• What is Yogurt? History and History of Yoghurt
  • What is Yogurt? History and History of Yoghurt
  • What is Yogurt? History and History of Yoghurt
  • What is Yogurt? History and History of Yoghurt
  • What is Yogurt? History and History of Yoghurt
  • What is Yogurt? History and History of Yoghurt
  • What is Yogurt? History and History of Yoghurt

Divânu Lügati't-Türk, which belongs to the Middle Turkish period, in the form of "yogurt" with wide circle and vowel, but Hasan Eren uses the form "yuğurt" with wide narrow u vowel as correct pronunciation. accepts it and explains its etymology as a derivative of the verb "to knead" by..

What is Yogurt? History and History of Yoghurt...
Yogurt is a fermented dairy product with high nutritional value, obtained as a result of lactic acid fermentation and containing live lactic acid bacteria. Lactobacillus bulgaricus and streptococcus thermophilus are one of several bacterial species used to make yogurt from milk.
Yogurt is available in solid or liquid (drinking) consistency, sweet, sour flavors, fruity, vegetable, chocolate, vanilla and other flavors. There are also different types of yogurt. 
For example; 
Strained yogurt is widely used in making appetizers. There are many types of Food History and drink made with yogurt, ayran, tzatziki and keş are some of them.
Yoghurt (Yugurt) is of Turkish origin . 
Besim Atalay reads the data written as ********* in Divânu Lügati't-Türk, which belongs to the Middle Turkish period, in the form of "yogurt" with wide circle and vowel, but Hasan Eren uses the form "yuğurt" with wide narrow u vowel as correct pronunciation. accepts it and explains its etymology as a derivative of the verb "to knead" by adding a noun suffix from the verb "-t".
Eren also gives the Cuman form as "yugurt" and states that it is used in the Kipchak binary form of "yağurt ~ yuğurt". 
He attributes the flat wide a vowel in Kipchak to the pressure of the word fat. 
Among the contemporary Turkic languages, yoghurt in Turkmen, yuvırt in Nogai, cuurat in Kyrgyz (General Turkish direction sound turns into cs in Kyrgyz), çoort in Sagay dialect, suorat (General Turkish direction sound turns into ss in Yakut) are the current variations of the Middle Turkish word yuğurt. It has been transferred to European languages ​​(English, German, French, Spanish, Serbian, Bulgarian, Russian, Hungarian) from Turkish.
Although there is no definite information on who and how yogurt was first produced, it is thought that it was first made in Mesopotamia in 5000 and 4000 BC. In ancient Indian sources, the mixture of yoghurt and honey is called " food of the gods ".
In Persian traditions, it is said that the source of Abraham's creativity and longevity was his consumption of abundant yogurt.
In the cuisine of ancient Greece, a dairy product called oxygala (οξ?γαλα) was made, which was similar to yogurt.
Galen of Bergama wrote that oxygala is consumed with honey like strained yogurt. But it is not yoghurt, it is the runny form of cheese made from cutting yoghurt. In the oldest source specifically mentioning yoghurt written by Plinius, it is written that yoghurt was consumed by barbarian societies. 
These societies combined milk with a substance with a consistency of acidity, making milk more dense. In Dîvânu Lugâti't-Türk and Kutadgu Bilig, written in the 11th century, it is written how the medieval Turks used yogurt.
In some sources, it is written that the cooks of Akbar Shah, the ruler of the Bubur Empire, made yogurt with mustard seeds and cinnamon. 
What is Yogurt?  Who Invented Yogurt?  History of yogurt
The event that Europeans first met with yogurt is as follows in the clinical history of France:
François I has diarrhea and no French doctor can cure it. His ally Suleiman I sends a doctor to France to heal the king of France. The doctor treats the king with yogurt. The grateful French king spreads information about the yogurt that cured him.
Until the 1900s, What is Yogurt was found in the Russian Empire (especially the Central Asia and Caucasus region), Southwest Asia, the Balkans, Central Europe and the Indian subcontinent. Bulgarian Stamen Grigorov (1878–1945), who studied medicine in Geneva, was the first to study the microflora of yogurt. In 1905, he explained that yogurt consists of spherical, rod-shaped bacteria that produce lactic acid. In 1907, he named the rod-shaped bacterium Lactobacillus bulgaricus. 
Nobel laureate Ilya Mechnikov was inspired by Grigorov's work and claimed that the secret to the unusually long life of Bulgarian peasants is the regular consumption of yogurt. Believing that Lactobacillus is essential for good health, Mechnikov worked to make yogurt a food item consumed across Europe.
Sephardic Jew Izak Karasu started industrial yoghurt production with the yoghurt factory he founded.
Karasu, a native of Thessaloniki, opened a small yogurt business in the city of Barcelona in 1919. He named this business he founded "Danone" after his son. Danone later began to be sold in America under the name Danon. Yogurt with fruit was patented in 1933 by Radlická Mlékárna in the Czech Republic.
Eşgüder "Has Asçıbaşı"
Ottoman and Turkish Cuisine World Envoy
It is among the 186 items I have recorded on the "wikipedia" website on 25 January 1999, 11 July 2010 and 10 April 2001 as "the date of yoghurt" .
What is Yogurt? History and History of Yoghurt
Karpa, Dowhower K, Bacteria for breakfast probiotics for Good Health Trafford Publishing Victoria, BC, Canada.
Anderson H, Blundell J, Chivam food selection from genes to culcure. Danone Institute 2002.
Riehl C, Schamberger C, Michel SS, Garel K, Voillant N. The Danone Group The woman in Green Editions du Signe, 2003.
Diamond J. Rifle, Germ and Steel, Tübitak Publications 2008.
What is the History of Yogurt?
Traveling societies It is estimated that around 12,000-11,000 BC, it gradually settled down from hunting and gathering. These communities, which settled down, began to domesticate wild animals and wild plants and use them as food sources. Sheep and goats In 8,000 BC, the cow 6,000 BC, buffalo BC. It was domesticated in Asia in the 4,000 BC. 
As the conditions forced the communities to have a wandering life, people benefited from them by traveling, migrating and living with animals. In addition, human communities who migrated from the interior of Asia to the interior of Europe made that difficult journey with their pets. Thus, the Eurasian culture began to emerge with the interaction.
Sumerians (3.500 BC), Hittites (2.500 BC), Israelites (1.100 BC) were both raising milk-producing animals and consuming their milk.
Recent researches suggest that domestication of goats, sheep and cows in the Near East dates back to the 3rd millennium BC. He revealed that it was in the 8th millennium BC. The meat, hair, wool and later milk of these animals were used.
BC in England In the 4th millennium BC, in Eastern Europe, in the 6th millennium BC, in South East Europe and the Near East. It is understood that milk was used in the 5th-7th millennium BC. B.C. We learn from the 13C studies carried out on the milk pots used in that period that milk began to be used in the 7th millennium BC.
Yogurt; In the process that started with the domestication of mammals, it started with the human covetousness of the milk offered by the animal to its offspring, and then resulted in the sharing of milk, probably as a result of meeting the fermentation bacteria in natural conditions. Lactic Acid bacteria, which ferment the milk, coagulate the milk and turn it into yogurt. Yogurt is a product of lactic acid bacteria. 
It is highly probable that yoghurt was formed naturally in hot climate conditions with the contamination of milk milked from mammals by microorganisms capable of making yoghurt from the natural environment.
What is Yogurt? History and History of YoghurtB.C.  Milk production and processing on a Babylonian relief figure from 2900 2460.
The shepherd shared the milk offered by the mammal to his offspring, did not drink the milk after milking it, mixed the milk with yogurt grass or a bush and made him sleep, creating yogurt and adding it to himself.
There are many rumors about the discovery of yogurt. The possible truth is; Our ancestors, who once fed their herds on the Asian steppes, had to consume the milk of the herds in order to continue their lives, and they learned to process the milk in time. Our ancestors carried yoghurt and red wine wherever they migrated. 
Today, the word "yogurt" is reported as a Turkish word in all world dictionaries. This is an affirmation of historical fact (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Oxford English Dictionary, Webster's Dictionary).
Legends about yogurt have also been produced. Hz. Abraham lived 175 years. 
Hz. Abraham owed his long life to eating the yoghurt he prepared with yeasts that turned the milk sent by God's angels into yoghurt. Hz. Moses also stated that yoghurt was a privileged food that God sent to his people. During the expansion period of Genghis Khan, one of his messengers came to a village without crossing the desert and asked for water to be put in his canteen, but the villager, who was disturbed by the Mongol invasion, put milk in the flask instead of water. 
When the soldier is thirsty, he sees that instead of water there is a white liquid in his flask, he likes its taste and consumes it. The soldier feels very fit, feels cool, refreshed and his thirst quenches. He informs the great khan of this situation and after that day, he adds yogurt to the diet list of Genghis Khan's army.
Since the Turks are a society that makes a living from animal husbandry, it cannot be more natural than converting milk into yogurt. It is very natural that societies that have been under the influence of Turkish domination or Turkish culture for thousands of years have learned how to make yogurt from their masters. Hippocrates (460-370 BC) also reported that the Scythians, the western extension of the Central Asian tribes, made yogurt and ate foods similar to yogurt. The Scythians are the tribes that make up the western part of our Altai culture.
Many experts have stated that Buddhist Turks offer yogurt to angels and stars, and that this is a tradition of ancient Turks (IG Kruenitz 1803, Ökonomisch-Technische Enzykopadie, H. Yaygun).
Turkish Communities use the term "yoghurt" in the 8th century AD.
They also call the dried yoghurt "Kurt". It is seen that liquefied with water is called “suvuk” yogurt (ER İzmen, Arbeiten der Yüksek Agricultural Institute Ankara 1935, Jeremiya Ly Rasic, Joseph A. Kurmann YOĞURT 1978).
Elagabal, who was the Roman Empire between 218-222 AD, defined two products prepared from sour milk.
1) “Opus Lactarum” prepared from sour milk, honey, fruit and flour
2) The food he named “Oxygala” prepared from herbs and vegetables such as sour milk, onions, thyme.
Thanks to the great Hun Emperor Atilla, Europe came into close contact with Asian culture. Atilla (AD 404-53) established the Great Hun Empire with his brother Bleda between 434-53 and conquered Europe. Thus, Europe also found the opportunity to get to know Asian food culture. In the past, people used to coat the meat with yoghurt to prevent the meat from stinking in the summer. Yogurt was also used as a cosmetic in the past.
One of the most basic foodstuffs of Uyghur Turks was yogurt. According to Buddhist beliefs, they offered foods made of yogurt and milk to the Gods who guarded the earth. Buddhism was widely spread among the Turks at that time. 
The expression yoghurt is also mentioned in the Uighur texts found around Turhan, Karahoca (Hoçu) in the northeast of the Taklamakan Desert. It is seen that the expressions yoghurt and yoghurt are used in Turkish texts of the 8th century AD.
The word yoghurt was used in the present sense in the work called Divan-ı Lügat-ı Türk, written by Kaşgarlı Mahmut in the 11th century AD, between 1073-1077 and Kutatgu Bilig, written by Balasagunlu Yusuf Hacib between 1069-1070. Oghuzs, Seljuks and Ottomans brought yoghurt with their culture to the countries they ruled.
Famous traveler Venetian Marco Polo met with Kublai Khan during his travel to Asia in the 13th century and also met with dairy products. Marco Polo mentioned the widespread consumption of kumiss and yogurt. Yogurt remained a Turkish food for thousands of years because the tastes of societies other than Turks did not suit yogurt. 
I think that the late transition of the Turks to the settled order has a role in this. Societies that came into contact with the Turks also started consuming yogurt, albeit late. They translate, pronounce and write the word yoghurt according to their own language. In recent years, consumption of yoghurts, which have been made suitable with fruit etc., has been increasing rapidly in western societies.
In the 16th century, the King of France, François I, used many drugs for a febrile gastrointestinal disease, but could not recover. 
Kralın annesi Kanuni Sultan Süleyman’dan oğlu François’in tedavisi için bir hekim göndermesini rica eder. Sultan Süleyman da kralın hastalığı konusunda bilgisi olan Yahudi bir hekimi Paris’e gönderir. Bazıları bu hekimin keçilerini de yanına alarak Fransa’ya gemi ile gittiğini bazıları da koyun sürüsü ile karadan gittiğini bildirmektedirler. Yahudi Osmanlı hekimi büyük bir gizlilik içinde sağdığı sütten yoğurt yaparak işe başlar. 
Then, by adding some other ingredients to the yogurt he makes, he prepares the miracle-working product. This Ottoman does not give anyone the secret of making yoghurt or the mixture he prepared. François I, who recovered with the treatment of the Ottoman physician, named yogurt as the milk of eternal life (The milk of Eternal Life = Le lait de Vie eternelle) and asked his physicians to deal with the subject. French physicians, who felt humiliated by the success of the Ottoman physician, were not interested in this oriental treatment approach.
It was thanks to the Turks who immigrated to this country in 1784 that the United States of America met with yogurt.
Mahatma Gandhi gave a special place to yogurt in his book "Diet reform". He reported that yogurt has calming and drowsy effects. While more than 90% of yogurt is digested in an hour, only 30% of milk is digested.
Louis Pasteur (1822-90) described the role of bacteria in the fermentation of milk.
A Bulgarian doctor named M. Grigorof discovered the presence of Lactobacillus microbe in yoghurt during his research in Geneva, Switzerland at the end of the 19th century (This microbe (Lactobacilus bulgaricus) is not a human colon flora bacterium).
There are many rumors about the journey of yogurt from Anatolia to Europe. 
One of them is this; During the reign of Sultan Mecit, an Armenian family from Kayseri became rich by producing yoghurt in Istanbul, and then the family started printing business. After completing his education in Venice, Aram Dökmeciyan, the eldest son of this family, is sent to Paris with his younger brother Artin. While Aram was doing his law doctorate in Paris, his father dies and the money begins to come from Istanbul. Thereupon, Aram's father's profession starts yoghurt business. However, the French did not like the taste of yoghurt and did not give much credit to yoghurt, thinking that it could be harmful to health.
Aram turns to Professor Metchnikoff, the second director of the Pasteur Institute, for help, to address the public's concern. Aram Prof. He tells Metchnikoff that besides being beneficial for health, yogurt is widely consumed in Istanbul and Anatolia for the treatment of many diseases. Metchnikoff both ate and examined the yogurt that Aram brought every day. Metchnikoff later said, “I ate the yogurt that Aram made and analyzed it. I am of the opinion that it is not harmful to health and is beneficial for the body”. Thereupon, Aram yoghurts became sought after in Paris.
Although Aram is rich, he loses his only son during World War II, and he becomes unable to work because of his sadness. He is then forced to sell his plant to Danone.
Metchnikoff (1845-1916) left his native Ukraine, where he worked in many countries. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1908 for his work on phagocytosis and immunology, and served as assistant director at Pasteur University. Today he is considered the father of immunology. Metchnikoff developed a theory of his own by determining that people living in the Caucasus, the Balkans and the mountainous regions of Anatolia are long-lived, while those living in industrialized cities have a short lifespan. According to him, the villagers lived a long time because they ate a lot of yogurt. 
He believed that yogurt had a life-prolonging effect. Metchnikoff argued that the material that passes into the colon as waste from the food we eat undergoes putrefaction, that is, putrefaction, in the colon, and that toxic substances are released in this process, which leads to chronic poisoning and shortens life. This scientist reported that the beneficial enzymes taken by constantly eating yogurt can prevent the effect of bad-harmful microbes. 
Although it is difficult to confirm or refute Metchnikoff's theory of “The road to Health”, interest in the subject still continues even after nearly 100 years. He vigorously argued that yogurt and yogurt bacteria protect us from autointoxication resulting from putrefaction.
Today, let's talk about a story of DANONE, a world giant in yogurt production and the center of scientific research on the subject. The source of this story is Danone. Isaac Carasso (1874-1939) left Thessaloniki in 1917 and settled in Barcelona, ​​Spain. Because life in Thessaloniki became impossible under the conditions of the First World War. 
Since Isaac sells yoghurt in Thessaloniki, he also enters the yoghurt business in Barcelona. Inspired by the name of his son Daniel, he gave the name "Danone" to the yogurts he produced in 1919. In 1923, he received a report from the Medical School stating that yogurt is a healthy natural food. He became famous in Barcelona and Madrid. Isaac's son Daniel founded the Danone company in Paris in 1929. 
Now yoghurt "Danone" has become a brand. In 1932 they set up a large yogurt production factory and the company grew rapidly. 
The Second World War, which started in 1939, begins to turn everything about life upside down. World War II would be an incredible disaster, especially for the Jews. Life in Europe under these conditions becomes impossible, and Daniel Carasso is forced to leave France in 1941 for New York. In New York, Daniel sees some people from Greece making and selling yogurt, albeit in very small quantities.
Daniel Carasso founded Dannon Milk PRODUCT Inc in 1942. After the end of World War II, he returns to France. As his American experience taught him how to set up modern dairy factories, he implemented the modern facilities for modern dairy production in France. Thus, Danone has become both a global brand and a global giant in its field.
The myth circulating on the internet about Danone is more plausible. This story clearly reveals that yogurt is a Turkish product. We are in Thessaloniki in the early 1900's. A Turkish dairy farmer leaves a tray of yogurt to a Jewish family every other day. This dairy and its yogurt inspired the creation of the world's largest industrial group. In the first years of the 20th century, 80,000 Jews and 20,000 Sabbateans lived in Thessaloniki. The Karasu Family was one of the respected families of the city of Thessaloniki.
İzak Karasu prefers to study medicine. He opened a practice and later got married. They have a son named Daniel. Then two more daughters are born. In the Balkan Wars, when Thessaloniki was occupied by Greek thought, a great panic broke out in the Jewish community. Most of the Jews end up on the roads of Europe (the rest were sent to concentration camps by Hitler 30 years later). 
Shortly after the Greeks entered Thessaloniki, Izak Karasu immigrated to Spain with his wife and son. Spain expelled the Jews en masse in 1492, but did not strip them of their citizenship. The Karasu family settled in Barcelona, ​​according to this story, the year was 1912. 
Izak Karasu first adapts his name to Latin letters. Isaac becomes Izak, and Blackwater becomes Carasso. Then he opens a practice. But he has very few patients. He trades olive oil to support his family. After the First World War, a period of great poverty began in Europe. Spain also gets its share from this. During this period, most of the drug shortages are experienced.
At that time, an epidemic of bowel disease broke out among children in Barcelona. Tearful parents, with their emaciated children in their arms, lean against Isaac's office like other doctors and beg to save our child. Like other doctors, Isaac can't do anything. In one of the times when he lost his sleep with the pain of the children who died before his eyes, a voice echoes in his memory, “yogurt seller, yogurt seller came, I have yogurt with cream”. This sound that startled him is the voice of the Turkish seller, who left a tray of yogurt with cream every other day at their house in Thessaloniki, years ago.
Isaac jumps out of bed like Archimedes coming out of the bath, screaming “Eureka” and remembers that yogurt was used in the treatment of intestinal diseases in Thessaloniki. At that time, in Thessaloniki, patients were fed a bowl of yogurt for 3 meals a day and the patients regained their health in a few days. Since Isaac knew how to make yogurt, he started to manufacture yogurt in the basement of the house with the milk he collected from several farms. The calendars show 1919. 
But there is an important problem. Yogurt is unknown in Europe. In the mid-1500s, Suleiman the Magnificent sent his friend, King of France, François I, who had an intestinal infection, to a doctor who made yogurt for treatment. But when the King recovers, the yogurt doctor returns to Istanbul with his secrets. 
Isaac Carasso focuses on the benefit of using yogurt as a medicine, rather than explaining that yogurt was widely used in the Ottoman realm. After great efforts, he gets permission to be sold as a medicine and yoghurt begins to be sold in pharmacies. Seeing that yogurt is effective in sick children gives Isaac hope. When yogurt takes hold as a medicine, it's time for him to get a patent. 
But first it is necessary to find a name. His son's name is Daniel. Danon, which is the equivalent of the name Danielcik in Catalan, is not found appropriate because it is a special name. By adding 'e' to the end of Danon, the DANONE brand is born. When yogurt making became Isaac's noble profession in a very short time, he sent his son to France for education. 
Daniel first trains himself in marketing, sales, promotion and accounting at a commercial high school in Marseille. Then he got an internship in bacteriology at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. Daniel stays in Paris after his education because his father, Isaac Carasso, has passed away. On February 6, 1929, “Danone Yogurts Paris Company” opens its doors in a shop in the 18th District of Paris. In 1932, a great leap forward was made with the factory in Levallois Perret. Daniel Carosso, the creator of this world giant, is 100 years old today.
Of course, if a person believes in yogurt, he will live a century. One cannot help but ask oneself whether Daniel's father, Isaac, is a Jew from Izmir. Stories on the subject will continue.
“Milk thickens, thickens, condenses, kneads, solidifies. It is kneaded and turns into a new shape, that is, it becomes yoghurt.
Although yoghurt was brought to the agenda in the United States thanks to the Turks who immigrated to America, those who came from Europe later also contributed. Yogurt production in America is done in modern facilities. Dr. JM Rossel starts to produce yogurt culture in the Institute he founded under his own name. 
Henneberg added Lactobacillus acidophilus to the yogurt flora in 1934 to increase the nutritional value of yogurt (Reform Yoghurt). In the 1960s, “Aco yoghurt” Acidophilus-Bifidus Yoghurt/special yogurt was produced by adding Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus bifidus to the yogurt flora. Towards the end of the 1960s, it is seen that the consumption of yogurt gradually increased in western societies. 
At that time, the nutritionist of Hollywood stars, Dr. Gaylor House has fulfilled an important function in the promotion of yogurt by recommending yogurt to everyone for the protection of health, youth and beauty. To General Eisenhover, his physician advised him to eat yogurt every day.
While yoghurt was the food of Turks until yesterday, today it is consumed all over the world. Although there are many stories about the first making of yogurt, the most plausible one is that it was discovered by our ancestors who lived a nomadic life in the steppes of Central Asia, who were engaged in animal husbandry. Most likely, the milk solidified spontaneously due to the influence of the natural environment (heat, contamination). 
Bacteria that coagulate milk are ubiquitous.
Which nation loves curdled milk, yoghurt, as much as the Turks? The life of the Turks is identified with milk-yogurt-ayran. Years ago, a patient of mine said to me, “Teacher, the shepherd milks the milk, then plucks the yoghurt weed and dips it into the milk jug, mixes the milk, then closes the cup, and when the sun is bent on a long day, the milk turns into yoghurt. I remember very well what you said.
“Yogurtization takes place in a calm, undisturbed environment”
Other Names Given to Yogurt Around the World
Yoghurt names in Turkey
*  Yoghurt (Yoghurt) 
Yogurt names in France
*  Youghourt
Yogurt names in England, America
*  Yogurt 
Yogurt names in Azerbaijan
*  Gatig,
*  Yogurt
Names of Yoghurt in Bashkir Turks
*  Yogort,
*  Additive 
Names of Yogurt in Kazakh Turkish 
*  Ayran,
*  Additive 
Names of Yoghurt in Kyrgyz Turkish
*  Ayran
Yogurt names in Uzbek Turkish
*  Additive
Yoghurt names in Tatar Turkish
*  Katik,
*  Yogurt
Yoghurt names in Turkmen Turkish
*  Gatik
Yoghurt names in Uyghur Turkish
*  Ketik
Yogurt names in Armenia
*  Madzoon
*  Mazzoon, 
*  Matzoon,
*  Maze 
Yogurt names in Assyrians 
*  Lebanese
Yogurt names in the Balkans
*  Tarho 
Yogurt names in Bulgaria
*  Nafa,
*  Kiselo,
*  Mleko
Yogurt names in Egypt: 
Yogurt names in Finland
*  Plimoe,
*  Plimae
Yogurt names in Greece
*  Tiaourti,
*  Oxygala,
*  Yaourti 
Yogurt names in Iceland
*  Skyr
Yogurt names in india
*  genius,
*  Dahl,
*  Lassi,
*  Chass,
*  Matthew 
Yogurt names in Iran
*  mast
Yogurt names in Lebanon
*  Laban
Yogurt names in Mongolia
*  Koumiss
Yogurt names in Russia
*  Prostokvasha,
*  Varenetz 
Yogurt names in Sardinia
*  Gioddo
Names of Yogurt in Sicily
*  Mezzoradu
Yogurt names in South Africa
*  joghurt
Yogurt names in Sweden
*  Filmjolk
Names of Yogurt in Kipchaks 
*  Yugrat
Yoghurt names in Mamluks
* Çuğrat
1. Kurt A, History of Yoghurt and Its Spread on Earth, 3. National Milk and Dairy Products Symposium, Istanbul. 2-3 June 1994.
2. Common H, Yogurt Technology Akdeniz University Faculty of Agriculture, Food Technology.
3. Karpa, Dowhower K, Bacteria for breakfast probiotics for Good Health Trafford Publishing Victoria, BC, Canada.
4. Anderson H, Blundell J, Chivam food selection from genes to culcure. Danone Institute 2002.
5. Riehl C, Schamberger C, Michel SS, Garel K, Voillant N. The Danone Group The woman in Green Editions du Signe, 2003.
6. Diamond J. Rifle, Germ and Steel, Tübitak Publications 2008.
7. Rambaud JC, Buts JP, Corthier G, Flourie B, Gut Microflora Digestive Plysiology and Pathology. John Libbey, 2006.
8. Evershed RP, Payne S, Sherrat AG, et al. Earliest date for milk use in the Near East and southeastern Europe linked to cattle herding. Nature “Online 6 August 2008”.
9. Ünsal A. “Silivrim Cream!” Turkey's Yoghurts Yapı Kredi Publications 2007.
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