• What is Vegan Food Tourism?
  • What is Vegan Food Tourism?
  • What is Vegan Food Tourism?
  • What is Vegan Food Tourism?
  • What is Vegan Food Tourism?
  • What is Vegan Food Tourism?
  • What is Vegan Food Tourism?
  • What is Vegan Food Tourism?
  • What is Vegan Food Tourism?

At the same time, if more people worldwide follow a plant-based diet, the harmful environmental impact of resource-intensive production of animal and ruminant-derived foods, especially meat and dairy products, will be significantly reduced. Reducing meat consumption and changing..

What is Vegan Food Tourism?
Merve CETIN 
The vegan diet movement is growing steadily around the world (Kessler et al., 2016; Kaiser and Algers, 2016; Vegan Society, 2021). At the same time, this diet has become a food trend today (Wu, 2014). Veganism , which has gained popularity today , is accepted as both a diet and a philosophy of life. Veganism is a philosophy and way of life that seeks to exclude, as far as possible, all products derived from animals and all forms of exploitation and cruelty to animals for any other purpose (Vegan Society, 2021).
Considering these principles adopted by veganism, this way of life covers not only one's diet but also all other products that one can buy and use.
Veganism not only protects animal rights (Singer, 1990), but also contributes to sustainability. It is argued that within the scope of the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), it offers a solution to some systemic problems of the global food system, in particular SDG #12, which promotes sustainable consumption and production and aims to end global hunger. 
At the same time, if more people worldwide follow a plant-based diet, the harmful environmental impact of resource-intensive production of animal and ruminant-derived foods, especially meat and dairy products, will be significantly reduced (Fresán and Sabaté, 2019). Reducing meat consumption and changing the food consumption behavior of meat eaters are considered necessary to provide a more sustainable and environmentally friendly food production and supply system (Hartmann and Siegrist, 2017).
Although there is no general information about the increase in the vegan population worldwide, the global change towards this movement is quite remarkable (Oh et al., 2021; Forgrieve, 2018; Kaminski et al., 2020). Therefore, increases in the global vegan population could represent huge business opportunities for the tourism industry. Some countries, discovering the potential in this regard, have initiated various initiatives to attract vegan tourists. For example; these offer tourists unique customized opportunities in line with the vegan philosophy of life. 
These deals cover all of his experiences framing his travels, as well as his vegan diet. Festivals, tours, hotels and catering are rapidly developing products related to vegan food and beverage tourism. However, the tourism literature has largely ignored plant-based nutrition as a research theme in the context of the tourism sector (Rivera and Shani, 2013), resulting in a lack of information that could contribute to understanding this critical issue.
The increase in the vegan population in the tourism market, the necessity of handling tourism with a more sustainable approach and the opportunities offered by other destinations for vegan food tourism have brought vegan food tourism to the fore. Therefore, this study was carried out to reveal the current situation and potential of vegan food tourism in Turkey.
Conceptual Framework
Vegan Lifestyle
With the establishment of The Vegan Society in 1944, the modern vegan movement began as a response to some ethical inconsistencies of vegetarianism (The Vegan Society, 2021; Wrenn, 2011). According to the definition made by the Vegan Society in 1979, veganism; “A philosophy and way of life that refrains from all forms of exploitation and cruelty (to the extent possible and practicable) to which animals are subjected to food, clothing or any other purpose, while promoting the development and use of animal-free alternatives for the benefit of animals and the environment. 
This lifestyle refers to the complete or partial exclusion of all products made from animals from the diet. Veganism is defined as a dietary model that rejects the consumption of plant-based foods and the use of all animal products (Perry et al., 2001: 406).
The choice to prefer this dietary pattern and avoid consuming any or all animal products may be motivated by different factors. In this context, the reasons for plant-based nutrition are discussed under different approaches. Many vegans and vegetarians choose their diets and lifestyles based on the health benefits provided by such diets (Appleby et al., 2011; Dyett et al., 2013). 
Another motivation for following a vegan lifestyle is to focus on issues such as moral/ethical reasons, awareness of environmental damage, thinking that it is important in tackling the problem of global famine, and more on environmental animal ethics (Büchs et al., 2015; Fox & Ward, 2008; Hussar and Harris, 2010; Rozin et al., 1997; White et al., 1999).
It is thought that plant-based nutrition may have important effects in terms of environmental, health and job opportunities. It is accepted that this diet ( Raw Food - Raw Food ) prevents environmental negatives including animal-sourced greenhouse gas emissions, land degradation due to overgrazing, soil erosion, deforestation, biodiversity loss and surface pollution (Cole, 2008; Richards, 2012). ; Goldstein et al., 2016 Turner-McGrievy et al., 2016). 
The sustainability of a plant-based diet is critical not only from an environmental point of view, but also because such a diet is safe and provides adequate levels of nutrients for most people. It is also stated that plant-based nutrition provides many important benefits for human health (Craig, 2009; Craig and Mangels, 2009; Glick-Bauer and Yeh, 2014; Kahleova et al., 2017; Key et al., 2006). It has been determined that if individuals who adopt this dietary style pay attention to adequate and balanced nutrition, diseases such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, hypertension, breast, colon and prostate cancer and type 2 diabetes are less common (Cole, 2008; Deckers, 2009; Bouvard et al., 2015; Radnitz et al., 2015).
In recent years, it has been observed that even those who do not consider themselves vegetarian/vegan restrict their meat consumption and prefer plant-based options. In the study published in the USA, it was determined that two-thirds of the participants decreased their meat consumption in the last three years (Neff et al., 2018; Aschemann-Witzel, 2020). In short, the number of people who reduce and avoid the consumption of products of animal origin is increasing (Held, 2003; Rivera and Shani, 2013). 
As a result, the market for plant-based products is gradually expanding. The market for plant-based milk alternatives has more than doubled its worldwide sales in recent years from 2009 to 2015. The National Restaurant Association stated that 20% of Americans seek à la carte restaurants that serve plant-based food (National Restaurant Association, 2006). This suggests that a vegan diet may contribute significantly to job opportunities.
Although vegan nutrition has some beneficial aspects in terms of sustainability, animal welfare, protection of individual health and economically, there are also some criticisms of this diet. Plant-based diets cause a number of health concerns, especially if not properly planned. At the beginning of these concerns are the negative health consequences related to vitamin B12, iodine deficiency, bone structure and mental health as a result of inadequate and unbalanced nutrition (Dinu et al., 2017; Dobersek et al., 2020; Iguacel et al., 2020).
Vegan Nutrition Varieties
Generally, vegetarianism and veganism are concepts that can be easily confused. However, although veganism is a type of vegetarianism, it is handled independently (Oh et al., 2021; Rivera and Shani, 2013). Vegetarians may prefer some products of animal origin in their diets under certain conditions (Altaş, 2017). vegetarians; Although they can consume products derived from living things such as milk, eggs and honey, vegans do not accept to use or consume any products of animal origin (clothing, cosmetics, food) (The Vegan Society, 2021; Oh et al., 2021). 
For this reason, vegans seriously criticize vegetarians for consuming animal products under certain conditions. Vegans do not consume any products of animal origin and include vegetables, fruits, grains, nuts, etc. in their diet. contains nutrients. Vegan nutrition is divided into three, according to the type of application, as ravists, zenmacrobiotics, and fruvitarians or fruitists (Table 1).
Table 1. Classification of Vegan Diets
Source: Shani and DiPietro, 2007.
Vegan Food Tourism
Considerable responses have been given by various industries to the increasing demand for vegan products. Today, many sectors are developing products in accordance with the life philosophies of vegans. These include a wide variety of vegan products such as special menus for vegans, plant-based meat and milk substitutes that do not contain animal products, artificial leather and suede options, and sneakers and cosmetics (Kiernan, 2011; Reid and Hackett, 2002). This also activates destinations and tourism stakeholders that come to the fore with  gastronomic tourism to a large extent (Eren, 2019; Henderson, 2009; Du Rand and Heath, 2006; Rachão et al., 2019).
Destinations are increasingly attempting to satisfy and minimize the difficulties vegans face during their travels. In this context, vegan tourism, which is a new type of tourism, offers products and services to vegan tourists. Vegan tourism is the activities of tourists who have adopted veganism, who avoid all kinds of abuse and cruelty towards animals for any purpose, travel to places outside their usual environment and stay there (Vatan and Türkbaş, 2018). This tourism mainly deals with vegan philosophy-oriented activities designed to meet the needs of vegan tourists and facilitated by the hosts.
Vegan tourism includes the activities of tourists who have a sense of responsibility, prioritize sustainability, exclude animal exploitation and cruelty, and transform it into a lifestyle (Vatan and Türkbaş, 2018). These tourists, who have adopted a certain philosophy of life, such as vegans, face some difficulties, especially when planning their travels and during their travels. Studies on vegan tourists in the literature have reported that vegans often encounter difficulties during their travels, especially when eating out and including their food preferences (Kansanen, 2021). 
In this sense, there is an increase in vegan products, vegan restaurants, vegan tours and vegan festivals in order to ensure the accessibility of vegan foods for people who have adopted veganism. According to the data of the Vegan Society, 9,590 products were registered with the Vegan Trademark in 2018, while 14,262 products were registered in 2019 with an increase of 49% (The Vegan Society, 2021).
Increasing interest in veganism and plant-based diets not only affects sustainable consumption behavior (Büchs et al., 2015) but is also noticed by the tourism industry. Some tour companies around the world offer vegan food tours for plant-based nutrition.
and the number of these tours is increasing. Within the scope of vegan food tours, a variety of food and tasting experiences for the vegan diet are offered to the tourists. Accompanied by vegan guides, a variety of vegan diet options are offered, including plant-based tapas, antipasti, fresh pasta, pizza, and dairy-free ice cream and raw desserts. In addition, certified vegan tastings such as vegan cheese tasting, wine and chocolate tasting are carried out (Li et al., 2021).
From the tourism sector perspective, tour operators organize vegan tours that cover not only the food preferences of vegan tourists, but also the entire travel experience of the vegan lifestyle. For example, Brighton-based Responsible Travel promotes vegan tourism worldwide with destinations as diverse as Greece, India, Netherlands and Rica (Responsible Travel, 2021). With the increase in the number of vegans, there are remarkable developments in the accommodation sector. Hilton hotels opened the first vegan hotel in the UK in 2019, where everything from the room key card to the carpet is arranged in line with the vegan lifestyle, and the menus, including all minibars and room service, are plant-based (Hilton, 2021).
The tourism industry's responses to the increase in the vegan population include vegan traveler practices such as Air Vegan and Veg Visits. The first of these, Air Vegan, provides information on whether airports are vegan-friendly and where you can find plant-based foods (Air Vegan, 2021). The second is Veg Visits, a home-sharing platform that operates in eighty different countries to make travel easier for vegans and vegetarians (Veg Visits, 2021). Some airlines, paying attention to the growth of the vegan movement, have started to add vegan meals to the food service on their planes (Qatar Airlines, 2021). Also, vegan restaurants in 2019 by The Lonely Planet,
In this study, qualitative research method was adopted and content analysis method was used in order to determine the vegan tourism potential of Turkey. Content analysis is a method frequently used in qualitative research. In data content analysis, data can be obtained from various interviews, literature review articles and websites (Braun & Clarke, 2006; Walters, 2016). Depending on the purpose of the study, the quality of the data, and the experience and knowledge of the researchers, content analysis can be performed in various ways to create categories and/or themes.
For this analysis, a comprehensive database was created based on the keywords "vegan", "vegan food", "vegan activities" and "vegan tourism". Articles, conference proceedings, book chapters and websites published in Turkish and English were included in this database. Inclusion criteria were established to ensure that the database was fit for research purpose. The inclusion criteria are that the data obtained, especially articles and book chapters, is open to access, is a primary source, and focuses on keywords in the search. 
Considering these criteria, twenty (20) articles, six (6) book chapters and fifty (50) websites formed the research database. In the analysis of the data obtained within the scope of this research, a six-stage process developed by Braun and Clarke (2006) including familiarity, coding, theme development, review of themes, identification of themes and production of the report was adopted.
Vegan Food Variety
With its rich variety and healthy food items , Turkish cuisine has the qualities to be the pioneer of vegan cuisine (Tamkoç, 2000). The rich Turkish culinary culture presents a wide variety of mainly vegetarian and vegan dishes. Soups, vegetable dishes, cereal salads, appetizers, pastries, fruit casseroles, salads made from fresh seasonal products offer a great richness in terms of other varieties. 
The Ministry of Culture and Tourism has also published the seven most delicious vegan dishes on the Go Turkey website for vegan and vegetarian meals. On this website, there are stuffed leaves, artichoke hearts, mucver, şakşuka, meatless raw meatballs, red kidney beans and pencil pastry (Go Turkey, 2021). The dishes that can be qualified as suitable for the vegan diet belonging to the Turkish culinary culture are explained by categorizing them as soups, vegetable dishes, legumes dishes, pilafs, salads, desserts, compotes and compotes.
In traditional Turkish cuisine , soups are prepared with various vegetables, herbs and legumes. The richness and variety of ingredients in soups is quite wide. In general, legumes soups suitable for vegan diet, vegetable soups and soups prepared with various herbs, prepared in Turkish cuisine , have a wide variety. Soups suitable for vegan diet; It is possible to give examples of green lentil soup, tomato soup, bean soup, black cabbage soup, chickpea soup, lentil soup and ezogelin soup.
Vegetable food:
Turkish cuisine shows a great richness and diversity in terms of vegetable dishes. It is possible to say that the variety of vegetables in Turkey in terms of geographical location and climate characteristics is quite high. With the variety of vegetables and the use of different cooking techniques in the rich Turkish cuisine , there is a great variety of vegetable dishes. It is possible to classify vegetable dishes as fries, other vegetable dishes and vegetable dishes with olive oil. 
It is possible to give olive oil beans, artichoke, spinach and eggplant dishes as examples suitable for a vegan diet.
Dried Legumes Dishes: Legumes have an important place in Turkish cuisine. It is very suitable for a vegan diet, as it has a high nutritional value and becomes more nutritious with vegetables such as potatoes, carrots and onions added to dried legumes. The most consumed legumes of Turkish cuisine can be listed as lentils, chickpeas and dried beans. Legumes are also very important in terms of being suitable for a vegan diet, having high nutritional value and providing variety.
Pilafs are usually made of rice and bulgur in Turkish cuisine and show a great variety. Pilafs can be prepared plain, as well as with vegetables and dried legumes, thus increasing the variety of pilaf in Turkish cuisine culture . Meyhane pilaf, tomato pilaf and eggplant pilaf can be given as examples for pilaf prepared with vegetables. While chickpeas and lentils are used in pilafs prepared with dried legumes, especially in our inner regions, when it comes to the west, rice is prepared with peas and broad beans.
Salads prepared from vegetables, grains and legumes offer variety in the vegan diet. Examples include tzatziki, salads made with raw vegetables and herbs, green lentil salad and piyaz.
Turkish culinary culture has a great variety of desserts. Among the dessert groups, fruit desserts and desserts made from various grains are considered to be suitable for a vegan diet. It is possible to give desserts such as pumpkin dessert, fruit desserts (quince, apple and apricot) and zerde as examples suitable for a vegan diet.
Compotes and Compotes:
Compotes prepared from various dried fruits and compotes prepared using fresh fruits can be among the beverages that can be consumed in accordance with a vegan diet.
Vegan Association
Turkish Vegan Association (TVD) is an association that officially started its activities in 2012. The aim of the association is to raise awareness by acting with the understanding of exploitation and genocide against animals, social justice, peace and equality. In addition, the Vegan Association of Turkey provides animal rights, environment and health-based trainings at universities throughout Turkey through the Vegan Academy. This association aims to raise awareness by reaching wider audiences with Veg&Nature Magazine, the only periodical in the field of animal rights. 
In order to provide easy access to vegan and vegetarian places for vegan and vegetarian individuals, TVD Rota carries out more than one activity in this field, such as Vegan Chef, to facilitate access to herbal recipes (Turkish Vegan Association, 2021).
Vegan Events
As part of vegan events, Turkey's first Vegan and Vegetarian Festival was held in Aydın Didim on 29-30 April 2017. Vegfest aims to raise public awareness on the effects of veganism on animal rights and ethics, the environment, health and sustainability. In Didim Vegfest, delicious vegan foods are offered and product tastings are held. Various themes are presented, such as interviews, workshops, exhibitions, film screenings based on our relationships with animals, interactive applications, book launches, concerts and concerts on vegan nutrition, vegan life, animal rights and moral reasons for veganism. 
It is also aimed to bring vegans together on a common ground. The event, which both vegan and non-vegan people showed great interest, was held online in 2020 and 2021 due to the Covid-19 pandemic (Turkish Vegan Association, 2021).
World Vegan Day has been celebrated on 1 November every year since 1994 to create social awareness of animal rights and freedoms and to promote the widespread adoption of vegan philosophy and lifestyle. World Vegan Day is celebrated with seminars, exhibitions, vegan tastings, public discussions and workshops, and is organized to convey to large audiences that veganism is an ethical, accessible and healthy lifestyle, and to dispel established prejudices about veganism.
In addition, vegan picnics are held at various times in different cities of Turkey within the scope of vegan activities. Vegan and non-vegan people are invited to these picnics and various exchanges are made about veganism. The aim of the vegan picnics is to share what is curious about veganism, to answer the questions of non-vegans, to do yoga, to share vegan meals prepared by everyone with others and to exchange ideas.
Vegan Restaurants and Cafes
With the increase in the number of vegans and vegetarians, the number of restaurants operating in this area has also increased. Especially in big cities such as Istanbul, Muğla and Ankara, the number of restaurants for completely vegan nutrition is higher than in other cities. 
In addition, although the number of completely vegan or vegetarian restaurants is few, many restaurant menus now include products suitable for vegan people. In a search on the Tripadvisor site regarding restaurants that offer vegan options, it was determined that 501 restaurants in Muğla, 487 restaurants in Istanbul, 51 restaurants in Antalya, 28 restaurants in Ankara and 31 restaurants in Izmir offer vegan menu options (Tripadvisor, 2021). However, completely vegan restaurants and cafes in different cities of Turkey are limited in number. Examples of these are given in Table 2.
Table 2. Example of Totally Vegan Restaurants
Vegan Hotels
It is seen that the number of vegan hotels in Turkey is quite low. In addition, it has been determined that no vegan hotel from Turkey is a member of the Vegetarian Hotels Association (VeggieHotels), which was established for the first time in the world (VeggieHotels, 2021). Table 3 includes examples from vegan hotels.
Table 3. Example of Vegan Hotels
Vegan Guides Commission
IRO (Istanbul Chamber of Guides) vegan and vegetarian guides commission for vegetarian and vegan tourism is to bring together vegan and vegetarian colleagues who are licensed professional tourist guides in Turkey. The aim of this association is to discuss how tourist guides can contribute to the spread of veganism and vegetarianism in Turkey, to cooperate with TVD (Turkish Vegan Association) and similar institutions, and to contribute to the development of vegan and vegetarian tourism.
Vegan Markets
Vegan markets are places where only vegetarian/vegan, ecological/organic, nature and animal-friendly products are sold. It is seen that there are vegan markets operating in Turkey, but they are concentrated in Istanbul. These markets also offer online shopping.
Table 4. Examples of Vegan Markets
Conclusion and Recommendations
The increase in the vegan population in the tourism market and the necessity of addressing tourism preferences with a more sustainable approach with the Covid-19 pandemic have brought vegan food tourism to the fore. This encourages destinations to carry out activities for vegans. This study was conducted to reveal the current situation and potential of vegan food tourism in Turkey. 
In this context, firstly, vegan food variety, vegan association, vegan events, vegan restaurants and cafes, vegan hotels and vegan markets were examined. It has been determined that Turkish culinary culture has a wide variety of vegan foods . However, it is seen that other countries have become more aware of the vegan population and have organized vegan food tours, vegan hotels and events for vegans. 
First of all, despite all these developments, it is seen that there are still a limited number of vegan activities, restaurants and cafes, hotels and markets in Turkey, and these are concentrated in some cities. The existence of these opportunities is seen as an important step in meeting the needs and expectations of vegan tourists who want to participate in tourism mobility. Therefore, it is necessary to expand hotels, restaurants and cafes, markets and events for vegan tourists. 
Many destinations around the world organize vegan food tours for vegan tourists. Taking these into account, it can be suggested that Turkey should carry out tours and marketing activities for vegan tourism. In addition, despite the increase in vegan food tours and vegan mobility, academic studies on this subject are quite limited. Especially in Turkey, there are very few studies on this subject. Therefore, in future studies, it can be recommended to carry out studies that will deal with the motivation factors, satisfaction and problems of vegan tourists on vegan food tourism.
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As the head chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR, I see the source:
Ms. I sincerely thank Merve ÇETİN for her academic studies on " What is Vegan Food Touris" and wish her success in her professional life . It will definitely be considered as an example by those who need it in professional kitchens, related research and in the world of gastronomy.
*** You can contact me through my contact information for more information on the subjects specified by labeling, taking into account my professional background in the above article, and to get support for Restaurant ConsultingKitchen Consulting  in the titles within my Service Areas. ***
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The original text, which is accepted as a source, is as follows. Google translation was used for the necessary language change.