• What are the Changes in the Historical Development of Turkish Culinary Culture?
  • What are the Changes in the Historical Development of Turkish Culinary Culture?
  • What are the Changes in the Historical Development of Turkish Culinary Culture?
  • What are the Changes in the Historical Development of Turkish Culinary Culture?
  • What are the Changes in the Historical Development of Turkish Culinary Culture?
  • What are the Changes in the Historical Development of Turkish Culinary Culture?
  • What are the Changes in the Historical Development of Turkish Culinary Culture?
  • What are the Changes in the Historical Development of Turkish Culinary Culture?
  • What are the Changes in the Historical Development of Turkish Culinary Culture?
  • What are the Changes in the Historical Development of Turkish Culinary Culture?

It is also seen today that different societies have different eating and drinking habits. Turks have given importance to nutrition from the moment they started to take place in history, and eating and drinking has always been an important factor in their social lives. For this reason, Turkish..

 
What are the Changes in the Historical Development of Turkish Culinary Culture?
Ozgur KIZILDEMIR* 
Emrah ÖZTÜRK ** 
Mehmet SARIIŞIK***
 
Summary
The Turks, who emerged as a nomadic society on the stage of history, have given great importance to eating and drinking from the past as much as the present. In the developing historical process, the lifestyles of the Turks, the geography they live in and the civilizations they interact with have affected their eating and drinking habits and food cultures. In this context, the aim of the research is to examine the changes in food and culinary cultures and the reasons for these changes since the Turks took their place on the stage of history. 
 
These changes were evaluated within the scope of the geography they lived in, the regions they migrated to, the civilizations and states they interacted with. A literature study was conducted within the framework of the information obtained from the sources written on this subject. The general result of the research is that the cultural richness of the Turks is also effective in the enrichment of the Turkish culinary culture .
 
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The cultural values ​​of a society are as effective in their eating and drinking habits as they are in the lifestyles of societies (Şar, 2013; Tezcan, 2008). Therefore, the eating and drinking habits of a society are affected by the geographical, agricultural and socio-cultural characteristics of the region where it lives, as well as its interaction with other societies (Baysal, 2001).
 
It is also seen today that different societies have different eating and drinking habits. Turks have given importance to nutrition from the moment they started to take place in history, and eating and drinking has always been an important factor in their social lives. For this reason, Turkish administrators considered not leaving their people hungry or bare as a main principle (Talas, 2005).
 
After the Turks came and settled in Central Asia in the Neolithic Age, they settled in the wide steppes of Asia between the Ural and Altay mountains (Doğdubay and Giritlioğlu, 2011:443). 
 
Therefore, the history of Turks before Islam is not limited to Central Asia, but also covers large regions extending to the Caucasus, the north of the Black Sea and even the plains of Hungary (Taşagil, 2013). After the Turks accepted Islam after the 10th century, their contacts with Islamic countries increased, which caused Turks to come to the West, Iran and Anatolia (Mercan, 2003; Yolalıcı, 2008). 
 
In this context, the states established by the Turks before and after Islam can be summarized as follows. Huns (220 BC-216), Tabgaçs (216-394), Avars (394-552), Göktürks (552-745), Uyghurs (745-940), Karakhanids (940-1040), Great Seljuks (1040-1157) ), Anatolian Seljuks (1157-1308), Chagatays (1308-1335), Ilkhanids (1335-1370), Timurids (1370-1447), Ottomans (1447-1922) and finally the Republic of Turkey (1923- ...) ( Eravsar 2008; Kanlidere, 2013).
 
As can be seen above, the Turks, who founded many states in many different geographies from 200 BC to the present, are also very rich in terms of their cultural structure, as they interact with many civilizations. Therefore, this richness is also reflected in eating and drinking habits and culinary cultures (Güler, 2008; Ertaş and Karadağ 2013).
 
Traditional Turkish culinary culture stretched from Central Asia to the 21st century BC, and has been kneaded by the rich product variety of Asian and Anatolian lands and the interaction with other cultures in the historical process, has experienced some changes over time and has survived to the present day. 
 
In this study, the changes and richness of the Turkish cuisine culture , from the nomadic life of the Turks to the first quarter of the 21st century, are discussed. In this context, geographical location change, being affected by other cultures and other factors affecting Turkish cuisine were evaluated. The subject is important in terms of revealing the richness of Turkish cuisine and its sources.
 
1. Turkish Culinary Culture and Nutritional Habits
 
The emergence of the Turks on the stage of history begins in the Central Asian region. The Turks, who adopted the nomadic lifestyle in this region, later reached the Anatolian lands, causing both the enrichment of their culinary culture and some changes in their eating and drinking habits.
 
The influence of the Central Asian Turks, Seljuk and Ottoman Empire periods is great in the formation of Turkish Cuisine. In addition , the civilizations that lived in Turkey have a great influence on the shaping and enrichment of today 's Turkish cuisine (Güler and Olgaç, 2010).
 
At this stage, the structure of Turkish culinary culture can be examined in four periods. Firstly, Central Asian Turkish cuisine, Seljuk cuisine, Ottoman palace cuisine , and finally the cuisine of the Republic Period were examined in this study before and under the influence of Islam .
 
1.1. Central Asian Turkish Cuisine Before Islam
 
After the Turks settled in Central Asia in the Neolithic Age, they chose the steppes between the Ural Mountains and the Altai Mountains as their homeland. Therefore, the equestrian nomadic culture was born and developed here (Sürücüoğlu and Özçelik, 2008).
 
Turks were mostly engaged in agriculture and animal husbandry in the Central Asian region before Islam. Oily pastries made with wheat and wheat flour have come to the fore in the meals. With the influence of the geographical region they live in, the Central Asian Turks, who mainly rely on animal products, used horse, sheep, goat and other cattle meat in their kitchens, in order of importance. Boza, made from millet, is among the first foods of Central Asian Turks. In Central Asian Turks, "game animals" have an important place (Alpargu, 2008: 24; Argilli, 2005; Erdi and Tuğba, 2005: 600).
 
Pastrami and sausage are one of the Turkish foods produced as a necessity of nomadic life. Turks, who discovered the way to preserve meat for a long time, generally consumed foods such as pastrami and sausage, which are almost the same as today, on horseback during migration and expeditions (Bilgin and Samancı, 2008: 18). Although cattle breeding is not very common because Central Asian Turks are difficult to care for and cannot stand nomadic life, cattle breeding always has a place in the culture of Turks (Közleme, 2012: 104).
 
Among the Turks, milk and dairy products had an important place. Especially for Turks dealing with animal husbandry, oil was seen as a basic nutrient. Butter was made from yogurt rather than milk. Apart from butter, tallow and tallow were also used (Ögel, 2000: 14).
 
The main products grown by the Turks, who started to deal with agriculture with the transition from nomadic life to settled life, are wheat, rye, barley and millet. Turks, who saw wheat as a basic food over time, generally made their bread from wheat (Közleme, 2012: 105).
 
On the other hand, the fish hunts described in the Orkhon Monuments and the fishing motifs encountered in our tales show that freshwater fishing was known by the Turks before Anatolia (Çevik, 2014).
 
Central Asian Turks, the main food source of China, and the Turks who learned to grow rice with its influence, have been using it since ancient times (Gürsoy, 2005: 77). In addition, the foods used by the Turks as vegetables are zucchini, beets, leeks, carrots, onions, garlic, turnips, radishes, eggplant, mountain spinach, cucumbers. However, it is also said that Turks were less interested in vegetables at that time. 
 
It is known that Turks also show interest in fruits and nuts. The most commonly used fruits and nuts are products such as plum, apricot, peach, apple, melon, watermelon, peach, buckwheat, mulberry, peanut, pear, grape, hazelnut and walnut. In addition, molasses, vinegar and wine were made from grapes (Alpargu, 2008; Kılıç and Albayrak, 2012). Among the legumes that the Turks call "burçak" and take the name of cowpea when they migrate to the west, there are broad beans, beans, peas, lentils and chickpeas (Gürsoy, 2005: 78).
 
The most commonly used beverage of Central Asian Turks is kumiss. The preparation of kumis is filled with fresh mare's milk and one-third of this milk into a leather bag. This kumis, which is stored in a warm place in a leather bag, is beaten tightly with a stick from the mouth of the bag, and after 12 or 24 hours, kumiss becomes drinkable (Ögel, 2000: 173). It is also mentioned in some sources in Turkish Culture before Islam that in addition to kumiss, some types of cereals were converted into alcohol and consumed by the people, wine was obtained from grapes and drank, and according to Marco Polo, horse blood was eaten and drunk (Gürsoy, 2005: 83).
 
Yogurt has an important place in the old Turkish culture with the effect of nomadic life. It is completely the product of the Turks and has spread to the world with the same name. Yogurt is used in making various dishes. In addition, kurut is a kind of cheese made by drying yoghurt made from sheep's milk. Kurut is a product used as food while going to wars (Gürsoy, 2005: 20; Yılmaz, 2000).
 
Cuisine has always had a place in the tents of Central Asian Turks. In addition, the utensils used in the kitchen are mentioned in the Divanü Lugat'it Türk of Mahmud of Kashgar. These include glass, selçi bik (cook's knife), etlik (meat hook), iwrik (ibrik), tewsi (tray), bucket, hair, skewer, soku (mortar) and susgak (susak); earthenware and wooden items such as jars, bowls, pots, spoons, boats, salt shakers, yasgaç (yasdıgaç); These are kitchen utensils made of leather, such as sanac (vocabulary), cistern (water bag), tagar (vocabulary), tulkuk (tuluk) (Genç, 2008: 4).
 
As in all cultures, culinary culture, climate and environment have taken shape according to religious beliefs. In the traditional Turkish culinary culture , changes in the culinary culture can be mentioned before and under the influence of Islam in Central Asia.
 
With the influence of Islam, it is seen that in the Central Asian Turkish culinary culture , the foods and beverages prohibited by Islam are no longer used in Turkish cuisine . This is the most important phenomenon that shaped the cuisine of this period. With the adoption of Islam, the culinary culture of the Turks continued, but religious prohibitions and the necessity of religion began to be implemented.
 
It should also be noted that among the Turks, after the transition from a nomadic life to a settled life, bread gained importance, especially with the spread of Islam in the region, and took on a sacred nature, so it is considered a sin to waste it and throw it on the ground (Közleme, 2012: 109). 
 
In addition, in relation to the food etiquette, the meal begins with basmala and at the end of the meal, the table prayer has begun (Arat, 1947). Under the influence of Islam, the food and beverages of the Turks, meat dishes, fish dishes, dishes using dairy products, dishes made from wheat and wheat flour, pastries (noodles and vermicelli), tutch, rice dishes, vegetable dishes, millet dishes, grapes, apples, pears, peach, apricot, plum, quince, mulberry, oleaster, peanut, walnut, wines (alcohol), boza, kumiss and sand or honey wine are among the foods and beverages reflected in the sources of this period. 
 
However, since horse blood was considered haram under the influence of Islam, it was abandoned and drinking some drinks (kumis and wine) continued (Aykut, 2004: 466; Altan, 2008: 31). Therefore , we can observe that Turkish cuisine under the influence of Islam forms the main lines of our current culinary culture and some of these cultures continue in Anatolia.
 
1.2. Islamic Period and Seljuk Cuisine
 
The Seljuks, who conquered Anatolia with great difficulties, ensured the formation of a rich culture with the National and Islamic stamp in these lands. Culinary culture is one of the longest-lasting and most important branches of this culture. It is possible to draw a certain photograph from the written sources about the Seljuk culinary culture, which is a continuation of the traditional Turkish cuisine (Közleme, 2012: 114).
 
With the influence of Islamic understanding in Seljuk cuisine, a restriction and simplicity brought about by the use of traditional foodstuffs and avoiding waste are striking (Gürsoy, 2004: 94-112).
 
The Seljuk era has been a turning point in terms of Turkish history, Islamic history and even world history. Turks were getting their food from animals and plants in the Seljuk period, as they do now. Therefore, they were fed with milk, meat, poultry, agricultural plants, wild herbs, trees and fruits of cattle and sheep (Şanlıer et al., 2012: 154).
 
On the other hand, Turkish culinary culture continued to develop with cooking ( cooking techniques ) and preservation techniques as well as food varieties during the Seljuk period . In the Seljuks, there are two meals, called the morning meal and the evening (zevale) meal. Birdwatching is done between morning and noon (Doğdubay and Giritlioğlu, 2011). Fatty and filling meals such as pastries are preferred. At dinner, there is plenty of variety and it is eaten before it gets dark. 
 
It is seen as a symbol of the habit of eating meat, flour and oil during the Seljuk period. Lamb, goat, goat, horse and chicken are the most eaten meat. Birds and fish can be added to these. In the Seljuks, where the offal of the slaughtered animal is consumed a lot, vegetable dishes are not preferred, although they are rare (Gürsoy, 2004: 89; Çetin, 2008; Güler, 2008: 4).
 
Consumption of bread as the main food source with every meal in Seljuk cuisine emerges as a fundamental difference from the old Central Asian Turkish cuisine (Közleme, 2012: 115). In the kitchen of this period, where the old customs continued, a cloth was spread on the floor to prevent the crumbs from spilling on the floor. A base of 40 cm high was placed on it and a tray was placed on it. Wooden spoons were mostly used and juicy dishes were eaten with them. In the kitchen of the period, when eating by hand was not exactly possible, phyllo bread was sometimes used instead of the spoon. 
 
The rules of etiquette are that the elders start the meal first, everyone eats in front of them, it is not welcome for the hands to enter the food, washing the hands before and after the meal, eating the food with the right hand and not leaving any leftovers on the table , starting with "basmala" and ending with "hamd". It can be shown as another proof that the effect exists (Sürücüoğlu, 2008: 69; Genç, 2014).
 
Food and beverages used in Seljuk cuisine are cereals; wheat, barley, rye, maize, rice legumes; beans, lentils, chickpeas vegetables; leek, onion, garlic, spinach, eggplant, pepper, celery, mint, lettuce, poppy, carrot, cucumber, zucchini, cress, radish fruits; quince, pomegranate, apple, pear, peach, grape, mulberry, apricot, fig, melon, watermelon, carob, chestnut, walnut, almond, hazelnut, pistachio, citrus and date spices; saffron, cumin, sesame, sugar, salt dairy products; yogurt, butter, cheese, pastries; we can list them as bread, yufka, bagel, muffin and börek (Tezcan, 1992: 118; Gürsoy, 2004, 90-91; Çetin, 2008; Erdoğan, 2010).
 
The most famous dishes of Seljuk cuisine; Tutç (made with wheat flour and meat), herise (keşkek), kalye (vegetable dish made with eggplant, zucchini and minced meat), borani (made with spinach and rice), tirit (bread chopped into broth), rice, soups ( most importantly tarhana), kebabs (shish kebab), stew, kelle-paça, slurry (cooked with flour, sugar and oil), pastrami, fish and game dishes (Tebardar et al., 1998: 145; Tezcan, 2000: 23). ; Merçil, 2000: 146; Gürsoy, 2004: 93).
 
The most consumed desserts during this period are; Gülbeşeker (made with rose, honey, lemon), processed sugar (almond sugar), halva (prepared with sugar, oil and peanuts), molasses, honey and paluze (a jelly made with starch and sugar and eaten cold) are mentioned in the sources (Merçil, 2000). , Şahin, 2008: 50). The most consumed beverages of the Seljuk period are; wine, kumiss, boza, sherbet, ayran and compote (Oral, 1957; Çetin, 2008).
 
The main kitchen utensils used in the Seljuk period; knife, fork, spoon, ladle, sine-tray, bowl, bowl, pot - cauldron, mortar, broiler (hook for hanging meat), casserole, jug, jar, jug, pitcher, mug, right - goblet, thirsty, plate, vessel , sieve and sieve (Erdoğan, 2010; Doğdubay and Giritlioğlu, 2011).
 
Seljuk cuisine has become quite rich by passing through the selective sieve of Islam religion, both its tradition and the advantages that Anatolia has brought them. 
 
As a continuation of the nomadic tradition, meat, milk and dairy products, which have been widely consumed among the Turks since ancient times, as well as cereal and bakery products, dishes obtained from different types of vegetables, a very rich fruit culture, desserts, sherbets, pickles formed the main ingredients of the cuisine of the period (Şahin). , 2008; Közleme, 2012: 125).
 
1.2. Ottoman kitchen
 
XII. Seljuk Turks came to Anatolia. Turkish cuisine , which started to emerge after the XIV. and XV. Developed in the century, XVI. And XVII. It has taken its place among the few cuisines of the world by specializing in palaces and mansions during the Ottoman period in the centuries (Sürücüoğlu and Özçelik, 2008: 1302). 
 
Thus, during the Ottoman Empire, Turkish Cuisine culture was further developed and lived its most glorious eras. At that time, foreign statesmen who came to visit the Ottomans were greatly influenced by the Turkish food they ate and sent them to Turkish cooks to train them (Şanlıer et al., 2012: 154).
 
The fact that Turkish culinary culture is one of the richest cuisines in the world has been effective both because of its antiquity and the multinational nature of the Ottoman Empire (Toygar, 1993). And also; Cooks competed with each other in order to produce dishes that would please the sultan and to make the feasts given in the palaces more spectacular ( Ertaş and Karadağ 2013). Thus , Ottoman cuisine , together with Chinese and French cuisines, constituted one of the first three cuisines in the world (Belge, 2000: 141). Four basic elements that affect the formation of Ottoman cuisine can be listed. 
 
The first of these is the cuisine based on meat and dairy products in Central Asia, the second is the influence of Arab and Iranian cultures, the third is the influence of the products grown in Anatolia and the local cultures (Roman, Byzantine) in these lands, and the last is the influence of Islamic culture (Bilgin, 2008).
 
The rich Ottoman cuisine is divided into palace cuisine and public cuisine (Güler, 2008). Palace cuisine was the pinnacle of Ottoman cuisine in terms of organization, delicacy, diversity and nutritional culture (Közleme, 2012: 131). In addition, they are flamboyant tables prepared for the Sultan, Valide Sultan and the people of Divan. In order to feed the crowded palace environment, the cooks invented new dishes. 
 
With a staff of up to 1200, they tried to meet not only the palace surroundings but also the food needs of the guests (Yılmaz 2002). It is possible to come across desserts such as baklava, kadayif, zerde, pudding, zülbiye, lokma and folkcici in the Ottoman palace cuisine culture . Again in the halvahane , jams of all the fruits known at that time were made. In addition to these, dozens of pastes such as cranberry, quince, mesir, deva-i musk and cevariş were among the other desserts of the palace (Gürsoy, 2004: 98-100). The drinks in the palace consisted only of water, lemon juice (ab-ı Limon), boza, coffee, compote and sherbet. 
 
Since there are no alcoholic beverages, a very rich compote and sherbet culture has emerged (Bilgin, 2008).
 
Ottoman palace cuisine started to develop from the 15th century (Yerasimos, 2005). Especially with the conquest of Istanbul by Fatih Sultan Mehmet in 1453, there were great changes in the Ottoman meals in the palace. The consumption of seafood has increased considerably during this period. Again in this period, the rules of eating were started to be applied for the first time in the Ottomans with the Fatih Law (Güler, 2008:5).
 
Table 1. Ingredients Consumed in Fatih Sultan Mehmet's Palace Kitchen
 

food type

Food

Legumes and Grains

Bulgur, rice, flour, lentils, wheat starch, chickpeas

Vegetables

Leek, cabbage, spinach, chard, turnip, cucumber, onion

oils

Olive oil, lard, clarified butter

Herbs and Spices

Musk, saffron, olive, parsley, mustard, garlic, coriander, mint, cumin, Wallachian salt, gum, vinegar, fulful (black pepper), cinnamon, clove, anber

animal foods

Eggs, chicken, cheese, milk, yogurt, cream, oysters, shrimp, trotters, goose, beef tripe, honey, game birds, fish

 
Source: Güler Sibel, (2010), Turkish Culinary Culture and Eating and Drinking Habits, Dumlupınar University Journal of Social Sciences, 26, 24- 30.
 
In folk food culture, there are no great differences in the eating habits of mansions, soup kitchens, soup kitchens and the palace in the army. Two times a day, men and women eat separately. In the mansions, there are no interior boys (waiters) who carry the food from the kitchen to the table, but instead there are cooks (Yerasimos, 2005: 41).
 
The most consumed legumes and cereals in Ottoman cuisine are bulgur, rice, flour, lentils, wheat starch, chickpeas; vegetables leek, cabbage, spinach, chard, turnip, cucumber, onion; oils olive oil, lard, clarified butter; herbs and spices, musk, saffron, olive, parsley, mustard, garlic, coriander, mint, cumin, Wallachian salt, gum, vinegar, fulfful (black pepper), cinnamon, cloves, anber; Animal foods can be listed as eggs, chicken, cheese, milk, yogurt, cream, oysters, shrimp, trotters, goose, beef tripe, honey, game birds, fish (Faroqhi, 2006: 38).
 
Since the 17th century, the consumption of products such as oranges, tangerines, bananas, pineapples and tomatoes, which were never seen in Ottoman kitchens, began to become widespread. The reason for the spread of these products can be shown as the increase in trade relations with Europe (Samancı, 2008). In this context, in the 19th century, with the increase of Western influence, meals began to be eaten using tables and chairs. However, pork, the symbol of the West, never entered the Ottoman cuisine (Gürsoy, 2004: 137).
 
In the Ottoman Empire, those who were going to eat would either sit cross-legged with their right knees upright and their left knees bent, or they would sit with their feet under the sink. There would be neither a cover nor a cutlery on the sink (Yar, 2008;6). Except for the banquets given to the representatives of foreign states, luxury and ostentatiousness were generally avoided at the tables. Meal time was short. Gold, silver and porcelain plates were also used in the palace. But these were only on the tables of the elite (Bilgin, 2008).
 
In Ottoman table manners, appetizing food was placed on small plates filled with spoons, pieces of bread, salad, olives, jams and various pickles on the tray before the main dishes were served. Since water was not drunk during the meal, a water set was not used, and sherbet or compote was drunk after the meal. After the meals were served in the middle of the pan in covered pans, the lids were opened and everyone ate from these pans. The meals were varied and would come to the table one after the other without a break. Only two or three spoons of these meals were taken and the next was passed. After the meal, which was usually eaten without speaking, the trays and pans were removed and the hands were washed (Ak, 2007: 5).
 
Some unwelcome rules are mentioned in Ottoman table manners (Bey, 1995: 276):
 
* Sitting before the host, getting up before him,
* Starting the meal before the host,
* To take bread and food in big bites,
* Putting the spoon into the mouth while eating,
* Collecting small pieces of bread with his hands at dinner,
* Looking into the eyes of this and that without stopping at the table,
* Reaching for the food even though everyone has withdrawn from the food,
* Making noise with your mouth while drinking coffee,
* Drink the water very quickly, drink the sherbet until the end.
 
In the Ottoman Empire, very extravagant feasts were given in Ramadan, weddings and other celebrations. Depending on the season, menus consisting of soups, kebabs, meatballs and rice varieties, baklava, lokma, kadaif and milk desserts were presented at the banquets (Ciğerim, 2001). These celebrations were generally not reserved for the courtiers within the city walls seen in Europe of the period, but were held in public squares, when the palace and the people mingled (Közleme, 2012). Again, apart from these special days and celebrations in the Ottoman Empire, there are also different types of tables such as family tables, guest tables, collective dinner tables, numbered day tables, wedding and circumcision tables, Ramadan tables, Muharram tables, Turkish bath tables, palace tables (Araz, 2009). ).
 
As a result, from the end of the 17th century, a new cuisine, especially the one we know today as Ottoman cuisine, began to emerge. This cuisine developed during the 18th century as a synthesis of new cultural contributions and new economic conditions. Since the second half of this century, it has been under the influence of products from the New World. Some of them, especially tomatoes and green peppers, were completely adopted, and products such as potatoes or corn were partially adopted at first. 
 
Ottoman cuisine, which was in the process of change and development, was opened to Western influences starting from the 19th century. The creativity of a city with a population of seven hundred thousand in the 18th century has left behind many of its old habits that carry Ancient, Persian and Arab influences (except for Islam) in order to reach a new synthesis, starting from economic imperatives and multiculturalism (Yerasimos, 2005: 51).
 
1.4. Republic Period Cuisine
 
It would be appropriate to examine the cuisine of the Republic basically in two parts. The first of these is Istanbul cuisine , and the second is Anatolian cuisine . We can understand that Istanbul has a multinational culture by being the capital of important states throughout history. In this context, this diversity of Istanbul has also been reflected in its culinary culture and has become the reason for its richness.
As the main features of Istanbul cuisine , the meals that come to the table are both satisfying and light, and also appeal to the eye. 
 
A wide variety of food products are available to Istanbul, which is a large commercial center (Ünsal, 2003: 130). Istanbul cuisine, which carries traces of the Ottoman legacy and migrations from all over Anatolia, continues to influence the whole country and even neighboring countries as a perfect city model (Közleme, 2012: 164).
 
Turkish Cuisine Chefs, Turkish Chef, Restaurant Consultancy, Kitchen Consultancy.
 
In Anatolian cuisine, on the other hand, we see that there is a very rich cuisine in terms of table setting, cooking methods, food prepared for winter. In other words, it is not possible to talk about a homogeneous culinary culture (Halıcı, 1973). Anatolian culinary culture and understanding of food form the folk cuisine. Folk cuisine can also be divided into urban and rural areas. Table manners in rural areas still continue on the floor. However, in the city parts, meals are consumed on the table.
 
There is a Turkish cuisine still living in Anatolia today . Products such as lentils, bulgur, kebab, stew, ayran, yufka, roasting, tutac, katmer, halva, pilaf, zerde, baklava and börek are proof that the foods of the old Turkish cuisine are still used (Gökay, 1973). Anatolian cuisine also differs according to the regions, but with the westernization movement, the spread of fast food products could not be prevented. 
 
In addition, eating habits that used to be two meals have reached three meals today. The use of animal fats has now decreased due to health concerns, and more sunflower, margarine and olive oil are used.
 
Some foods that are the symbols of Anatolian cuisine and that are consumed a lot, doner kebab, pide, lahmacun, simit, pancake, börek, wrap, meatballs, stew, tandoori, kebabs, fish varieties, pastrami, sausage, various cheeses, olives and some offal are consumed in abundance in our country. . It is possible to see all the fruits and vegetables used in the world in Anatolian cuisine. As for legumes, lentils, chickpeas and rice are the most famous ones. Soup varieties, lentils, ezogelin, tarhana, tripe, salting and tomato soups, which are also found in Anatolia, are consumed throughout the country. 
 
The variety of desserts increased in this period, and pudding, baklava, kadayif, rice pudding, tulumba, lokma, Turkish delight, fresh cake and various cookies are among the products that are consumed a lot in our country. Ayran is one of the main products consumed as a beverage. However, with the effect of globalization, the production of beverages such as cola and alcoholic products has been released, and beverages such as raki, wine, beer, vodka, cognac and gin are consumed. 
 
In addition, seafood, red meat and white meat are among the products consumed according to the regions in our country. Pork meat is not consumed by the people of the country with Islamic influence, but it is offered to the tourists in some businesses in terms of the tourism potential of the country.
 
When the food consumption situation according to the regions in our country is examined, it is obtained from the studies based on the 1994 Household Consumption Expenditure and Income Distribution Survey. Accordingly (Ertaş and Karadağ 2013);
 
* The highest fruit consumption is in the Aegean region,
* Yogurt consumption is higher than milk consumption in Southeastern Anatolia region,
* The highest fish consumption is in the Black Sea region,
* The lowest fish consumption is in the Southeastern Anatolia region,
* Poultry consumption is higher than mutton and lamb consumption only in the Aegean Region,
* Poultry consumption and fish consumption percentages are equal in Central Anatolia and Eastern Anatolia regions.
* In Southeast and East Anatolia regions, hot drinks (especially tea) are consumed more than cola consumption,
* The highest cola consumption is in the Mediterranean region,
* Fruit juice consumption was lower than hot beverage consumption in all regions. 
 
1.5. Features of Turkish Cuisine
 
Turkish cuisine has a rich structure and has some unique features. In this context , the general characteristics of Turkish cuisine can be listed as follows (Arlı, 1982; Doğdubay and Giritlioğlu, 2011:446):
 
* Turkish food is generally based on agricultural and animal products 
* Our meals vary according to the geographical regions where our people live.
* Turkish cuisine also changes according to the social structure in its historical development.
* Turkish dishes vary according to special days and ceremonies.
* Traditions and customs and religious beliefs have affected the food types.
* Habits play an important role in Turkish cuisine,
* Bread has a very important place,
* Butter, tallow, tail fat, olive oil are used in significant amounts especially in the Aegean region,
* Although there are many types of food, pastries come first.
* The place of bulgur is important,
* Yogurt is very important in Turkish cuisine,
* Although there are various kebabs, there are juicy meat dishes called stews,
* Onion is used in the preparation of meals, as well as as a salad material,
* Although there are many types of vegetables, it is common to cook meat with onions, tomato paste or tomatoes.
* It is common to use spices, herbs such as parsley, dill and mint in meals,
* In Turkish cuisine, much importance is not given to decoration in meals.
* Care is taken to ensure that the food is more delicious than it looks. However, recently, the art of plate decoration and painting has just begun to develop.
* The use of sauce is not included in Turkish cuisine. Instead of sauce, tomato paste and food's own juices are used.
* In Turkish cuisine, meals are flavored with fruit or dried fruit, often these fruits are cooked in oil and consumed as a meal,
* Molasses is used as a sweetener in desserts.
 
As it is seen, it is revealed that Turkish culinary culture has undergone changes and developments depending on many influences, from the time the Turks first appeared on the stage of history to the present day. As a result of all these effects and changes, Turkish cuisine, which has a rich structure, has also affected the eating and drinking habits of many nations with its own characteristics.
 
3. Factors Affecting the Formation of Turkish Culinary Culture
 
It is seen that the changes experienced by the Turkish cuisine from the past to the present are caused by various reasons and the changes continue. While examining the eating and drinking habits of Turks, it is seen that the following factors are effective (Güler, 2010:26):
 
* Agricultural Structure and the Impact of Nomadic Culture
* Impact of Other Societies
* Differentiation by Socio-Economic Level
* Behavior Patterns in Turks
* Diversity of Dishes According to Regions
* Collective Eating Tradition
 
In addition to these mentioned effects, factors such as geographical discoveries, the effect of today's mass media and the development of the food industry have also been effective in the change and development of Turkish cuisine culture.
 
Results
 
The environment in which societies live has a very important effect on the nutrition culture. Trade, wars, migrations and technological developments have been very effective in the spread and recognition of new food varieties. This interaction has also led to changes in the food cultures of societies (Güler, 2007:22). Therefore, in the formation of the food culture of the Turks in general, the Turks' sedentary life, their acceptance of Islam and their coming to Anatolia play an active role. In these basic processes, it is seen that there are changes in the eating and drinking cultures of the Turks.
 
First of all, the transition of Turks from a nomadic life to a settled life caused them to meet grain and plants other than animal products. On the other hand, they settled around these plants they needed and learned to produce them.
 
The Turks, who converted to Islam, tried to stay away from the food and drinks that the religion forbade. In particular, they abandoned eating horse, donkey and pork meat, drinking kumiss and wine under the influence of Islam. On the other hand, Turks who converted to Islam were influenced by Arab culture and eating and drinking habits. Thus, many foods and beverages belonging to the Arab culture have also taken their place in the Turkish culinary culture.
 
When the Turks started to make Anatolia their home, especially during the Seljuk state, they combined the eating and drinking habits they brought from Central Asia with the rich culture of Anatolia, thus ensuring the enrichment of Turkish cuisine.
 
Meat and fermented dairy products of the Central Asian nomadic people, grains grown in Mesopotamia, vegetables, fruits and seafood from the Mediterranean environment, combined with the spice of South Asia, resulted in a rich Turkish food culture (Şanlıer et al., 2012). Therefore, Turkish cuisine has had the privilege of having the breezes of steppe culture on the one hand and the favorable diversity of the Mediterranean geography on the other hand. 
 
Accordingly, taking the useful elements and synthesizing them without losing some of the old habits that are still useful and creating new products is the main reason why Turkish cuisine has a place different from other cuisines and a well-deserved reputation (Talas, 2005).
 
Today, Turkish cuisine, which gives rich examples in every branch of culinary art; It is one of the three cuisines of the world, together with French and Chinese cuisines, with its cooking techniques, table setting, and unique serving styles (Sürücüoğlu and Özçelik, 2008). In this context, the Turkish society, which covers many different areas and spread over a wide geography, has a very rich culture due to its long historical past. 
 
Therefore, there is a rich culinary culture within this rich culture. This rich culinary culture has come about as a result of the immigration that started from Central Asia and continued until it came to Anatolia, being the heirs of the conquered countries (Albayrak, 2013). This shows that the rich culinary culture is the result of a rich cultural accumulation and interactions with other societies.
 
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As the head chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR, I see the source:
Mr. Özgür KIZILDEMİR*, Emrah ÖZTÜRK **, "What are the Changes in the Historical Development of Turkish Culinary Culture?" on Mehmet SARIIŞIK***. I sincerely thank him for his academic work and wish him success in his professional life. It will definitely be considered as an example by those who need it in professional kitchens and the culinary community.
 
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