travel book, which consists of the words travel, which means "to travel, travel" in Arabic, and name (risale, letter) in Persian, means "travel letter, travel work". This is also called a campaign in Persian literature. In Arabic literature, the word rihle is mostly used in the sense of "journey" and "journeyname". Rihle is a noun from the infinitive rahl (or death with the same meaning) meaning "to migrate from one place to another" and means "migration". In ancient Arabic poetry, the Qur'an and hadiths, rihle was used in the meaning of "migration, journey, trip, travel" and the journeys and travels of the Quraysh tribe for commercial purposes were called rihle in the Qur'an (Yazıcı, 2009: 9). 
Travelogues are among the first-hand sources, especially among historians. The main reason for this is that most of the information contained in these works is directly observed by the authors themselves. Apart from being a source, these works also contain richness in terms of content. In travel books, it is possible to find economic, cultural, anthropological and philological information in addition to historical and geographical information. In this respect, it is possible to evaluate these works among the main sources of cultural history. 
In the classical period, the books written by the authors about geography and the information about geography have become literary works based on the stories and observations they have witnessed and heard. Travel books are considered as primary sources for historians (Ağarı, 2008:1). 
Making evaluations about social life in these works, which reflect the period from the eyes of the author, makes the work important in sociological terms. In our study, Turkish food culture travel books were examined and evaluated. The travel books we studied were selected from works covering a wide Turkish geography from different periods. In this context, in the study, 13th century (Wilhelm Von Rubruk), 14th century (Ibn Battuta, Johannes Schiltberger), 15th century (Ruy Gonzales De Clavijo), 17th century (Jean-Baptiste Tavernier) and 19th century (Arminius Vámbéry). ) travel books were examined. 
Wilhelm Von Rubruk and Travel Period 
The Mongol invasion in the 13th century was a great danger for the Muslims as well as for the Christian world. In order to take precautions against this invasion, the Christian world has started various activities. Wilhelm von Rubruk, King of France IX. Ludwig (1226-1270) commissioned an envoy to the Mongols. For this purpose, he sailed from Istanbul with his entourage in May 1253 and reached the Crimea via the Black Sea. 
The Seljuk Sultan Izzeddin Keykavus (II., 1246-1259), whom Rubruk mentions as ruling in Turkey during his travels. The delegation of ambassadors traveled long distances through Mongolian organizations sent from one ruler to another. The delegation stayed in Karakorum for more than six months (Rubruk, 2012: 1-9). 
Ibn Battuta and his Travel Period 
Considered one of the most important travelers of the world, Ibn Battuta (Abu Abdillâh Shamsuddin (Bedrüddin) Muhammad b. Abdillah b. Muhammed b. Ibrahim al-Levâtî et-Tanci) was born on 17 Rajab 703 (February 24, 1304, in Tangier, Morocco, and is a new addition to travel books). He brought an understanding and style, gave information about the situations of people and peoples, social life, beliefs and traditions rather than the characteristics of countries and towns. 
Ibn Battuta's travels lasted nearly thirty years from 725 (1325). Among the places Ibn Battuta has visited are countries such as Turkey, India, China, Andalusia, Western Sudan, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt. The notes he took during his travels were damaged by the robbery in India and the sinking of the ship he boarded in Kolkata Port. 
His travel book, which contains important information about Turkish-Mongolian history, is named Tuhfetü'n-Nüzzâr fi Garâibi'l-Emsâr ve Acâibi'l-Esfâr (Yazıcı, 2009: 9-11). Ibn Battuta, who met the rulers of Turks, Mongols and Maldives, was appointed to the position of kadi in many countries, and he was given some diplomatic duties due to his knowledge of Persian and Turkish and gaining various political experiences during his travels (Aykut, 1999:361-368). 
Johannes Schiltberger and the Travel Period 
He was probably born in 1380 in a village (Hollers) near Munich. According to his own statement, he joined the Crusader army, which was prepared against the Turks under the rule of Hungarian King Sigismund, in the service of his feudal lord Leinhardt (Leonhard) R(e)ichartinger and was captured by the Turks in the Battle of Nicopolis (25 September 1396). Later, Yıldırım was captured by Timur with Bayezid. 
Schiltberger remained in captivity with Timur and his successors for twenty-six years. Years later, he managed to escape from Crimea, the last country he traveled in captivity, by finding a way, and after a captivity that lasted for thirty-two years, he returned to his country via the Danube via the Caucasus, Batumi, and Istanbul (1424). He wrote his memoir in his country. Schiltberger, who did not give any information about his next life and family, died in 1440 (Beydilli, 2009:228).
Ruy Gonzales De Clavijo and the Travel Period 
It is known that Ruy Gonzales de Clavijo, one of the 15th century nobles, came from an important family. He was born in Madrid. However, there is no information about his date of birth in the sources we can reach, the ruler of Castile and Leon III. Henry's chamberlain. He was sent as an ambassador from Spain to Timur's palace. When he set foot on Anatolian lands in 1402, Timurid armies defeated Yıldırım Bayezid's armies in the Battle of Ankara, and a part of Anatolia came under the influence of Timurids. 
He has seen Byzantium, Interregnum Anatolia, Iran's and Transoxiana's big cities such as Tabriz, Mashhad, Merv, Belh, Tirmidhi, Samarkand and Bukhara. Clavijo's journey to Samarkand took place a century after Marco Polo's. Although the embassy delegation continued its journey, it was able to reach Samarkand from Kadis in fifteen months. Of course, in the meantime, they had to stay in Istanbul for five months, saw Timur's palaces, and the traveler died in Madrid on April 2, 1412 (Doğrul, 1993: 10-12). 
Jean-Baptiste Tavernier and the Travel Period 
Tavernier was born in this city as the son of a map dealer who came from Antwerp and settled in Paris. Tavernier, one of the 17th century travelers, followed the Bolu-Amasya-Erzurum-Yerevan route in his first Iran trip in 1632, and came to Iskenderun by sea from Marseille in his second journey in 1638. He took the road to Najaf and Basra following the Euphrates, reached Isfahan from there, and in 1644 he came to Iskenderun by ship from Livorno and came to Aleppo-Telbaser-Birecik-Urfa-Mardin-Nusaybin-Mosul-Şehrizor-Sineridic- He reached Isfahan by way of Hamadan. After this third journey, which lasted until 1649, Tavernier went to the Orient three more times (1652-56, 1657-62, 1663-68), traveled through India and Indonesia, and died in Copenhagen in 1689 (Tavernier, 1980: 1 -9). 
Arminius Vámbéry and the Period of Travel 
Vambery was born on March 19, 1832, to a Jewish family in the town of Szentgyörgy, now in Slovakia. After completing primary school in the village where he was born, he continued his education in a monastery in Niske (Niş) in Hungary. By the age of eight, Vambery had learned Latin, French and German alongside Hungarian. He came to Istanbul to go to Turkestan. He also learned Turkish in a short time in Istanbul. 
He also received Islamic education during his stay in Istanbul. Vambery came to Trabzon from Istanbul. He went to Iran by caravan passing through here. He started his journey to Turkistan in 1863 when he was 31 years old. 
From March 28, 1863, until November of the same year, Vambery traveled to the cities of Khiva, Kongrat, Urgench, Bukhara, Samarkand and Herat, disguised as a dervish, and returned to Tehran. He remained in Tehran until 28 March 1864. To see and examine many more residential areas during this long and dangerous trip; found the opportunity to get to know the communities still living in a nomadic state (Yılmaz, 2005:599-600, Akpınar, 2012:502, Ayan, 2011: 43-45). When Vambery reached Samarkand in 1863, he met Emir Muzaffereddin, Khan of Bukhara, and Seyid Muhammed Khan, ruler of Khiva. Vambery died on September 15, 1913, at the age of 80. 
Turkish Food Culture in Travel Books 
While evaluating the food culture in different Turkish geographies according to the studies of foreign travelers, firstly, the relationship between geographical conditions and nutrition, in this context, the differentiation of foods on the basis of geographical conditions, secondly, the determination of the foods that make up the Turkish culinary culture, and thirdly, the rituals related to ceremonial meals and daily life. It is aimed to reveal the habits within the scope of travel books. 
Turkish Food Culture in the Eyes of Foreign Travelers
In general, it is seen that the food culture of the Turks living in the Anatolian geography differs from their relatives in Central Asia. These differences are clearly explained in the work of Ibn Battuta, who traveled a wide Turkish geography. Ibn Battuta talks about abundance and fertility starting from Alanya, where he set foot in the Anatolian geography, which he refers to as Diyar-ı Rum in his travel book, and expresses this by saying "Plenty and abundance are in the land of Damascus, and love and mercy are in Rum". 
In his work, he often emphasizes the interest and generosity he receives from the Turks living in the Anatolian geography. He expressed this interest in his work: “When we came to Anatolia, we saw great interest no matter which zawiyah we went to. Our neighbors, male or female, did not hesitate to offer us treats” (Ibn Battuta, 2000:402). 
While describing Alanya, his first stop in Anatolia, Ibn Battuta said, “Bread is baked once a week, according to the custom here. Enough bread is made for the other days… On the day of bread, men filled us with hot bread and delicious food.” expresses as. The foods offered to them are mutton, chicken meat and fruits. As a beverage, he often mentions various sherbets. As it is understood, bread and fruits have an important place in the nutrition tradition in Anatolia. 
According to the data obtained by Ibn Battuta, there are differences in the food culture of the Turks as they move away from the Anatolian geography. In this difference, bulgur emerges as an important food. The increasing importance of bulgur and its products as food and beverage is reflected in the travel books, as well as the fact that bread remains in the background. 
“Turks do not eat bread and solid food. They make a dish similar to our anli, which they call “dûkî” (duğ, dügi = bulgur). First they put the water on the fire. When it boils, they throw a piece of dûkî into it. If they have meat with them, they cut it into pieces, put it in the pot and cook it together. When the food is cooked, they put everyone's share on their plates and serve, and finally they pour yogurt on the food on the plate” (Ibn Battuta, 2000: 466). 
Turkish Food Culture in the Eyes of Foreign Travelers
During our breaks in the area of ​​Özbek Han, we only cooked the wedding and took it long enough to eat. The meal was cooked in a single pot, then pieces of dry meat were placed on top and eaten by pouring milk. While the car was on the road, everyone was either eating or sleeping (Ibn Battuta, 2000:519). 
Tatars are a very brave nation. They all ride very well. They use excellent bow and arrow. When they find plenty of food, they fill their bellies more than necessary. If they can't find it, they are content with milk and meat. In this way, they travel for a long time, they live on meat and milk without eating bread. The Tatar nation endures more cold and hunger than all the nations of the world (Ruy Gonzales de Clavijo, 1993:141-143). 
As seen in Ibn Battuta's narrative regarding the Crimea in the 14th century, bulgur, which is obtained as a result of boiling and drying wheat, which has an important place in Turkish culinary culture today, is an indispensable food in the diet of Turkish communities living in the north of the Black Sea. 
However, this situation changes in the narrative of Vambery, one of the 19th century travellers. When the travelogue is examined, it is seen that he talks about bread throughout all the geographies he has traveled. He only states that the Kyrgyz, who are still nomadic, do not consume bread. 
Etrek … When he returned, he gave us a large amount of meat, bread and kumiss (a buttermilk made from mare's milk) (Vambery, 1993: 101). 
Hiyve … Even in an ordinary banquet in Central Asia, it is customary to place a dirty table woven from various colors of silk, usually smeared with food residues, and put enough bread for two people in front of the guest (Vambery, 1993: 114). 
Hiyve … Then I was ordered to sit in peace. After being offered a bowl of tea and a piece of bread, Han started to chat with me (Vambery, 1993: 119). 
Bukhara … I immediately gave them the bread they wanted… During my stay here, boiled meat, the best bread, tea and fruits were found in all my meals (Vambery, 1993: 157). 
Belh … The city's market consisted of a few bakery shops, lining and ready-made garment shops (Vambery, 1993: 196).
Kyrgyz people… Even the word bread is foreign to them. They only feed on meat and milk (Vambery, 1993: 153). 
Great Tatarstan … Another custom is this: When the king wakes up in the morning, they offer him mare's milk in a golden bowl, and he drinks it on an empty stomach (Schiltberger, 1997:117). 
Turkish Food Culture in the Eyes of Foreign Travelers
Similarly, kumiss and boza, which are traditional Turkish drinks in this region, seem to have replaced sherbet in Anatolia. In travelogues, kumiss is not only a drink that is drunk alone, but also an important drink of celebrations. This highly nutritious and immune-boosting beverage is also an important gift for guests. This is reflected in the travelogues as follows: 
Crimea… After the meal, they drink the object made from mare's milk and called kimizz [=kimiz] (Ibn Battuta, 2000:466). 
On my right and left, I saw cars full of red overalls stretching as far as the eye could see. The ruler ordered these drinks to be distributed to those present at the end of the meal (Ibn Battuta, 2000:484). 
Along with these, they brought sweet kumiss in gold and silver goblets (Ruy Gonzales de Clavijo, 1993: 141-143). 
Vambery, one of the 19th century travellers, gave the following information about kumis: 
Kyrgyz people have gained fame in the production of kumiss. In Central Asia, this drink is attributed to its fattening properties and is used as a stimulant. I also drank koumis a few times. But I could never drink more than two or three sips because it was so sour and it dazzled my teeth (Vambery, 1993:135). 
For this reason, he was in a hurry to wander around the region in order to collect some bread and sacrifice meat. When he returned, he gave us a large amount of meat, bread and kumiss (a buttermilk made from mare's milk) (Vambery, 1993:103). 
It was very entertaining to watch the Kyrgyz women, even though they are on animals themselves, drink the amount of red they want to people by pouring them into their mouths without wasting a single drop of it. Because this showed the talent and mastery of both sides (Vambery, 1993: 135). 
It is stated in the Uyghur Travel Book of the Chinese Ambassador Wang Ten-Te regarding kumiss, which is consumed in most of the far Asian nomadic communities, in 806 that the Uyghurs refrained from drinking kumiss under Manichaean influences. He stated that other tribes in the region drank kumiss and were drunk (Wang ten-te, 1989: 35). Kumis is still the indispensable drink of nomadic Turkish societies. It is possible to see this drink, which is still consumed heavily in Kyrgyz, Kazakh and Uzbek societies, in other nomadic communities with steppe culture. 
Boza is an old Turkish beverage that is heavily consumed in travelogues of different centuries. 
They also have a kind of must, which is made from dûkî grains. After leaving Crimea, we arrived in Sicican (Sıcgan). The gentleman prepared a variety of dishes. Among them, there was also bread. While serving, they first brought a white water in small bowls. Everyone drank it. “What is this drinking?” I asked. Replied. “It is the water of Duki,” he said. But I didn't understand anything he said. When I came out of the meal, I researched what it was. 
They told. “This is a nebiz made of duki grains. They are from the Hanafi school and our prophet is halal in their eyes. The locals call the dûkî nebî “buza” (İbn Battuta, 2000: 467). 
Turkish Food Culture in the Eyes of Foreign Travelers
Afterwards, mare's milk and boza were offered (İbn Battuta, 2000:469) are frequently encountered in travel books.
Tea appears in travelogues after the 19th century. It is possible to come across expressions about tea in Vambery. Vambery's relationship with tea, which she encountered for the first time in the geography of Turkestan, would later turn into an obligatory friendship. 
As soon as they saw me, they greeted me with an extreme show of love and offered green water, which they called tea according to their tradition (Vambery, 2011: 27). 
In Vambery, tea will gain a fatigue-relieving effect over long distances. This situation is expressed in the same work as “We started to prepare our tea to relax” (2011: 59). 
As it can be understood from the frequency of these sentences in Vambery's travel notes, tea significantly affects the social and economic life of the people in the Turkestan geography, which includes the Silk Road, as well as their daily lives. Again, according to Vambery's narrative (2011:177): 
In Bukhara, they drank tea without sugar and with a kind of bun made from cornmeal and tallow. It is considered undesirable to blow on tea; therefore, it was necessary to shake and shake it in the bowl to cool it. A person who wanted to prove that he was an elegant and well-mannered person had to take care to constantly turn the tea in the bowl in his hand with a gentle movement, by placing his right elbow on his left hand, provided that not even a drop was spilled. 
If he spilled a drop, he would lose all his reputation. Drinking tea took several hours each day filled with meaningless talk. After the kettle was empty, the boiled tea leaves inside were distributed to those present. But it was considered ungraceful to take more than two-finger hold of the tea. According to his connoisseur, these teas were supposedly very good. After this tea business, their biggest entertainment was ram wrestling. Thereupon, everyone took turns cooking tea in the hearth of the salapurya (Vambery2011: 40). 
Hacı Bilal took me to the shore of the cistern named after the Emir's Divan Bey, Imam Kulu Han, by passing me through the tea market or the tea market (Vambery, 2011: 157). 
When we evaluate meat consumption in travel books after drinks, it is seen that horse meat is among the basic foods of nomadic Turkish communities as they approach Central Asia. In the travel book of Ibn Battuta, Azak chief Muhammad Hâce and his children survived to serve. Afterwards, dishes made from horse meat and other meats were brought. After the meal was finished, the Qur'an was read with a beautiful voice. A pulpit was established and the preacher went here (Ibn Battuta, 2000:469). 
I was in the presence of Sultan Üzbek during the month of Ramadan. There was mare and mutton meat, which were often eaten (Ibn Battuta, 2000:467). 
Sultan Cani Bey… Turks here do not know how to host foreigners and what kind of food to offer them! Sheep and horses to be slaughtered and eaten; They also send kumiss overalls as a beverage! First, a soft drink made of "duke", then a meal consisting of boiled horse and mutton was prepared (Ibn Battuta, 2000:476). 
The food of this place is either boiled horse or mutton (Ibn Battuta, 2000:484). 
Turkish Food Culture in the Eyes of Foreign Travelers
Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, on his journey in 1632, started from Rumelia with sheep, chickens, butter, rice and bread; While stating that other fresh foods were given as gifts, he tells that the Tatars he met in Anatolian geography ate horse meat and pastrami for the first time. 
We arrive at a small village called Almons (Almus). When our chief spoke of this adventure to the Tatars whom we met later, they were so pleased that fifteen or twenty of them galloped to smash our dead horses. Two hours later, we saw them come back. 
They had flayed those two horses and put one piece of each under their horse's saddle. In this way, the meat becomes soft and kind of cooked with the movement and warmth of the horse. Tatars often eat meat in this way without cooking it again. One of the Tatars took one of these pieces of meat, beat it well with a piece of wood between two dirty clothes, and then ate it voraciously (Tavernier, 1980: 28). 
In travelogues, pastrami is also found in Schiltberger's work: 
If they are in a hurry and have to leave in a hurry, they cut the meat into thin slices and put it under their saddles and ride on it. When they are hungry, they eat this meat. Meat is salted first, and according to them, this meat does not harm them. Because the meat dries with the heat of the horse, and due to the movement of the horse, it becomes crispy, soft and watery under the saddle. If they do not have time to prepare food, they do so (1997: 117). 
Ruy Gonzales de Clavijo, one of the 15th century travelers, also states that horse meat was consumed at Timur's table. 
After we sat down, the servants began to prepare the tables. The dishes brought were sheep and horse meat… Both these plates and other plates were very valuable. The most appreciated meat by Tatars is horse meat (Ruy Gonzales de Clavijo, 1993:141-143). 
As for Vambery, 
Turkmens... When we sat at these tables, we were eating an old-time meal consisting of camel and horse meat piece by piece by attacking kavatas (pot from tree trunk) one after another with our half-rolled arms (Vambery, 1993: 74). 
Not even an hour had passed since our break, many of the righteous nomads came to visit us just to earn rewards. In return for a few breaths and blessings I gave them, I received a great deal of bread and a few pieces of camel, horse and mutton (Vambery 1993:104). 
In Central Asia, where Turkish culture continues to feed on the cultural values ​​of the pre-Islamic period, unlike Anatolia, Turks continue to consume horse meat. As it can be understood, it is a period in which Turks living in Anatolia stopped consuming horse meat in the 14th century. 
It is difficult to reveal the reason for this. Here, the first factor affecting this result is the population density of the Anatolian geography and the excess of the settled population. Unlike the steppe culture, Anatolia does not have large pastures to raise large herds of horses. In addition, due to the relative abundance of agricultural activities in Anatolia, there is not enough feeding and movement space for horse herds that require a wide spread area. 
This settlement makes it more difficult to maintain a nomadic lifestyle compared to the steppe. In addition, the suitability of climatic conditions brings with it a new nutrition culture. In addition to the difficulty in supplying and feeding the horse, its increasing importance as a means of transportation in wars can also be considered in this context. 
In addition to the determinant of physical geography, the determinant of cultural geography is inevitable in the change of horse meat consumption. Intense and long-term cultural contacts with Persians and Arabs were influential in the Islamization process of Turks in Anatolia. This cultural interaction is likely to have an effect on the abandonment of horse meat eating habits. With their arrival in Anatolia, the influence of their relatives in Central Asia on the cultural nourishment of the Turks decreased, and their daily life practices were shaped by the influence of their close neighbors with whom they had intense religious relations.
Turkish Food Culture in the Eyes of Foreign Travelers
In the travel books, narratives about the consumption of horse meat and products by the Turks as they move away from the Anatolian geography are encountered. In this context, horse meat and kumiss are also an important food for the Mongols, where Turks in Central Asia share the same physical geography and carry out similar economic activities. 
Mongolians... They all eat meat and live off cattle and cattle. As long as they drink kumiss in summer, they are not interested in other foods… When an ox or horse dies, they dry its meat, cut it into small pieces and hang it on the wall under the sun (Rubruk, 2012: 35). 
The Mongols … They prepare kumiss from horse and mare milk… They put mares next to them and milk them… When the milk is fresh, it is poured into a big bag or something like that and its fat is extracted with a specially made mallet. This wood is as big as a human head in the lower part and has been carved inside. The milk is now vigorously beaten until it sours and ferments like wine. When taken back, it is obtained in oil. Then they try the milk and drink it if it is (Rubruk, 2012: 36). 
It is possible to see this cultural influence clearly in the names of the dishes. In the travel book of Ibn Battuta, tirit is mentioned in Anatolia in a remarkable way and it is stated that tirit is a starter meal. 
While we were sitting like this, food was brought; “Serid” (tirit) made of lentils crushed with sugar and oil, placed in small plates, was the first service. They open their fast with tirit, saying it will be good luck. Claiming that this fast-breaking meal was preferred by the Prophet over other meals, they say: "We start the meal with tirit, following his beautiful custom." After that, they move on to other dishes (Ibn Battuta, 2000:407). 
In Ibn Battuta , in the geography of Crimea, vegetables in Anatolia are gradually being replaced by meat and fried dough. Ibn Battuta talks about "burhani" while describing the Turkish communities in this region. 
Turks are people of good character, strong and brave. Sometimes they eat the pastry called "burhani". This dish is actually small pieces of dough cut into pieces. These are placed in the pot by making a hole in the middle. After cooking, yogurt is poured on it and drunk (Ibn Battuta, 2000:467). 
Another food mentioned in Ibn Battuta's travel book is rishta. After cooking the noodle-like noodles, soup is made by mixing it with milk. In Ibn Battuta, it is seen that food is mixed with yogurt as well as with milk: And finally, they pour yogurt on the food on the plates (İbn Battuta, 2000:466). 
Turks do not feel thirsty because they mix the yogurt they carry on their whips with the cooked duki and drink it (Ibn Battuta, 2000:498). 
After cooking, yogurt is poured on it and drunk (Ibn Battuta, 2000:467). 
Because Turkish women walk around with their faces open. I saw another woman in the same way. He used to bring milk and yogurt to the market with his slaves and sell them, and buy essential oils in return (Ibn Battuta, 2000:471). 
The same food is quoted in the work of Ruy Gonzales de Clavijo (1993:141-143) “There are also cereals that they boil in buttermilk.” reflected in the form. One of the dishes made related to ayran is ashur. The same work describes ayran and ayran vaccination as follows: 
Turkish Food Culture in the Eyes of Foreign Travelers
Near Tabriz... The people of this place were always Turkmen... As we approached a village, the villagers came to us and asked us to stop by their village and offered us the food they brought. Ayran and bread were served first, then soup. If we were to spend the night in the village, they would also cook meat for us (Ruy Gonzales de Clavijo, 1993: 122). 
When necessary, they are content with only ayran. This is how they prepare ayran: First, they fill a cauldron with water and heat it. While the water has not boiled yet, the yoghurt prepared like cheese is crushed in cold water and poured into the cauldron after being liquefied. Thus, the cauldron is filled with a sour ayran like vinegar. Then they throw the dough they prepared in the form of small rounds into the cauldron. While they are inside, the cauldron, which boils a little more, is removed from the fire. 
And what is inside the cauldron is filled into bowls. This dish, which means a kind of soup, is very acceptable to Tatars. Tatars eat it without bread and meat and they like it very much. The name given to this dish that I am describing is “cheese”” (Ruy Gonzales de Clavijo, 1993;141-143). 
When the consumption of rice and rice among the Turks is examined, Ruy Gonzales de Clavijo, one of the 15th century travelers, talks about rice while describing the governor appointed by Timur to Erzincan. However, rice is an important food in Central Asia. 
The meat was put in the sinews. About a hundred pots were removed. All of these were round and deep. These pots reminded me of the helmets our cavalry wore. Apart from the meat placed in the trays, the pots were also filled with meat and rice. Each plate was different. The cover of the table set in front of the governor and us was made of silk. When the tables were set, everyone gathered around them. 
Everyone had a knife for cutting meat and a wooden spoon for eating. Next to the governor was a servant who would cut the meat that he would eat. He invited the two noblemen sitting across from him to dinner with him. As for the rice, all three of them used a single spoon and ate from the same dish. They used the spoon in turn (Ruy Gonzales de Clavijo, 1993: 76). 
When we arrived at the Çağatay tents, Mirza Bozar asked us for meat and rice, then milk and butter. Many melons were brought after them. In this country, melons are both plentiful and delicious. There are also cereals that they boil in buttermilk (Ruy Gonzales de Clavijo, 1993:122).
Because His Holiness, like the poorest of his people, ate nothing but rice cooked with tallow (Vambery 1993:160). 
Today, I shudder when I remember those days, that is, the days when I saw myself in front of a big pile of rice cooked with a lot of tallow, starting from dawn every day, and had to attack it with a false hungry wolf appetite (Vambery, 1993:114). 
In Vambery, one of the 19th century travellers, rice also appears as a ceremonial food. 
Turkish Food Culture in the Eyes of Foreign Travelers
Samarkand... The Emir had ordered a festival to be held on the day he entered the city. For this reason, huge cauldrons of the kind used in Emir's kitchen were collected from all sides and brought to Rikistan. A bowl of rice, three shredded sheep, a large pot of tallow and a small sack of carrots were filled into each of these and placed over a medium fire to boil and mix well. A large amount of tea was also brewed. Eating and drinking went together on horseback, there was no break (Vambery, 1993: 182). 
In short, Rahmet Bey did not have the opportunity to accuse me on the information given by the spies. Therefore, he called me to his presence with the excuse of eating rice (Vambery, 1993: 162). 
The importance of dessert in Turkish food culture also differs according to cultural geography. While dessert is consumed in Anatolian geography, dessert consumption is not seen towards Central Asia. When this situation is evaluated in Ibn Batutta's travel book, 
When I came here, the ruler of Iyzec, Sultan Atabek Afrasiyab b. It was Sultan Atabek Ahmed. Here, all the rulers are called Atabek, and these lands are called Bilad-ı Lur. According to the custom of the school, the main servant of the madrasah counts the guests one by one. He offers each of them two round loaves of bread, meat and dessert. The costs of these services are covered entirely by the Sultan's foundations. Sultan Atabek Ahmed is a benevolent person as we have explained; There is no world passion. Even underwear is a garment made of hair (Ibn Battuta, 2000:275276). 
They offered us fruit, sweet and delicious foods (Ibn Battuta, 2000:410). 
He brought gold and silver bowls filled with a kind of syrup made of lemon juice, in which large pieces of sweets were thrown, and there were gold and silver spoons with him (Ibn Battuta, 2000:422).  
From there we moved to Muğla… This man was a kind-hearted, generous person. He would visit us often and would not come to us without preparing food, fruit or dessert! In this city, we met with İbrahim Bek, the son of the Milas judge, which we will talk about later (İbn Battuta, 2000:411). 
His name is Karamanoğlu Bedreddin … Apart from delicious food on silver plates, delicious fruits and sweet desserts; candles, clothes, mounts and various gifts sent (Ibn Battuta, 2000:414). 
The Sultan of Birki is Muhammed, Aydınoğlu … Gold and silver bowls filled with a kind of syrup made of lemon juice, with large pieces of sweets thrown into it, were brought along with gold and silver spoons (Ibn Battuta, 2000:422). 
An important reason for sweet consumption in Anatolia is contact with Arab culture. In this context, the consumption of sweets disappears as they move away from the influence area of ​​Arab culture. 
It is considered shameful for them to eat sweets … I was in the presence of Sultan Üzbek during Ramadan… That night, I presented the sultan a plate of dessert made by my friends. The Sultan only touched and tasted it with his finger, he never touched his hand again! According to what Tülük Timur tells, the sultan once said to a respected doorkeeper whose number of children and grandchildren was forty: "If you eat this dessert, I will free your sentence!" But the man replied: "Even if you kill me, I won't eat it!" (Ibn Battuta, 2000:467-469). 
I brought a plate of sweets to the sultan that day. And he just touched his finger to the dessert and took it to his mouth and never ate it (Ibn Battuta, 2000:476). 
Food in terms of Social Indicators in Travel Books 
Food has a very important place in the process of determining the social position of individuals. In this context, the table has a didactic function. It is possible to see various indications of this, especially in ceremonial meals. 
Turkish Food Culture in the Eyes of Foreign Travelers
With whom the meal is eaten, that is, the table mate, is determined on the basis of social hierarchy. This also indicates the degree of dignity of the individual. The place of the individual at the table, sitting on the right and left side of the ruler, and the degree of service at the table occur on the basis of his social status. Ibn Battuta expresses this issue as follows: 
The meal was prepared, a separate table for fiqh scholars, sheikhs and ahis; A separate table was set up for the poor and needy. On that day, the rich and poor people were not turned away from the door of the ruler (Ibn Battuta, 2000:410). 
When he saw me, he stood up, took my hand and made me sit on the sofa next to him, and invited me to the table. After I finished the meal, I went to my room in the madrasa (Ibn Battuta, 2000:419). 
The lord lord came to our district one day after the afternoon. Müderris Efendi was sitting in the corner, the ruler was on his right and I was sitting on the left side of the teacher. This way of sitting is the clearest expression of the respect that Turks show to fiqh scholars (Ibn Battuta, 2000:421). 
Some of these were set up for the ruler. When we came here, he pushed aside his own bench with his hand and sat on the sofas with us. Müderris faqih sat on his right, the kadı next to him, and I sat further back. Hafiz were on the right side of the cedar (Ibn Battuta, 2000:424). 
The cut meat was placed on gold and silver plates. Put in silver and gold dishes, and after the horse meat was placed, they were lined up and filled with soup. 
After that, the bread was distributed. After this was done, each seated person was given a bowl. Timur complimented us and sent us two plates. Each plate was getting a new one (Ruy Gonzales de Clavijo, 1993:141-143). 
The sultan and the great woman sat on the cushions in the middle of the throne. It Küçük and Urdu Hatun sat on the right, and Beyelun Hatun and Kebek Hatun sat on the left mat. Crown Prince Tîn Bek sat on the right side of the throne, the second son Canı Bek on the left, the emirs and their children sat on the chairs placed on either side of them. Behind them were the small-ranking gentlemen. These are called "Ümera-yı Hezare". In other words, they are the commanders of the thousand-man troops. In this way, according to the protocol, after everyone took their seats, meals were served on gold and silver tables. 
Four or more people carried each table. The food here is either boiled horse or mutton. A table is brought before each order. "Barucı" [=the peacemaker], who wears silk dresses, a silk apron, and carries large knives and rows in a sheath around his waist; shredder] comes. Barucı means meat cutter. Every order has a barista. When the tables are set, they first attack and take their place in front of their masters; Small vessels made of gold or silver filled with salty water are brought behind them… Locals prefer meat cooked side by side with bones in their meals (İbn Battuta, 2000:484). 
That's their treat! A few days passed, we performed the afternoon prayer with the sultan; When I got up to go to my tent, he immediately ordered me to sit down (Ibn Battuta, 2000:476). 
In addition, the food sent to the guests is associated with the value given to them. 
Because, as I explained above, abstaining from eating was against their customs and was considered a kind of insult to the owner of the banquet (Vambery, 1993:115). 
Ibn Battuta, who visited Deştikıpçak in the north of the Black Sea and met with Sultan Muhammed Üzbek Khan, arrived in the old Bulgarian city around today's Kazan city. 
The order of Muhammet Üzbek Khan on 10 Shawwal 732 (July 5, 1332). A rich table was set by making a variety of dishes; we attended the banquet... The Turks here do not know how to host foreigners and what food to give them. Sheep and horses to be slaughtered and eaten; They send kumiss overalls as a beverage. This is their treat (Ibn Battuta, 2000:476). 
Turkish Food Culture in the Eyes of Foreign Travelers
In travelogues, food also draws attention as a determinant of belonging. Different communities of the same religion are segregated and treated according to their diet. 
He brought gold and silver bowls filled with a kind of syrup made of lemon juice, in which large pieces of sweets were thrown into it, and there were gold and silver spoons with him. There were also tile bowls and wooden bowls filled with sherbet. People who refrained from using gold and silver items due to religious rules used tile bowls and wooden spoons (Ibn Battuta, 2000:422). 
In the city of Sanup (Sinop), Kadı Ibn Abdürrezzak, who was both the regent and teacher of the ruler, hosted us in his mansion… When we came to the city, the people witnessed that we were praying with our hands down. Of course, since the people there are Hanafi, they do not know the Maliki sect and its way of praying... Because of this similarity, they accused us of being Shiite. They asked questions one after another. Even though we tried to tell them that we were Malikis, we couldn't make them believe, and doubt fell into their hearts. 
Finally, the town manager sent a rabbit with his servants. The man who told us to watch what we do. I cut the rabbit, cooked it and ate it with pleasure. After that, they started to welcome immediately. Let the feasts come. Because Rafizis do not eat rabbit meat (Ibn Battuta, 2000:444). 
The social position of women and their place at the table are described in Ibn Battuta's travel book, "Women are held superior to men". 
The woman was advancing with such magnificence and pride and sitting in the presence of the brain. The concubines were standing around the woman. The chick, who poured a glass from the kumiss overalls brought shortly after, kneeled down on her two knees and presented it to the gentleman with her hand, and after the gentleman drank it, the chick presented the same type of drink to her brother-in-law. 
Finally, the brain himself had his wife drink a glass of red with his own hand. When the table was ready, they ate their meals together. After Mr. Bey presented a suit to his wife, Hatun politely walked out. This is how the gentlemen show their women here! Finally, the brain himself made his wife drink a glass of red with her own hand (Ibn Battuta, 2000:472). 
Kebek Hatun was pleased and ordered that kumiss be brought. Like the queen, she presented the glass to me with her own hand. We also left him (Ibn Battuta, 2000:478). 
In Islamic period Turkish cultural circles, meals are usually arranged according to the time of prayer, as is the determination of the appropriate time to do any work. The records of Ibn Battuta also confirm this situation: 
Alanya … He went to the castle with me on Friday and prayed. He offered me treats and feasted (Ibn Battuta, 2000:402). 
After performing the evening prayer, this man came to us again. We went together, we encountered a magnificent lodge! When we got there, they offered us a variety of food, fruit and dessert (Ibn Battuta, 2000:406). 
From there we go to the place of prayer. After performing the prayer, we went to his mansion with the sultan. The meal was prepared (Ibn Battuta, 2000:410). 
He informed me after the evening prayer; I found him in a corner of the garden, under the arbor... 
When he saw me, he stood up, took my hand and made me sit on the sofa beside him; ordered to the table. After I finished the meal, I left him and returned to my room in the madrasah (Ibn Battuta, 2000:419). 
In the afternoon, Melik Hüseyin dismounted from his horse and prayed, and then the meal was prepared (İbn Battuta, 2000:560). 
Turks have led a nomadic life in a wide geography throughout history. The breadth of the living geography has also enriched the food culture. This richness is reflected not only in the types of food but also in the rituals. 
The breadth of the geography where the Turks live and the contact with different cultures have brought about differentiations in the food culture among the Turkish communities. While the reason for this differentiation is evaluated on the basis of geographical factors, seasonal conditions and the determinativeness of physical geography on the mode of production are essential. When the seasonal conditions of the region where the community lives are evaluated, the growth period and durability of the plants that will form the food gain importance. 
According to the climatic conditions, the consumption of vegetables and fruits decreases in the Turks living in the north, and the consumption of meat and fried dough increases instead. Bulgur consumption takes the place of bread in Anatolia. Geographical factor also revealed similar eating habits in similar populations. This is the main reason for the similarity in the food cultures of the Turkish and Mongolian societies, which show the nomadic social structure. However, the fact that the Turks were Muslims revealed the differences. 
It is possible to express the effect of different communities on the differentiation of food culture among Turkish communities as cultural contact and feeding with traditional values. The sources of religious nutrition of the Turks in Anatolia have been the Iranian and Arab communities. As the contact with these communities increases, there is an increase in the influence of their food cultures. 
It is possible to see this situation as the place of horse meat, kumiss and sweets in the food culture, as well as the presence of Persian food names in the kitchen. As here, the weakening of the cultural nutrition of Central Asia from Central Asia can be considered as a determining factor in the differentiation in Turkish food culture. 
Turkish Food Culture in the Eyes of Foreign Travelers
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