• Sherbets in Turkish Culinary Culture
  • Sherbets in Turkish Culinary Culture
  • Sherbets in Turkish Culinary Culture
  • Sherbets in Turkish Culinary Culture
  • Sherbets in Turkish Culinary Culture
  • Sherbets in Turkish Culinary Culture
  • Sherbets in Turkish Culinary Culture
  • Sherbets in Turkish Culinary Culture

Turkish culinary culture is one of the cuisines with international recognition. There are thousands of food and beverage types in Turkish cuisine, which is one of the kitchens with a wide variety of food and beverage products. The success of the Anatolian people, who carefully...

Sherbets in Turkish Culinary Culture
Ceyhun UÇUK
The fact that sherbet is shaped according to the society it is in and carries the traces of the society it belongs to is an indication that sherbet is a sociological reflection. The different ways of preparation of sherbets, the diversity of the ingredients and the variability in consumption habits are just a few of the indicators that sherbet is a sociological product.
Turkish culinary culture is one of the cuisines with a very wide content. Turkish culinary culture, which develops and changes under the influence of different cultures, is one of the few cuisines of the world. This content, which is owned by the few cuisines in the world, has emerged as a result of thousands of years of accumulation. Sherbets occupy a special place in Turkish cuisine, which has a wide variety of drinks as well as food. It is known that Turkish cuisine, which includes tens of different types of sherbet, leads the world in this sense.
It is possible to come across in many sources that the sherbet was first made by the Turks in the history of the world ( Historical View of Our Cuisine). It is seen that the recipes of most of the sherbets, which were thought to be derived from fruit juices, have not undergone any change in the process until today. It is possible to say that sherbet, which spread to the states in Europe with the borders of the Ottoman Empire reaching Europe, has been adopted by many societies and is a beverage that is frequently consumed during the day.
In this study, the gastronomic history of sherbets and their place and importance in Turkish culinary culture ( cuisine order ) were tried to be examined. With the study, it is possible to say that sherbets are drinks that attract attention in every period. Sherbet, with its feature of being a beverage that is drunk at any time of the day in Turkish culinary culture ; It is seen that it is consumed with desserts and meals. It is possible to say that sherbets, which are consumed at birth, death, illness, marriage and many other special days, still have an important place in Turkish culinary culture today.
Turkish culinary culture is one of the cuisines with international recognition. There are thousands of food and beverage types in Turkish cuisine, which is one of the kitchens with a wide variety of food and beverage products. The success of the Anatolian people, who carefully process the raw materials offered by the fertile lands of the Anatolian peninsula and transform them into food and drink, has continued until today. Meals and beverages, which are not limited to the products in Anatolia, have been enriched in many different ways.
It is known that many spices from the Far East and India settled in the Turkish culinary culture due to being on the routes of trade routes. The cooking methods and foodstuffs used by the Persian Empire, a deep-rooted civilization, also contributed to Turkish cuisine. As a result of the interaction with Europe, it is seen that many new products, processing methods and presentation styles have started to be used in Turkish cuisine.
Another source of the richness of the culinary culture is the legacy left by various cultures. The first settled life in Anatolia, the fact that Anatolia has hosted many civilizations, and the interaction between civilizations have also made many contributions to Turkish cuisine.
Diversity in food is also seen in the drinks in Turkish cuisine. Sherbets, which have an important place among the drinks revealed in the researches made to date, are drinks made with different methods, generally containing sugar, fruit and spices. With this study, researches on sherbets were examined. The findings of the researches on sherbets in Turkish cuisine were compiled. In addition, the evaluations made by foreign observers about sherbet are also included.
Sherbets in Turkish Culinary Culture
Sherbet is a term expressed as Scherbett in German, sorbetto in Italian, sorbet in French, and sorbet-sherbet in English (Oğuz, 2002: 758). Some researchers state that the word "sorbetto" derives from sherbet and that "sorbetto" is actually sherbet mixed with snow (Özdogan and Işık, 2008: 1065).
The diluted form of mixed syrups that are formed by adding sugar to various plants, flowers, fruits, roots, shells or seeds is called sherbet (Akçiçek, 2002: 745). Sherbet; It is a type of beverage that can be made from water, sugar, spices and fruits and has an important place in Ottoman sherbets . It is known that the word sherbet comes from the word şariba, which means to drink (Ece, 2015: 54). According to another definition, sherbet; A beverage made by mixing fruit juice with sugar water or adding a certain amount of water to honey (Serbet, 2018).
The sherbet culture, which is thought to have its origins in the Eastern Mediterranean, is thought to have spread from the Arabian basin to the East. It is accepted that they contributed significantly to the formation of a new culture related to the preparation and presentation of sherbet in Iran, India-Pakistan and Mongolian geographies, probably through Muslim Arab expeditions and trade (Ece, 2015). It is thought that the expanding borders of the Ottoman Empire with the expansionist policy were also effective in the spread of sherbet, which has an important place in the Turkish cuisine culture.
According to the information given about the ceremonies in the Seljuknames written during the Seljuk and Anatolian Principalities; It is written that pilafs, boranis, stews, kebabs, helise, as well as sherbets, soups, tutç, tirit, slurry, bread and vegetable dishes, halva and kadayif are served in the ceremonies (Akın, Özkoçak and Gültekin, 2015: 43).
Among the centuries-old traditions in Anatolia, there is the offering of delicious sherbets to the guests. On the day of the engagement or the engagement, sweetness of the mouth was given to the wishes of a sweet marriage and a good livelihood. After the Turkish delights served for this purpose, sherbets, usually in the color of pomegranate, covered with pine nuts, were distributed. Sherbet was also served after weddings held at home. In addition to these, it is a tradition that continues today to offer the puerperant sherbet specially made in the puerperant house to friends and guests (Şerbet, 2018).
The Turks used to obtain juice from the fruits they obtained when they were wet and kept these fruit juices in containers. It is also known that they make sherbet from these fruit juices stored in containers (Kandemir, 2017: 47). In Turkish culture, where hospitality is given great importance, sherbet was a treat that must be offered to guests (Ece, 2015: 55). Evliya Çelebies mentions that musk, amber, rose water and violet are added to the sherbets in his works, and that it is sometimes possible to enrich the sherbets with suitable fruits (Şavkay, 2000: 292).
Sherbets can be drunk and served as a refreshing drink at any time of the day, or they can be served with meals. In the past, various sherbets were found in special ewers at the tables of palaces, mansions and mansions ( Table in Turkish Cuisine Culture ), and sherbet was drunk instead of water during meals (Özdoğan and Işık, 2008).
The Turks called everything they drank cold with their meals as coldness. Apart from the meal , cinnamon sherbet was the most hot in the winter season, and mulberry and honey sherbet in the summer, and serving pomegranate sherbet was considered a sign of kindness (Sarıoğlan and Cevizkaya, 2016: 238).
Seljuk cuisine can be examined under the following headings: Soups ( history of soup ), snacks, banquet meals, desserts, sherbets and drinks (Kandemir, 2017: 49). Examples of sherbets in Seljuk cuisine are vinegarcubin, molasses sherbet and nardenk sherbet (Kandemir, 2017: 50).
Some idioms about sherbet:
“Like sherbet” describes the fine air,
It poetically “contains the sherbet of death” to the deceased,
“I drank cranberry sherbet” to the proud person who vomited blood
He makes the minion "give sherbet according to the pulse".
Idioms such as neither a snake nor a scorpion sting on "Şerbetli" are still used today (Oğuz, 2002).
Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi emphasized the sherbet by saying, "My three favorite things in life are sema, Turkish bath and sherbet". It is seen that the sherbets mentioned in Mevlana's works are honey sherbet, rose water sherbet, sugar sherbet, grace sherbet, god sherbet, sugar sherbet with rose water, and the sherbets served at weddings are nardenk sherbet and pure sugar sherbet (Sarıoğlan and Cevizkaya, 2016: 239).
In the last periods of the Ottoman Empire, sherbet, paste and sweets made in the palace halvah were sold to high-level state officials in the palace for money (Sarıoğlan vw Cevizkaya, 2016: 239). During the Ottoman Empire, apricots and peaches were also used in making sherbet besides processed sugar, so that a richer flavor could be achieved. Sherbet, the main ingredient of which was sugar and lemon, was a type of soft drink that adorned the rich tables (Karademir, 2015: 207). Hatice Sultan, the mother of Sultan Mehmed IV, had sherbet made from Athenian honey distributed at all three doors in the mosque after the tarawih prayers in the Yeni Mosque, and even gave the public some sherbet by pouring sherbet instead of water from some fountains (Ece, 2015: 56).
Sherbets is one of the most important beverages produced in various forms in Ottoman society. Sherbet makers and sherbet shops had important functions in the provision of food. According to Evliya Çelebi, there were 300 sherbet shops in the capital and 500 people were employed in these shops (Karademir, 2015: 207).
Fresh and dried fruits were used in the preparation of compotes and sherbets in Ottoman cuisine (Samancı, 2008b: 207). Desserts, sherbets, compotes and jams in the 19th century Ottoman cuisine are products that occupy a large place in cookbooks (Samancı, 2008b: 208). Rose water and orange flower water are used to sweeten sherbets, some desserts and compotes in Ottoman cuisine (Samancı, 2008b: 209).
Sherbet makers had to abide by various rules during the preparation of sherbets. At the beginning of these rules, which were guaranteed by the laws, was not to reduce the rate of sweeteners in sherbet (Karademir, 2015: 208).
Sherbets in Turkish Culinary Culture
There are also traditions about sherbet that are tried to be maintained. “Desiring to keep the old traditions of the Ottoman palace alive, Mehmet Reşad V used to distribute gifts to Vükelâ, Ayan, and his deputies after iftar during Ramadan. During a pause between coffee and cigarettes and sherbets, the Warden of the Shrine would enter the hall with an Endurun master in his retinue. The master of Enderun would have a large silver tray in his hand, and on the tray, beautiful watches and plates, and after they were distributed one by one and taken with great satisfaction, of course, no matter how slowly they were treated, it was time for sherbets and when they were drunk, the guests had nothing to do but get in their cars and leave the palace. would not stay” (Şehsuvaroğlu, 1951).
Fruits such as sour cherries, apricots, plums, apples, pears, grapes, oranges, pomegranates, citrus, strawberries, grapes, peaches, lemons, quince, pistachios and leaves of flowers such as rose, violet, jasmine, poppy are also used in making sherbet and jam during this period. It is seen that it is used (Samancı, 2008b: 209).
Soups, meat (sheep, lamb, veal), chicken and game dishes, fish, seafood, offal, vegetable dishes, egg dishes, rice, pies, dumplings, milk and fruit desserts can be found in 19th century cookbooks. It is possible to group them as jams, compotes, sherbet and syrups, appetizers and salads (Samancı, 2008b: 212).
Compotes, sherbets and syrups prepared with all kinds of dried and fresh fruits are evaluated in the category of desserts (Samancı, 2008b: 214).
It was during the Ottoman Empire that sherbet reached western civilizations (Sürücüoğlu and Özçelik, 2005: 37). There was always sugar and sherbet among the rations allocated to the embassy ( Sherbet in the Palace Tradition ) officials who were invited to the palace. Philippe Du Fresne-Canaye, a traveler in a French delegation, stated that he was very satisfied with the sherbet he drank in porcelain cups while he was in the divan room in the palace in 1573 (Karademir, 2015: 209). Sherbet affected the daily life and traditional behavior patterns in the Ottoman Empire and always found a place for itself in the tables of the people (Sürücüoğlu and Özçelik, 2005: 37).
In the historical Ottoman palace kitchen , sherbet was made from all kinds of flowers and herbs with a pleasant smell. It was a beverage that was drunk for the purpose of healing along with the taste of sherbet. 
It is known that when the Ottoman sultans had children, sherbet was distributed to those who came to visit. Especially on the third day of birth, there was a tradition of sending sherbet to the grand vizier. Sherbets prepared with various products; It was placed in precious containers such as gold, silver and crystal and served by the concubines to those who came to visit the newborn baby (Sarıoğlan and Cevizkaya, 2016: 240).
Interrupting in Konya is an activity known by names such as "hot sherbet", "don't say amen". The relatives of the bride and groom come together and the promise ring is put on with prayers, and then the guests are offered hot sherbet with cinnamon (Çölbay and Sormaz, 2015).
According to what foreign observers of Turkish cuisine wrote, in the feasts given to the ambassadors in the palace during the Fatih period , meat and meat dishes, especially rice, different vegetable dishes, desserts and sweet sherbets were served (Akın, Özkoçak and Gültekin, 2015: 43). According to another source, Sanz Manuel Serrano, a Spanish traveler who came to Istanbul in the 16th century, said that he lived in the mansion of Sinan Pasha, where he came as an official, and said, "There are several kinds of sherbet in Sinan Pasha's mansion. You can boil fruits such as cherries, apricots and plums and boil them with sugar or juice. They add honey. They boil a new one every day so that it does not spoil. They do not leave the guests without sherbet (Ece, 2015: 55).
According to the Frenchman Ubucini: “After the pilaf, the guests lifted the lids of the porcelain cups in front of them and poured sherbet into the bowls. Sherbet is the only permissible drink in Turkey. It is made with water and honey, including various rahnes such as orange, lemon, lemonade , violet, rose, linden etc. they put. Ours was called musk and had a very sharp smell (Nahya, 1982).
Talking about eighteenth century Turkey, M d'Ohson said about sherbet: “The well-to-do prefer a sweet drink called sherbet. There are simple varieties of sherbet for the middle class and sophisticated varieties for the rich. In the first case, only honey or sugar is used. In the other, lemon or orange juice, citron, violet, rose, saffron, linden juice, etc. participates” (Özdogan and Işık, 2008: 1066).
Sherbets in Turkish Culinary Culture
In the report sent by the British Ambassador Sir Edward Burton to Queen Elizabeth, at the first banquet given in her honor in the capital Istanbul, he counted "about a hundred different kinds of food, tasted the delicious taste of rose sherbet, and when the meal was over, put your hands in the so-called frankincense broth, eucalyptus, musk, sandalwood and flower water." It is seen that he used expressions such as “they wash with a very fragrant water” (Araz, 1999).
It has been determined that the sherbet recipes differ in the sources examined within the scope of the research. It is thought that the recipes should be brought together in terms of the applicability of sherbet recipes today. It is thought that it would be beneficial to apply the recipes, to have tastings by trained panelists, to record the results and to eliminate the differences in the recipes regarding sherbet.
It is thought that many sherbets, the recipes of which can be accessed today, should be applied in practice and transferred to future generations. In order to determine the consumption differences of sherbet, it is thought that the consumption patterns of sherbet should be revealed and recorded in special days and meetings by conducting field studies.
It is seen that sherbets are less known and consumed less than the carbonated, non-natural ingredients and beverages containing preservatives, which are frequently consumed today. In this context, it is thought that one of the studies that should be done is to support the production, distribution and promotion of sherbets.
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Şehsuvaroğlu, HY (1951). V. Mehmet Resat and Precious Stones. Istanbul: Istanbul Şehir University Library.
Sherbet. (2018). www.derimiz.com. Dersimiz.com: Retrieved from https://www.dersimiz.com/bilgibankasi/SERBET-NEDIR-HAKKINDA-BILGI-1013.html.
As the head chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR, I see the source:
Ms. I sincerely thank Oya OZKANLI, Ceyhun UÇUK for their academic work titled "Sherbets in Turkish Culinary Culture" and wish them success in their professional lives. It will definitely be considered as an example by those who need it in professional kitchens and the gastronomy and culinary community.
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The original text, which is accepted as a source, is as follows. Google translation was used for the necessary language change.