• Gastronomy Tourism
  • Gastronomy Tourism
  • Gastronomy Tourism
  • Gastronomy Tourism
  • Gastronomy Tourism
  • Gastronomy Tourism

he concept of gastronomy , which has been widely used in daily life, was first used in Ancient Greece in BC. It was used by the Sicilian Greek Archestratus in the 4th century. He wrote poetically the information obtained by Archestratus during his travels to find the most suitable food and drink..

Gastronomy Tourism...
Instructor See. Hatice SARI GÖK*
Food and beverages are beyond meeting the basic physiological needs of people today; It has become an important part of prestige, status, social relations and touristic experiences. Gastronomy, which is among the main motivational reasons for tourists' destination preferences, is an important factor as a destination marketing and tourist attraction factor. 
In this context, in terms of gastronomy destinations; It is an important marketing tool and product diversification. In addition, gastronomy is an important resource that contributes to the sustainability and development of tourism, especially in rural areas, with the application of tourism in every period of the year and the use of local products. In terms of tourists, it gives the opportunity to experience local products and dishes, authentic, traditional and natural foods and beverages , watch their preparation and have information about the culinary culture of the destination.
Gastronomy tourism is one of the types of tourism that should be emphasized in terms of destinations today . In order to explain Popular Gastronomy tourism better, the subject is explained in detail under the headings of gastronomy concept, historical process of gastronomy, gastronomy tourism, sustainable gastronomy tourism, contributions of gastronomy tourism to the country's tourism economy, gastronomy-themed museums in Turkey, UNESCO Creative Cities Network and recommendations for practice. examined.
The concept of gastronomy , which has been widely used in daily life, was first used in Ancient Greece in BC. It was used by the Sicilian Greek Archestratus in the 4th century. He wrote poetically the information obtained by Archestratus during his travels to find the most suitable food and drink in the Mediterranean region (Dalby, 2013: 28). 
Archestratus is actually a poet and there are some who do not accept this book as a cookbook because he wrote the descriptions and descriptions as poetry in the book he wrote (Gürsoy, 2014: 40). The concept of “Gastronomy” (culinary art) was first used in 1800 by the French poet and lawyer Joseph de Berchoux (1762-1838) in the name “Gastronomie ou I'bomme des champs a table (Gastronomy or Man from Field to Table)” (1801).
used it in his work (Özbay, 2019: 5).
The origin of the word gastronomy, which has passed from French to Turkish, is formed by the combination of the Greek words gastros (stomach) and nomos (rule or law) and is explained as rules or norms related to eating and drinking. Gastronomy is a word used to describe the way the food of a country or region is served, the food tools, the preparation techniques of the dishes (Kivela and Crotts, 2006: 354). In addition, gastronomy; Although it is a guide about what to eat and drink with which pairings and when, according to today's gastronomy understanding, it is explained as "the art of eating well" (Aşkın, 2015: 157).
The first official study on gastronomy was made by the French politician and jurist Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin (1755-1826). Brillat-Savarin examined the relationship between "the senses and food" and "consumption of food and drink " in his study called La Physiologie du gout (The Physiology of Taste) in 1825 (Kivela and Crotts, 2006: 355). Brillat-Savarin gastronomy, which has gained a reputation as a gastronome in France and is considered the pioneer of gastronomy discourse; It defines it as “intelligible information about everything related to human nutrition ” (Brillat-Savarin, 2009: 61).
Gastronomy; local products and foods, culture and traditions, sustainable values ​​and lifestyle (Küçükkömürler, Şirvan and Sezgin, 2018: 79). Gastronomy; It is a science that explains how the materials used in food and beverages are used, brings the taste of a meal to its peak, examines different culinary cultures and reveals the similarities and differences between these different culinary cultures, and aims to present food, history and culture together. can be defined (Hatipoğlu, 2010: 6). When the studies done in recent years are examined, gastronomy is accepted as an art and science. 
Gastronomy allows the use of materials related to food and beverages, as well as the similarities and differences in the approaches of different cultures and countries to food and beverages (Akgöl, 2012: 17).
Gastronomy is studied in different dimensions. Hatipoğlu (2010) examines gastronomy in two dimensions as production and consumption dimensions;
Production Size:
• Knowledge about the action of eating quality food and activities related to this action, 
• The science and art of preparing delicious meals, cooking and preparing a good table,
• Rules and practices about preparing and serving a dish,
• It is the combination of some dishes in accordance with both historical knowledge, culture and habits and taste.
Consumption Size:
• Qualified food and beverage liking,
• A fondness for ostentatious foods,
• Being willing to eat quality food.
Historical Process of Gastronomy
It is very important to examine the stages that the concept of gastronomy has gone through in the historical process, for a better understanding of the concept. For this reason, the historical process of the concept of gastronomy and the works written on this subject are summarized below;
The need for food and drink is a physiological need for humans and this need must be met in order for life to continue. Due to the lack of written information about the eating and drinking behaviors of humanity in prehistoric times, it is known that people were fed with products that grow naturally in the natural environment in the regions where people live and the meat of animals they can hunt. 
We can see the best proof of this in the hunting scenes they draw on the cave walls. Hunting scenes show that people hunt animals to feed themselves and do not hesitate to risk their lives in this difficult action. It is estimated that in this period, with the discovery of fire, the cooking of food began, especially using embers and smoking methods.
With the transition to settled life and agricultural activities, people started to grow plants, so they began to produce food and store excess food.
There is information on the figures in temples and tombs in Ancient Egypt, that people knew how to prepare and serve mass meals at that time, took their products to markets and sold them in the market.
It is recorded that during the Assyrian period, feasts and competitions related to the art of food were organized. Also, in Mesopotamia Clay tablets describing recipes, which are estimated to have been written in 1700, were found.
It is known that mass dinner feasts were held in Ancient Greece and the recipe was patented (Altınel, 2009).
One of the best-known and oldest cookbooks was created by the Greek gastronome Athenaios in the BC. It is the book Deipnosophistai (Gastronomers) written in the 2nd century. This book consists of conversations that started at a feast and lasted for two days, and includes recipes for various dishes such as cheesecake and stuffed leaves. 
In addition, in the book of Athenaios, he gave the names of nearly twenty gastronomes who lived before him. BC in the book. The work titled “Pleasant Life” written by Archestratos, who lived in 350 BC, is also emphasized. Another name emphasized by Athenaios is Apicius (Epicurus). 
Apicius is the oldest known gastronome in ancient history. The cookbook De re coquinaria, which lived during the reign of King Tiberius, is among the works that have survived to the present day (www.gidatti.com). Some of the recipes in the book written by Apicius are still used in New York's famous Forum and Four Caesars Restaurants . In addition, although Apicius is remembered with meals today, he went bankrupt and committed suicide after a magnificent feast (Altınel, 2009: 5).
The small restaurants that served wine and food, called “Taberna” in the Roman period, are the oldest example of small restaurants called “Trattoria” in Italy today. It is known that mass meals were eaten and celebrations were held in the Roman period. Most of the cooks in Rome were chosen from male slaves who were skilled in cooking brought from Greece. Cooking has been considered an art because a good cook is the person who contributes to the prestige of his master in the society.
Cookbooks written in ancient China have also survived. The most well-known work is the book titled “Important Things to Know About Food and Drink” written by the head chef of Kublai Khan (1215-1294). This work contains useful information for daily housework and soup recipes (www.gidatti.com).
XIII. Chaine des Rotisseurs (Grillers Lodge), a gourmet club founded in Paris in the 19th century, continues its activities today (Üzümcü, 2018: 11).
The oldest English cookbook is The Forme of Cury, written in 1390 by one of the cooks in the palace of Richard I (Lionheart), although it is not clear in medieval Europe. The names of the 196 recipes in the book are usually of French origin.
Among the various works written on food in the Ottoman period, the Arabic work called Kitabü't Tabih in the 13th century and the 15th century book called Divan-i Et'ime/ Kenzü'l Isteha. Persian poetic work that introduces various dishes dated to 19th century, Tabh-ı Et'ime (it is estimated to have been translated into Turkish from the Arabic work called Kitabü't Tabih), et-Terkibât fi Tabhi'l-Hulviyyât (contains sweet recipes) can be given as examples. The first printed Turkish cookbook is Melceü't-Tabbhin, written by Mehmet Kamil, a medical teacher, and published in 1844. 
Mehmet Kamil decided to write this book because the chefs in Istanbul always cook the same old dishes and do not attach importance to innovations. While writing the book, he listened to the experienced people, made researches and benefited from the manuscripts called Ağdiye Risalesi and Food Risalesi (Sakaoğlu, 2006).
The first gourmet cookbook was written by François Pierre de la Varenne in 1651.
The concept of gastronomy was first mentioned in the work "From Field to Table", written by the Frenchman Joseph Bercholux in 1801. The first official study in this field was "Taste Physiology" written by the French Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin in 1825. The word gastronomy was included in the French culinary dictionary as “the art of eating well” in 1835 (Üzümcü, 2018: 11).
In 1983, the famous American chef Charles Ranhofer gave more than 3500 recipes in his "Franco-American" cooking encyclopedia. French chef Auguste Escoffier is known as the “King of Chefs and Chef of Kings”. Escoffier, in his book "The Guide to Cooking", published his book containing more than 5000 recipes of dishes and side dishes related to classical culinary arts, and was awarded the Legion D'Honneur (Legion donor) by the prime minister of France in 1920 for introducing the French Cuisine to the world. (Maviş, 2008; Göker, 2011; Üzümcü, 2018: 11).
Gastronomy Tourism
Gastronomy tourism is not only a cultural attraction, but also a complementary tool for different cultural products. By transforming the products related to the local cuisine culture into touristic products and presenting them to the tourist experience, it provides income to the local economy and increases local consumption. In this case, it creates an economic multiplier effect in the region and enables many sectors to gain profits (Deveci, Türkmen, & Avcıkurt, 2013). With the studies carried out in the field of gastronomy in Turkey in recent years, cities have entered into an effort to reach tourists with promotion and marketing activities by transforming their local values, products and cuisines into touristic products.
Gastronomy tourism is a type of tourism that motivates and shapes the behavior of people whose purpose of travel is to experience different food and beverage (Harring and Ottenbacher, 2010). In addition to gastronomic tourism, the concepts of culinary tourism and food tourism are frequently used in the literature. In general, culinary and food tourism is about the culture that develops around food and beverage, while gastronomic tourism with similar attractions includes travel for new food and beverage experiences. 
With a more comprehensive definition, gastronomy tourism; It is defined as “travels made to discover and enjoy the food and beverages of destinations and to have memorable and authentic gastronomic experiences” (Kyriakaki, Zagkotsi, & Trihas, 2013: 2). In summary, while food tourism concentrates more on the basic product, production and content, culinary tourism focuses on the service along with the meals. Gastronomy tourism; It focuses on the gastronomic experience through the consumption of the final product and is considered to create the highest added value for the region (Küçükkömürler et al., 2018: 81).
Tourism activities are not only a mode of consumption, but also a means of consuming goods and services in different parts of the world. In this regard, the tourism event mediates the consumption of products and services specific to the local culinary culture . It is used as an element of attraction to support local gastronomy and touristic products in a destination. 
Since eating and drinking activities are a biological need, they are actually a compulsory tourist activity. One third of the total expenditures made by tourists is food and beverage expenditures. For this reason, a large proportion of a destination's tourism revenues are derived from food and beverage revenues (Mak, Lumbers and Eves, 2012: 171). Focusing on gastronomy studies in increasing the incomes of destinations are areas that will benefit economically.
Gastronomy is an important tool for tourism both nationally and internationally. Local products, meals and delicacies are the resources that regions can evaluate as tourist attraction. In the study of Hall, Sharples, Mitchell, Macionis, Cambourne (2003) gastronomic tourism;
• It is consumed by tourists and is a part of local culture.
It is a tool in the promotion of regional tourism.
• It is a key point of the target market in competitiveness.
• It is a part of economic development in regional development.
• It is accepted as a form of product and service by tourists with certain consumption patterns and preferences.
gastronomic tourism; It has four different types of motivation: cultural, physical, social and prestige. Cultural motivation means that tourists want to eat in order to learn, taste and experience food and drink in a certain culture, and therefore local simple products motivate the tourist. 

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For this reason, visits to the production areas of food and beverages, restaurants and festivals where local dishes are served play an important role. In physical motivation, food and drink is necessary for people to continue their lives and people (tourists) have to meet this need. In social motivation, tourists are actively involved in the gastronomic activity . It provides prestige, which is the last source of motivation, by sharing the local experiences in the environments where it is located (Guzman and Canizares, 2011).
Gastronomy tourism provides the opportunity to get to know not only local products and dishes, but also the culture and people of the region. Gastronomic tourism, which is carried out for the purposes of seeing the different production processes of local dishes, tasting a meal made by a famous chef or a special meal, expresses the cultural and social capital of the destination (Akgöz, 2018: 181). 
Activities within the scope of gastronomic tours include visits to local markets, food and beverage festivals, mushroom hunting in the countryside, cooking lessons from famous chefs, participation in cheese making, vineyards and vineyards and wine tastings. Among the most well-known routes in the world created within the scope of gastronomic tourism;
• Italy - Tuscany Region,
• Napa Valley in California, United States of America,
• Some regions in South Africa,
• Australia and Chile,
• Champagne Burgundy Region of France as an example
can be given.
The above-mentioned routes related to gastronomic tourism attract many tourists. Napa Valley in California, USA, with a population of 142,000 according to 2015 data, is the second most popular tourist destination in America. There are over 200 wine production workshops in the region. Wines and delicious food are among the top reasons for tourists to visit the region. 
Similarly, Italy's Tuscany Region is preferred especially by Northern European tourists to taste Chianti wine, truffles, Florentine meat dishes and olive oil of Lucca. Tours that provide the opportunity to taste a product specific to certain regions and meet with the producers of a certain product are also considered within the scope of gastronomy tours. In this regard, chocolate tours to Belgium and Switzerland, tea tours to Japan and Sri Lanka, and coffee tours to Costa Rica can be given as examples (Üzümcü, 2018: 13).
Tourists also participate in gastronomic tours to learn how to cook food. For example, educational tours are organized in this way in France, Spain and Italy . In addition, within the scope of gastronomic tourism, gastronomy tours are preferred to eat the local food of a region or to watch how the food prepared by a world-famous chef is prepared and to taste the food. 
Examples of these tours are the tastings of cheese in France, olive oil in Italy, and tapas in Spain. However, there are also gourmet tours for more private groups, that is, with the participation of individual tourists or smaller groups. Gourmet groups usually consist of closed groups. In addition, travels that cooks and other professionals related to the subject participate for educational and competition purposes are also among this group tours (Özer, 2013).
Gastronomic tours within the scope of package tours implemented in Turkey are touristic products in which products reflecting the local cuisines of destinations that are physically close to each other are brought to the fore. Although the routes of gastronomic tours differ according to the regions, they are concentrated in the provinces of Adana, Hatay and Kahramanmaraş in the east of the Mediterranean region and in the provinces of Gaziantep and Şanlıurfa in the Southeastern Anatolia region. 
Gastronomic tours in Turkey are generally culture-oriented, and local cuisines and gastronomy are not emphasized enough (Kızilirmak, Ofluoğlu and Şişik, 2016: 261-262). Which can be considered as the Aegean route in gastronomy tours in Turkey; Ayvalık-Bodrum olive oil route, Çeşme and Urla healthy nutrition , vineyard and wine routes in the North Aegean can be given as examples.
Sustainable Gastronomy Tourism
Gastronomy tourism is a type of tourism that allows tourism activities to spread over twelve months and supports sustainable tourism. In order to protect, develop and maintain gastronomy as an important travel motive that contributes to the development of destinations in the environmental, economic and social areas, the elements that make up gastronomy should be handled within the framework of sustainability principles (Işıldar, 2016: 52). 
In this context, sustainable gastronomy; It is defined as “an understanding that improves and preserves the environmental and social quality of local people with the protection of eco-foods that optimally protect environmental sustainability and the health of local people” (Scarpato, 2002: 139). In sustainable gastronomy tourism, it aims to develop agricultural activities in the region, to prioritize food safety, to protect the natural environment and to support the economic and social development of the local people. The production, preparation and presentation of authentic, organic, local and beneficial for human health, high nutritional value and environmentally friendly foods becomes important as a travel motivation (Yurtseven, 2011).
Sustainable gastronomy aims at producing and selling local foods, reviving home cooking culture, transferring cooking methods to future generations, ensuring welfare in social life , preserving food varieties , keeping the original gastronomy culture alive and transferring it to future generations, and developing children's sense of discovering new tastes and traditional tastes. supports education (Isildar, 2016: 53). In addition, sustainable gastronomy encourages the awareness of local people about the protection and protection of local products and dishes, local resources, culture and most importantly the environment.
Today, there are changes in consumer preferences with the desire for healthy nutrition and the increase in environmental awareness. Local, authentic and organic foods are increasingly preferred within the scope of quality food rather than agricultural products using various chemicals, processed and fabricated foods (Mak, Lumbers, Eves, & Chang, 2012: 940). 
Changes in consumer demands have caused businesses to diversify their products. Sustainable gastronomy; gastronomy tours, natural shopping centers, natural and historical shopping venues, restaurants offering special restaurant menus , special food production systems, special food organizations , food festivals, depending on the preference of healthy, local, authentic and organic foods by tourists. and various elements such as food museums have enabled the development of sustainable gastronomic tourism areas (Yurtseven, 2011).
The increase in demand for sustainable gastronomy tourism has caused many touristic businesses to reshape themselves to get a bigger share from this area. For example, many food and beverage businesses have started to include local and organic foods in their restaurant menus and to increase the quality of food and service (Jaiswal, Sapra, Patil, & Lama, 2013: 9-10). 
Restaurants that adopt sustainable gastronomy , on the other hand, fully adopt the principles of sustainability and use seasonal and local products; provide healthy food conditions; environmentally friendly and sustainable agriculture; consume meat, fish and poultry products efficiently; For each product, they are constantly improving themselves in the fields of minimum environmental impact, water consumption, waste management , efficient energy use, social equality, social responsibility, fair trade (Jacobs and Klosse, 2016: 35).
Contribution of Gastronomy Tourism to the Country's Tourism Economy
Although Turkey has very rich culture and resources in terms of gastronomy tourism potential, unfortunately it has not reached the desired level. The most important reason for this is the inadequacy of the promotional and marketing activities and the fact that it is in the shadow of holiday tourism (sea, sand, sun). Although the rate of foreign tourists who prefer gastronomic tourism is very low, the demand of domestic tourists is higher. For this reason, it is extremely important to reach consumers with the promotion and marketing activities of local products and dishes of cities and / or regions, with emphasis on gastronomic activities.
The seasonality of tourism activities in Turkey is one of the most important disadvantages for both tourism businesses and tourism employees. In this respect, gastronomic tourism is an important type of tourism in terms of destinations, as it is a type of tourism that can be realized twelve months of the year. The spread of tourism activities over twelve months will create economic advantages, especially an important added value for destinations (Ünal, 2016: 237). For this reason, destinations should use their gastronomic values ​​and products as touristic products and highlight them.
In gastronomic tourism, the fact that food producers produce natural products and use local products in their meals contribute to the cultivation of vegetables, fruits and some special plants. In addition, the use of natural and local products by the kitchen workers who produce food makes positive contributions to many sectors and therefore employment, together with the agricultural sector. Gastronomy tourism directly affects the agriculture and livestock sectors in terms of producers. It contributes to the increase in production and sales, the diversity of products and services, and especially the local producers being a part of the tourism industry. 
In addition, gastronomy also contributes to the increase in the number of tourists who prefer the destination, the increase in touristic expenditures, the prolongation of their stay, the presentation of alternative products and the development of tourism types (Yılmaz, 2017: 172). It should not be overlooked that these contributions will provide competitive advantage to destinations in today's competitive environment and will be an opportunity for them to be in a better position.
Gastronomy Themed Museums in Turkey
Museums; They are places that live and keep culture and history alive . They are places that provide information about the culture and way of life of the society and also contribute to the development of the society. Gastronomy museums, on the other hand , are the most important places used to introduce and experience culinary culture , food culture and history, gastronomy history and culture, and play an important role in transferring culinary culture to future generations . Gastronomic museums are established in order to bring the region to the forefront in terms of gaining a gastronomic identity, promoting culinary culture, reviving tourism in the region and destination marketing.
The gastronomy museums, which were established to promote Turkey's rich culinary culture , traditional food production tools and equipment, traditional and local foods and beverages, plant species and agricultural values, are very effective in increasing the touristic values ​​of destinations. In Turkey, especially Gaziantep, Hatay and Afyon, which are internationally registered as gastronomy cities, and Mardin, Kahramanmaraş, Istanbul, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Konya, Rize, Muğla, Erzurum and Kars, which are working on this subject and have rich resources, also come to the fore. comes out.
Although there are different gastronomy-themed museums in the world, they are very few in Turkey. Table 1 shows the gastronomy-themed museums in Turkey. While some of the gastronomy-themed museums exhibit the application stages and products related to a single product (olive, olive oil, chocolate, wine), some of them include collections reflecting the local cuisine culture (Sandıkcı, Mutlu and Mutlu, 2019: 1212). 

Museum Name




Affiliated Person/Institution


Zavot Cheese Village Museum

Cheese Production and Production Stages


Boğatepe Environment and Life Association


Mürefte Fevzi Kutman Wine Museum



Adnan Kutman


Emine Chest Kitchen Museum

Local Culinary Culture


Gaziantep Metropolitan Municipality


Atatürk Forest Farm Wine Museum

Wine, Honey, Pickles, Vinegar


Atatürk Forest Farm


Hacıbanlar House Culinary Museum

Local Culinary Culture


Şanlıurfa Metropolitan Municipality


Adatepe Olive Oil Museum

Olive oil, soap


Ada Ciftlik Gida Ur. Singing. Tic.A.S.


Culinary Arts Academy Gastronomy Museum



Mehmet Aksel


Oleatrium Museum of Olive and Olive Oil History

Olives and Olive Oil


Hasan and Gursel Tonbul


Olive and Olive Oil History Museum

Olives and Olive Oil


Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Agriculture


Edremit Evren Ertür Historical Olive Oil Tools Museum

Olive oil


Fixed Ertur


Private Muğla Beekeeping Museum



Muğla Provincial Beekeepers Association


Cine Beekeeping Museum



Adnan Menderes University.


Antakya Museum of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants and Spices

Medicinal and Aromatic Plants and Spices


Hatay Governorate


Antakya Culinary Museum

Local Culinary Culture


Antakya Chamber of Commerce and Industry


Thematic Culinary Museum

Local Culinary Culture

hero marash

Dulkadiroglu Municipality


Köstem Olive Oil Museum

Olive oil


Köstem Culture, Education and Museum Foundation


Baklava Museum



Oguzhan Saygili


Pelit Chocolate Museum



Pelit Chocolate


Marmaris Honey House Museum



Marmaris Chamber of Commerce Presidency


Knife Museum



Bursa Metropolitan Municipality


Safranbolu Chocolate Museum



Mesut Kirimli


Gastronomy museums are divided into many different categories. Culinary museums reflecting Turkey's culinary culture ; olive oil museum, tea museum, honey museum, chocolate museum and wine museum. Among the museums that are among the gastronomic values ​​within the scope of tourism activities, the Museum of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (Hatay) allows its visitors to both see and taste endemic plant species. 
The cheese museum in the Boğaztepe Village of Kars is among the museums that best reflect the cheese making culture. In addition, the Turkish Taste Museum, which became operational in 2016 in Istanbul, consists of 36 shops and restaurants reflecting the Turkish food culture and serves as an important destination marketing tool. Kebabs, spices, cheeses, alcoholic beverages, etc. are displayed in the Turkish Taste Museum. Many foods and beverages are on display.
The first culinary museum established in Turkey is the Emine Göğüş Culinary Museum. The museum, located in Gaziantep, is a museum where the kitchen tools and equipment used in cooking in Gaziantep cuisine and the visuals of the local dishes that are about to be forgotten are exhibited.
Historical Erzurum Houses, a restaurant established with the aim of preserving the sustainable historical texture and sustainable culinary culture , has been put into service as a museum. Domestic and foreign visitors are hosted with local products and dishes in Historical Erzurum houses, which are operated as 11 restaurants (www.turizmgunlugu.com).
Source: Sandıkcı et al., 2019: 1213, Mankan, 2017: 643, www. kvmgm.ktb.gov.tr
UNESCO Creative Cities Network
UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) has been running the "Creative Cities Network" program since 2004. Cities are dynamic structures that bring together various cultural actors with their historical and cultural backgrounds. For this reason, they can discover and produce new dimensions of creativity. The aim of UNESCO in this program is to develop the economic, creative and social potentials of cultural industries run by local actors and thus to ensure cultural diversity. Creative Cities Network; craft and handicrafts, film, music, design , literature, gastronomy and media arts (www.unesco.org.tr).
Creative cities are places that can create new opportunities where city participants and decision makers can transform their existing potentials into tangible products and rethink their potential (Landry, 2004). Creative cities; It should be based on the economic structure and lifestyle that artists, designers, media organizations, engineers, architects, advertisers, young managers, gourmets, food and beverage organizations, academic institutions, and the fashion industry will create (Dereli, 2017: 27).
Local governments in the world ; It sees this network as a tool because it provides development opportunities, strengthens the tourism season, increases the tourism demand for the region, and creates a creative economic ground (Lee, Wall, Kovacs, Kang, 2016: 73).
The criteria determined to be included in the gastronomy city category by the Creative Cities Network commission gathered around seven themes can be listed as follows (Akın and Bostancı, 2017: 114);
• Having a well-developed gastronomy, which is a characteristic feature of the city center and/or the region,
• Existence of an active gastronomy community with many traditional restaurants and/or chefs,
• Having a wealth of local products used in traditional cuisine,
• To have traditional methods and culinary practices that have survived against technological and industrial developments,
• Existence of traditional food markets and traditional food industries,
• Having a tradition of hosting gastronomic festivals, competitions, awards and other wide-ranging recognition events,
• Encouraging the use and production of local products with a sustainable understanding and respect for nature, 
Working for the happiness of the society, promoting healthy eating in educational institutions,
• The inclusion of biodiversity conservation issues in the curricula of culinary schools.
In order for a city listed above to be a gastronomy city, the criteria must be kept up to date. As a matter of fact, every city selected by UNESCO as a creative city by the Creative Cities Network is required to prepare a membership monitoring report every four years. With this report; It is aimed that cities, which are accepted as creative cities in the field of gastronomy, develop their knowledge and skills in the field of gastronomy, improve the quality of life of people and improve their health conditions. In addition, in economic terms; As a development tool related to many sectors such as agriculture, tourism, food sector, logistics, food and beverage sector, it is necessary to show the necessary sensitivity (Akın and Bostancı, 2017: 114).
In Table 2, there are 26 cities under the UNESCO Creative Cities Network gastronomy theme as of 2019. Gaziantep from Turkey was included in the list in 2015, Hatay in 2017 and Afyonkarahisar in 2019. Afyonkarahisar province, which is not included in the list on the UNESCO official site, has been included in the network of creative cities in the field of gastronomy on 31.10.2019 (www.unesco.org.tr).
Table 2. Cities in the Field of Gastronomy in Creative Cities Network (UNESCO)

Popayan (Colombia)

Chengdu (China)

Östersund (Sweden)

Jeonju (South Korea)

Zahle (Lebanon)

Florianopolis (Brazil)

Shunde (China)

Tsuruoka (Japan)

Belem (Brazil)

Bergen (Norway)

Burgos (Spain)

Dénia (Spain)

Ensenada (Mexico)

Gaziantep Turkey)

Parma (Italy)

Phuket (Thailand)

Rasht (Islamic Republic of Iran)

Tucson (USA)

Alba (Italy)

Buenaventura (Colombia)

Cochabamba (Bolivia)

Hatay (Turkey)

Macao Special Administrative Region

Panama (Panama)

Paraty (Brazil)

San Antonio (USA

United States)

Source: www.unesco.org.tr, Accessed 25.01.2020
Recommendations for Practice
Gastro tourists are evaluated in the category of cultural tourists within the tourist classifications. These tourists want to see and experience the historical, natural beauties and cultural activities of the places they travel to. In this context, the aim of experiencing the local dishes and local products of the places they travel is in the first place for gastronome tourists.
In the literature study on gastronomic tourism, it has been determined that the Turkish culinary culture is not adequately promoted and the food of their culture is generally offered to the tourists (Şanlıer, 2005; Durlu-Özkaya and Can, 2012). Introducing Turkish cuisine , which has a very rich culture and resources, to the world with promotions and focusing on studies on this subject can enable the tourism sector to make a leap.
Gastronomy-themed museums, which are an important tool in the promotion of history, culture, local products and cuisines, should be opened more and used as an important tool in terms of both the destination attractiveness and the transfer of culinary culture and local products to future generations. 
Trainings, promotions and workshops are organized for adults and children in gastronomy-themed museums around the world. Although tastings are held in some museums in Turkey, trainings such as olive and olive oil making, soap making, cheese making can be done visually. Thus, museums can be transformed into places that keep history and culture alive, rather than places where lifeless mannequins are exhibited (Mankan, 2017: 651-652).
Participation in the UNESCO Creative Cities Network in the field of gastronomy is extremely important in terms of increasing the ecological and sustainable awareness in the region as well as the image, brand and recognition of the cities. Today, as a result of environmental problems, climate change, global warming and increasing factors that threaten human health, a consciousness has emerged for natural and healthy nutrition, natural foods and natural life. 
In this context, Turkey has very rich resources. The identification of these resources and their delivery to the consumer will positively affect many sectors, primarily the agricultural sector. At the same time, it will make positive contributions to the reduction of unemployment with its positive effects on employment.
Turkey has a great potential in the field of gastronomic tourism. A gastronomy map should be drawn at the beginning of the priority works that Turkey should do in the field of gastronomy. Local flavors should be revealed on a provincial basis. It is extremely important to include local and traditional dishes along with cultural heritage in country-based advertising and marketing studies (www.tursab.org.tr).
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As the head chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR , I see the source:
Instructor See. Dr. I sincerely thank Hatice SARI GÖK for her academic studies on "Gastronomy Tourism" and wish her success in her professional life. It will definitely be considered as an example by those who need it in professional kitchens, related research and in the world of gastronomy.
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