• How is Culinary Education Given?
  • How is Culinary Education Given?
  • How is Culinary Education Given?
  • How is Culinary Education Given?
  • How is Culinary Education Given?

When the literature is examined, many definitions related to education are encountered. Education in its most basic and simple definition; It is all of the studies aimed at improving the individual.4 According to another definition, education; It is defined as “the activity of helping new generations..

How is Culinary Education Given?How is Culinary Education Given?
Basic Concepts of Education, Vocational Education and Cookery Education...
A General Approach to Education
Today, knowledge has become one of the most important building blocks. In addition to the ease of access to information as a result of the development of technology, the rapid aging of the learned information brings educated individuals who know what, where and how to research to the fore. In the information society, the wealth of countries is measured by the capacity of trained people to interpret and provide information. In this type of society, education appears at every stage of life. 
Education, which is defined as an individual's self-development process, is a process that continues from birth to death. The self-educated person has become the symbol of society in every imaginable field, both in daily life and in the scientific field. For this reason, education, in its simplest terms, can be defined as the process of raising this manpower in the required quality and quantity.2 Education is the first step in renewing people and adapting to innovations.
Today, developments in science and technology are rapidly turning industrial societies into information societies. This is one of the important changes affecting production in terms of societies. Education is of strategic importance for individuals/workforce, organizations and societies.3
When the literature is examined, many definitions related to education are encountered. Education in its most basic and simple definition; It is all of the studies aimed at improving the individual.4 According to another definition, education; It is defined as “the activity of helping new generations to acquire the necessary knowledge, skills and understanding and to develop their personality in order to prepare them for social life”5. 
When considered from a different perspective; It is defined as “the most effective tool that increases the creative power and efficiency of the society, provides the training of personnel with the required quality and quantity for the realization of the development effort, and gives the opportunity to grow up according to the abilities of the people in the society”6. When these definitions, which more or less overlap with each other, are examined carefully, the definition of education gathers around two points; broad meaning of education and narrow meaning of education. Education in a broad sense; It can be defined as “all the changes that an individual brings about in his/her knowledge, skills and behaviors from his/her birth to his/her death through all the information he/she has obtained from his/her family, education life and workplace or by improving himself/herself”7.
Education; It starts with the family, continues with the social environment, and continues throughout life, including the school period and working life.
Education in the narrow sense; It is possible to define it as planned programs designed to increase performance and productivity at the individual workforce, group and organizational level.8
Training programs applied to the individual and the workforce provide some benefits to both the organization and the employee. Employees increase their self-confidence and gain economic independence by doing their job more effectively and easily thanks to the training programs. In addition, training programs increase the learning speed and effectiveness of employees.
Although training programs are seen as a costly activity for some organizations, the most important and major investment for the organization is the investment made in education, considering the returns it will bring.
Education is seen as one of the factors that increase service quality. The increase in service quality will ensure both the success of the organization and the increase in its market share. This is only possible with trained and qualified employees.9
When the education system is examined, it is seen that it is divided into two sub-headings in terms of delivery and implementation. In this distinction shown in Figure 6, the sub-headings encountered as formal and non-formal education are examined in detail in the next section.
Figure 6: The Place of Formal and Non-Formal Education in the Education System
Formal within the Education System
Source: Aynur Ataklı, “Education and Professional Success”, Journal of Productivity, MPM (National Productivity Center), Issue: 1992/1, Mert Printing, Ankara, 1992, p. 5.
Formal Education
Formal education; It can be defined as regular education held under the roof of a school, with programs prepared for a certain purpose and for individuals in a certain age group and close to each other. Formal education within the Turkish Education System; includes pre-school education, primary education, secondary education and higher education.10
The purpose of formal education; It is the development of the basic behaviors needed for the individuals who make up the society to live harmoniously. It is possible to divide formal education into two sub-headings, namely general and vocational education.11
General education
General education; It is a form of education given to individuals who have never participated in the formal education system or are at any level or have left one of these levels.12
As a result of the division of the education system into two sub-systems, formal and widespread, one of the biggest problems encountered in the country is that formal education is accepted as the basic education system and non-formal education is pushed into the background. In fact, when the benefits of non-formal education are reviewed; It is seen that it has many positive effects such as causing branching and specialization in occupational groups, providing the opportunity to follow technological developments more closely, and providing new opportunities to the idle workforce.13
 Objectives of Education
It is possible to consider the aims of education from two perspectives. The first of these is the aims of education in terms of society and the second in terms of organization/workforce. When examined from a social point of view, it is possible to list the titles of education as follows.14
* Gain communication competence to the individual so that he can express his feelings, thoughts and problems,
* Gaining the ability and competence of cooperation so that the individual can establish and develop positive relations with other individuals,
* To provide the individual with learning and research competence,
* To give the individual the ability to live a healthy life so that he can take care of himself,
* To provide the individual with the ability to choose a profession and to carry out his profession successfully.
* The most basic purpose of education in terms of organization and workforce; It is to create knowledge, skills and behavior change that will be beneficial for both. Other purposes can be listed as follows.15
* To inform the workforce about the changes and developments in science and technology,
* To increase the knowledge and skills of the workforce in line with the objectives of the organization, to provide an opportunity for promotion within the organization,
* To adapt the new workforce to both the job and their colleagues,
* By providing discipline in the organization, preventing conflicts between individuals and reducing absenteeism,
* Increasing the morale of the workforce and providing motivation,
* To ensure cooperation and coordination between the other employees and the individual, * To develop the problem-solving skills of the individual,
* Strengthening the organizational culture,
* To make the workforce prone to service,
* To encourage group work,
* To increase the quality and quantity of production and service.
The individual adds value to the society he lives in to the extent of the education he receives. The positive picture in economic, social and cultural indicators in societies consisting of individuals with a high level of education are the best examples of development and improvement. For this reason, it can be said that the most basic purpose of education is to provide individual and social development.
Importance of Education and Development Process
The 21st century is a period in which many changes are experienced and concepts are reshaped. In the process of social development, which started with the agricultural society, shaped by the industrial society, and then reached a different dimension with the information society, education, like many concepts and understandings, went through a series of changes.
B.C. With the discovery of agriculture in the 8000s and the transition to settled life, the social development process gained the characteristic of an agricultural society from a primitive society self. The driving force of agricultural society has been soil. The use of plows and windmills brought muscle power and labor to the fore as the basic production factors of the agricultural society.16
When it comes to the years 1750 - 1765, this process started to follow a very different course. The emergence and increasing effects of industrialization movements in England caused this change to spread to other European countries. Two important technological developments led to this period called industrial society. The first of these; It is the invention of the steam engine, which enables the use of steam power in many different areas of the economy such as transportation and mining. Another technological development is; is the use of electrical energy. While the driving force of the agricultural society was the land, the driving force of the industrial revolution was the machines. The basic element of industrial society is the workforce.17
By the last quarter of the 20th century, it was seen that many changes were experienced in social, social, economic and technological fields. The rapid development of information and communication technologies in the last 20-30 years has radically affected the social structure. 
Since this period, the focus of social development has been knowledge and educated/informed people. The main element of this new period of social development called the information society, unlike the industrial society, is brain power. Mental work, which requires a certain level of education, has taken the place of physical work in industrial society. In the information society, knowledge and educated workforce are considered among the most important elements of the country's economy. 
Toffler called all these stages of social change “waves of change”. According to Toffler; The agricultural society is the 1st Wave Period, which gets rid of the primitive self and ascends to the next level. The industrial society constitutes the 2nd Wave Period and the information society constitutes the 3rd Wave Period.18 Table 1 shows the social change process experienced in the world.
Table 1: Social Change Process
How is Culinary Education Given?
Source: Recep Altın, “New Approaches in Vocational Education and Training in Turkey”, International Conference on Challenges Awaiting Vocational Education and Training in Turkey in Terms of the EU Copenhagen Process and Maasricht Declaration, Ministry of National Education's Vocational Education and Training System Strengthening Project, (MEGEP) Ankara, 2005, p.2.
The globalization trends that emerged as a result of rapid changes in social, economic, technological and cultural fields after the second half of the 1980s created an environment in which the information that needs to be learned for the individuals of the society changes rapidly. As in every field, there is a rapid globalization process in education. In the 21st century, in other words, in the education understanding of the information society, while the education of the individual is at the forefront, the positive development of living conditions and the increase in life expectancy and quality have made many issues such as vocational education and lifelong education a priority in this century.
It is possible to collect the changes created by the information society and globalization on education and their effects under the following headings.19
* The Individual Type Required by Today's Living Conditions: As a result of the social change process, the individual type targeted by the information society has changed. This type of individual is 20
- Adaptable to technological innovations and developments, constantly renewing itself,
-computer literate,
Having the ability to comprehend the social effects of technological innovations and developments,
- Ability to communicate in at least one foreign language, both verbal and written,
-A person who has the ability to work in a group and interdisciplinary.
* Changes in the Structures of Education Systems: In today's world where competition is at the highest level, conditions force individuals to be stronger and more equipped. It is the education systems that will prepare individuals for these difficult environments. Changes that make themselves felt in all areas of society also affect education systems. All over the world, education is spreading towards older age groups and changing shape. Considering the new conditions, the education of the individual continues throughout his life. In addition to lifelong education, vocational education and continuing education are the new educational structures that come to the fore.
* Changes in Education Methods: The changes experienced change the education systems as well as the education methods applied. Four principles are mentioned in the education of the information society:
-Knowing how to learn
-Learning to learn,
-Learning individually,
-Learning together (learning as a team and as an organization)
Success in the 21st century will be achieved with an educated workforce. For this reason, education, education systems and structures should be arranged according to the requirements of the age. In the industrial society, education was seen only as a school, and the school was perceived as an institution producing factory type. 
There is teacher-centered teaching in the educational understanding of the industrial society. However, the situation is different in the information society. Because the understanding of education in the information society is based on student-centered learning. In this understanding, the student assumes the role of active learner. Again, in the new understanding of education, education is not limited only within the school. While educational opportunities are provided outside of school, learning can also take place through out-of-school experts.22
Table 2: Future Needs in Education
How is Culinary Education Given?
Source: Mehmet Metin Arslan and Levent Eraslan, “New Education Paradigm and Transformation in Turkish Education System”, Journal of National Education, Issue:160, Fall 2003, p. 3.
In the information society, individuals with the qualifications required by the age come to the fore at all levels of education, starting from pre-school education to higher education. In developed countries, higher education gains more importance than other education levels, and this turns higher education institutions into the focal point of knowledge production.
As the level of education increases in a country, the economic and social indicators of that country also increase. In other words, educated people strengthen the economy while shaping society. It is the symbol of society. The positive impact that education will have on the individual first, and then the synergy effect will be reflected to the society.
It is possible to list the benefits of education to society as follows23: 
* Affects social development.
* Provides equal opportunity and social mobility/mobility.
* Creates a skilled workforce with the features that society needs.
21st century, especially in terms of education; It emphasizes subjects such as foreign language and cultural knowledge, lifelong learning, learner-centered education. The importance that a society attaches to education, in other words to raising people, is measured by the extent to which the population of education age (5-24 years old is accepted) benefits from education services. This rate, also called the general schooling rate; It increases as the education level of the society rises and decreases in the opposite case. 
The general enrollment rate where the ceiling value is accepted as 100%; It is found by dividing the student population in the education age to the population in the education age. It can be explained as follows: In the agricultural society, a small part of the population is included in the education system, since the education of individuals is not given much importance. As society develops; knowledge, education and expertise gain importance, which increases the proportion of the population in the education system.24
Countries like Turkey with a literacy rate below a certain level, crowded population, and low schooling rate will have the chance to participate in the race to become an information society by giving priority to lifelong and continuous vocational education. The 21st century requires fierce competition in education, as in every field.
A General Approach to Vocational Education
While the rapid changes in the field of science and technology and the aggravation of competition conditions change the social structure, they also affect the education systems directly and indirectly. In line with the changing conditions, the requirements of the age push individuals to be more equipped. Individuals who are educated, produce solutions to the problems they encounter in the sector, and can closely follow the professional, technical and sectoral changes of the age will be preferred people in terms of the development of both organizations and societies. The changing understanding of education brings professional skills and competencies to the fore. Vocational education, continuing education or lifelong education are among the basic education concepts of this century.
Vocational Education
Education is one of the basic tools of social development. While the experienced change transforms societies that fulfill the requirements of the age into information societies, knowledge production is one of the most important issues. The strategic importance of information increases the competitiveness of individuals who produce and use information. The training of professionally qualified individuals is in parallel with the effectiveness of vocational education systems.
In the most general sense, vocational training is the process of adaptation between the job and the individual. Contemporary vocational education is in an effort to constantly change and renew itself.25
vocational training; It is also possible to define it as a type of education that provides an individual with knowledge, skills and work habits in business life, and develops the individual's abilities and competencies. Vocational education consists of different steps. 
First stage; It is the pre-vocational training phase, which is an orientation that is applied before the basic vocational education in order to ensure the individual-professional harmony and to recognize the professional interests, abilities and business life of the individual. This type of vocational training is an application for the purpose of informing individuals who have not yet gained a qualification in any profession, in a simple level, in a professional sense. 
The pre-vocational education stage is followed by the basic vocational education stage. Basic vocational training; It is a type of vocational education aimed at gaining the basic knowledge, skills and habits necessary for an individual to enter a certain profession in business life.26 The next step of the basic vocational education type is the application of advanced vocational education. Further vocational education is a type of vocational education that provides individuals with basic vocational education to gain advanced expertise. The purpose of this type of vocational training is to learn by following the innovations in the profession, to develop the profession and to shift to the sub-branches of the profession. In other words, it is specialization.27
In developed countries, three different vocational education structures stand out. These structures can be listed as follows.
* Structure Based on Apprenticeship: Those who have completed basic vocational training can participate in apprenticeship training. It is the provision of vocational training services to working individuals who have been excluded from the formal education system. In this structure, practical training is given in the workplace and theoretical training is given in vocational training centers.
* Structuring Based on Vocational Schools: In many countries, the task of educating individuals professionally has been given to vocational schools.
* Mixed (Dual) Structure: This structure is the result of the other two structures.
Table 3: Changes in Vocational Education in the 21st Century
Culinary Education
Source: Philip Read, “Basic Barriers in Transition from Secondary Education to Higher Education in Vocational and Technical Education and Alternative Suggestions for Solution”, International Conference on Challenges Awaiting Vocational Education and Training in Turkey in Terms of the EU Copenhagen Process and the Maasricht Declaration, Ministry of National Education Strengthening the Vocational Education and Training System Project, (MEGEP), Ankara, 2005, p.3.
It is possible to list the features that the vocational education system should have in the 21st century information society as follows:29
* The vocational education system should be comprehensive and easily accessible,
* The qualifications of the programs in the vocational education system should be improved, besides these programs should be open, flexible and student-centered,
* It should be aimed at preparing individuals for business life,
* Close relations with all fields of education should be developed, * An innovative approach should be followed in vocational education, * It should cover non-formal education areas,
* To prepare individuals for possible career changes,
* Technology-based education and training should be developed and the vocational education system should be equipped with new technological opportunities,
* A quality assurance system should be established in order to develop qualifications and ensure standards in the vocational education system.
* The points to be considered while ensuring the adaptation of vocational education to new approaches are as follows:
* Preparation of vocational education and training programs in accordance with international standards,
* Considering not only the supply but also the supply-demand balance while creating the vocational education system,
* Establishing a vocational education system based on national qualifications, * Ensuring labor market flexibility and employee mobility, * Providing life-long education opportunities,
* Increasing efficiency and performance,
* Preparation of the infrastructure for the transition to 12-year compulsory education.
Changes in vocational education seem to be an extension of the new education approach. The understanding of 21st century vocational education is shaped in line with the demands coming from the society and the sector. In the traditional understanding, in the education and training system, individuals could continue their education processes as a result of a number of exams, and the understanding of education was shaped only on the education of these individuals. As stated earlier, education follows a student-oriented approach in the 21st century vocational education approach, as in the changes in the understanding of education. 
In this new understanding, it is not possible to separate education and training from each other. Today, even if the individual has left the education and training system in some way, he can be included in the system again (lifelong education, etc.) with different vocational education programs and practices.
Objectives of Vocational Education
In a world where scientific and technological transformations are experienced rapidly, it may be possible to call the education of the age as a kind of vocational education. The basis of today's understanding of education is the idea of ​​"education for all". For this reason, the understanding of vocational education should have some qualifications. These are 31
* Continuous compliance with applications and developments,
* Covering as many disciplines as possible
* Being oriented towards society,
* Providing a real professional life environment,
* Continuity,
* Being dependent on time and form of need,
* Ensuring the supply-demand balance,
* Being goal oriented
* They are qualities such as being prepared for life. Vocational education is based on three main objectives:32
* To provide an appropriate professional learning environment for the individual,
* Developing professional skills,
* To create the desired professional behavior.
The basic condition for the creation of a skilled workforce, which is one of the important stages of the transition to the information society, is to provide individuals with an education in formal and non-formal education institutions, with an approach based on lifelong learning, in which they can adapt to international competition conditions.33
A General Approach to Professional Cookery Education
The kitchen is a sector whose basic element is human and produces in a labor-intensive manner. Today, developments in many areas, including social, economic and technological, encourage many people around the world to travel from one place to another, and therefore to take part in tourism movements. The people involved in these tourism movements are also involved in the act of eating and drinking, as well as the act of accommodation. The aggravation of competitive conditions brings to the fore the workforce that has received culinary education and can produce solutions to the problems they encounter in the sector or business.
Professional Cookery Training
It is a known and accepted fact that the way to productivity is through education. However, simply knowing and accepting this is certainly not enough. The most important thing is to put the subject into practice. Education and productivity are closely related. Therefore, only a person who has learned the necessary professional skills in the field of work will be able to use his time optimally and the tools and equipment he uses efficiently.
Education; In addition to providing people with knowledge and skills, it also instills a certain point of view. From the point of view, it is necessary to understand the phenomenon of mentality in a broad sense. This is the methods, habits, beliefs, behaviors of people in using their minds and their moods that determine all these. On the other hand, education is a process that people live in for a lifetime. Here, vocational education can be defined as follows. “It is the whole of the work done to prepare the non-specialized or semi-specialized workforce for tasks that require expertise and of a special nature.”34
Since tourism is a branch of activity, its content and features, like all other professions, must be taught within the scope of an appropriate curriculum. The most important feature that distinguishes tourism from other professions is that it is a "social phenomenon". Tourism education is “to place tourism awareness in the society, to develop awareness by protecting tourism resources, to give equal and honest service to the tourist without discrimination according to his/her economic power, race, nationality, religion, language, status in society, moral and honor level, and to give the morality and discipline of tourism. It can be defined as establishing an order of behavior based on respect and hospitality by drawing attention to the long and added benefits it provides”. In such a profession that requires more or less education of the public,
The kitchen industry is one of the most important branches of the tourism industry. While the tourists are engaged in touristic activities, the places where they buy the most services besides accommodation are food and beverage services. Tourists coming to our country spend more on food and beverage activities than they spend on accommodation activities. For this reason, the kitchen staff employed in food and beverage businesses should be trained. 
Benefits of trained manpower in terms of practice; makes the personnel prone to service, facilitates the personnel-manager communication. Prepares staff for higher-level responsibilities. As training increases efficiency, it reduces costs, makes personnel better motivated to work, trained personnel are more active in standard service delivery. Providing quality food and beverage services can only be possible with the availability of an optimal number of staff. 
Since there is a direct face-to-face relationship between the buyer and the seller when a personal service such as hosting guests is provided in businesses, the role of the service they provide depending on the qualifications and characteristics of the personnel is very important in the success of the food and beverage services. The staff serving here offers the food produced in the kitchen to the guests. Although the service personnel in the hall are trained, if the personnel in the kitchen where the service is produced are untrained, integrity cannot be achieved and the service cannot be provided at the desired quality.
Until the industrial revolution, human beings used horses or carriages to travel. At that time, the places where people could eat were inns where horses and carriages could take a break. When people took a break at the inns, they ate the food available in the inn to fill their stomachs. Until this period, cooking was learned from father to son or through a master-apprentice relationship, as in most other professions. With the invention of steam trains as a result of the industrial revolution, food service began to be provided on trains.
Most of the palace cooks, who were unemployed as a result of the French Revolution, started to open their own restaurants in Paris and other big cities of Europe, and these restaurants were providing high quality service. Until the mid-17th century, there was no need for formal training in tourism or cooking. The first tourism school was opened in Lausanne in 1893. Cookery training was also given in this school. After this school, hotel management and cooking schools started to be opened in other European countries. Social and economic life has changed a lot during and after the Second World War. Nutrition problems of industry workers, students and hospital staff arose, and therefore industrial kitchens emerged.36
After the Second World War, with the increase in hotels and restaurants, serious problems began to be experienced in the training of the personnel who would work there. In order to solve this problem, on-the-job training was given beforehand. Later, in some countries, courses were opened with the support of the state and the chefs who needed the sector started to be trained. In addition, culinary education continued with the master-apprentice relationship. Towards the end of the twentieth century, due to consumer demands and changes in food production methods, formal education programs to train cooks were needed. 
The trainers taking part in these training programs have evaluated the training subjects in terms of content and method and created new training programs. What is desired from the new education programs is to give less weight to the teaching of the subjects and more to the learning. Times and habits change rapidly. Parallel to this, people's eating and drinking habits change. With the change of eating and drinking habits, food preparation methods are changing, and accordingly, the duties and training of the chefs working in the sector are also changing. The change of production systems in the kitchen in line with technological developments has led to a change in the roles of cooks in production. 
It can be said that the functions of cooks have increased in line with technological developments. Cooks are responsible for the development and implementation of recipes, whether food is produced using traditional or technological methods.
While considering the education of today's cooks, current training programs should be arranged and put into practice according to today's expectations. The cooks that the industry needs; They are people who are interested in cooking, follow technological developments, measure their mastery with the quality of the food they serve, and are constantly open to improvement. The necessary environment for the training of these cooks can be provided by preparing and implementing innovative training programs.
In our country, before and after the Ottoman Empire, cooking was learned by passing from father to son or by master-apprentice relationship. This situation, which continued until the 1950s after the empire, diversified with the opening of short-term courses opened by professional chambers and municipalities in Istanbul, Izmir and Ankara; This situation has not been sustained. With the establishment of the Ministry of Tourism; Considering the existing tourism potential in our country, Ankara Hotel Management School was opened in the 1961-1962 academic year in order to provide an educated workforce to this sector. Thus, culinary education began to be given in formal education institutions. It was extended to three years in the 1963-1964 academic year. In line with the nature of the sector, students started on-the-job training in touristic facilities since the academic year of 1964-1965.37
The second hotel management school was opened in Istanbul in the 1967-1968 academic year. Curriculums were developed within this framework, and the name of the school was changed to "Hotel Management and Tourism Vocational High School". In 1969, tourism education at the university level was started by opening the "Tourism Department" at Izmir University. As a result of a series of meetings held with the owners and managers of tourism enterprises in the early 1980s, the importance of foreign language knowledge in tourism education was emphasized. It was decided to put a preparatory class in front of the hotel management and tourism vocational high schools and to change their name to "Anatolian Hotel Management and Tourism Vocational High School", and the education period was increased to four years starting from the 1984-1985 academic year.
As a new type of school, “Anatolian Cookery Vocational High School” has been put into operation since the 1985-1986 academic year in Bolu-Mengen, in order to train qualified cooks who can speak a foreign language to be employed in Turkish and world cuisines. Since the 2001-2002 academic year, these schools have been transformed into the department program of Anatolian Hotel Management and Tourism Vocational High Schools within the scope of the studies carried out by the General Directorate of Commerce and Tourism Education to reduce school types. In the following years, tourism education started to be given at associate, undergraduate and graduate levels.
With the opening of the gastronomy department in Istanbul Yeditepe University in 2003, culinary education began to be given at the undergraduate level. In 2008, Istanbul Okan University's gastronomy department was opened, and then with the opening of the same department at Izmir University of Economics, three universities in Turkey train chefs at the undergraduate level. In addition, the Culinary Arts Academy, which was opened as a private course in 2003, trains professional kitchen workers certified by the Ministry of National Education and certified by the “City&Guilds” valid in Europe.
Aims of Professional Cookery Education
Vocational training aims to equip individuals for entry into professions at the level of skilled labor in the tourism sector. In other words, it is to meet the qualified personnel requirement of the sector. It is emphasized that the success of the enterprises serving in the tourism sector depends on the adequacy of the tourism education of their employees. It is mentioned about the features of vocational culinary education that increase profitability, reduce costs and increase quality, especially at the enterprise level.
kitchen worker; activity-efficiency, functionality, motivation, cooperation, sense of responsibility, safety, sleight of hand, initiative, artistic spirit, immediate creativity, attention, good memory, calmness, intuition and creativity, reliability, honesty, precision-determination. Some of these features are innate, and some can be learned later. The purpose of culinary education is to train people with innate talents in this direction by gaining the features that can be acquired later and to make them useful to the sector.
In food and beverage businesses, in order for the food offered to the guests to be of high quality, the process from the fresh and high-quality arrival of the ingredients to the establishment, proper storage, cooking in quality equipment using the appropriate cooking technique, and then tanning and serving are the responsibility of the kitchen staff. The quality of the food served depends on the qualified kitchen staff working in this chain. Qualified kitchen worker gives himself theoretical kitchen knowledge; school, course, book, master-apprentice relationship etc. added in the way; He put this knowledge into practice by working in the food and beverage sector; He is a person who loves his profession and renews his knowledge day by day. The training of kitchen staff, whose features we have mentioned, depends on qualified training programs.
Cooking Education Abroad
Tourism abroad and, accordingly, culinary education; It is given through vocational schools, colleges, universities and private vocational courses. While most vocational schools train staff at the lower level, vocational schools and private vocational courses undertake the task of raising middle-level personnel who have gained skills in different subjects. On the other hand, universities provide training on tourism-related skills and management. In addition, many universities offer postgraduate programs in tourism subjects.
Some commercial organizations and professional chambers abroad also take an active role in tourism education. Organizations such as the American Association of Travel Agencies Certification Institute, the American Hotel Motel Association, the National Food Service Agency, the British Tourism and Travel Association, the British Hotel and Food Institute organize various non-formal training programs in order to provide the trained personnel needed by the industry.38
Some chain hotels and restaurants that make up the tourism industry also provide a part of the need for trained personnel by providing in-house vocational training opportunities. In addition, since the kitchen staff continued his education throughout his career; Businesses that provide in-house training play an important role in providing well-trained kitchen workers for the sector.
Cookery Education in the USA
Vocational Schools have a great importance among vocational education practices in the USA. Vocational schools are schools that provide higher education to high school graduates and give associate degree diplomas to those who complete this education. "Technical schools" and "technical institutes", which fall into the same category as vocational schools, are higher education institutions that provide two or three years of education above high school, and all these schools operate for two main goals. The first is to train intermediate staff as a result of a short-term vocational education, and the second is to provide academic education corresponding to the first year of undergraduate education. 
Programs that provide tourism and hospitality education in the USA generally occur at three levels. At the first level, there are programs that award diplomas or certificates. These programs usually consist of lasting from one month to two years. Students who have completed the first level of secondary education can continue to vocational education schools.
Vocational tourism education in Germany is given in vocational schools within the government, in courses organized by official tourism organizations and private institutions. If the individual who has been out of the education system at any stage of his education continues to the apprenticeship education organized by the Government for three years, he is entitled to attend vocational schools. The individual takes at least 9 hours of theoretical lessons per week during his apprenticeship training. Those who successfully complete their apprenticeship training receive the title of cook, waiter, hotel and restaurant staff.
An educated workforce is of primary importance for employers in the tourism sector, as Germany attaches great importance to vocational training. Various courses are organized by the government and official tourism organizations for individuals who have been excluded from the national education system. However, individuals who have completed the age of 16 and have completed their compulsory education (completed secondary school) can attend these courses. As of 2002, there are 6 Hotel Management Vocational Schools in Germany, a Tourism Faculty at the University of Munich and various master courses.41
As can be seen, culinary education in Germany is generally given through apprenticeship training programs or vocational schools.
Cooking Education in the UK
UK higher education is predominantly vocationally oriented. The subjects covered by this education are the traditional diploma education given in fields such as engineering and the education that can be obtained at the end of the education given in higher education institutions, the "high national certificates" and "high national diplomas" given by the "Scottish National Council for Vocational Qualifications" and the "Business and Technology Education Council". consists of 42
The developments in tourism in the UK in the last 30 years have led to education in the field of tourism in educational institutions at all levels, from schools to universities, and an increase in students' interest in this field. So much so that tourism education has surpassed the fields of geography, English Language and history, which are shown as traditional disciplines, together with the media and communication fields that have emerged in the last 10 years.43
tourism education in the UK; It is given in different branches such as hotel management, gastronomy, travel agency, accommodation management. Tourism education in England continues in the form of short and long-term courses or in the form of associate degree programs at universities. Tourism education system in England can be examined in 4 groups as basic level, intermediate level, advanced level and university level. There is a balance between practical training studies and theoretical subjects in tourism education programs at all levels.44
Cookery education in England; vocational high schools are given with associate and undergraduate programs. In addition, there are hundreds of culinary training organizations in many cities across the country. Some of them are: “Le Cordon Blue”, “Ashburton Cookery School”, “Rick Stein Seafood School”, “Mosimanns Academy”, “Cotswold Chef”, “Confident Cooking”. There are hundreds of these schools in many cities of England. In addition to training professional cooks, these schools also organize short or long-term courses for amateurs.
Cookery Training in France
There are three types of training institutions that provide hotel management education in France: Institutions that provide Basic Hospitality Training, High schools that provide hospitality training, and training institutions that provide higher education in hotel management. People who graduated from high schools that provide hotel management education, state and/or private high schools, and those who have left university education can enroll in institutions that provide higher education in hotel management. In these educational institutions, 90% of the education is devoted to theoretical and 10% to practical courses. Those who receive the "Higher Hotel Management Technician" diploma from these schools, which provide education for two or three years, can find jobs in various management positions in the hotel sector.45
The aim of the programs that provide advanced tourism education in France is to train professionals who work professionally. Advanced tourism education; It is given in Vocational Hotel Management High Schools. Students who graduate from these schools are entitled to receive the "advanced hotel management specialist" degree. In schools providing advanced tourism education; There are two departments: “marketing and business” and “culinary arts”. The duration of education in both departments differs according to the education received before reaching this level. The education period is three years for those coming from general secondary schools and two years for those coming from tourism schools.
Apart from vocational colleges and universities, there are many schools providing culinary education in France. Some of these schools are: “Le Cordon Bleu”, “Lenôtre”, “Ritz Escoffier”, “L'Atelier des chefs”, “Patricia Wells”, “Alain Ducasse”, “Cook'n With Class”, “The Alpine Cookery Course” ” is “The Paul Bocuse institute in Lyon”.
Cookery Education in Turkey
Having a high standard of achievement in universities is one of the most important features sought in the new world order. Efforts to raise qualified people with certain abilities are among the important problems for all educational institutions. In today's world where borders have disappeared, having certain standards in education provides important privileges. Educating the youth with the knowledge and skills that can meet the needs of changing societies imposes important responsibilities on higher education institutions.
Until recently, there was no university program providing culinary education at the undergraduate level in our country. In 2003, Istanbul Yeditepe University broke new ground in Turkey and opened the "Gastronomy" department under the Faculty of Fine Arts. With the gastronomy departments opened in Istanbul Okan University and Izmir University of Economics in the following years, there are currently 3 undergraduate programs in our country. In the researches conducted in the 90s, more than half of the employees working in the kitchen in Turkey were primary school graduates. 
Today, there are 3 undergraduate programs and 15 associate degree programs providing culinary education. In addition, Anatolian Hotel Management and Tourism Vocational High Schools and some special courses affiliated to the Ministry of National Education fill the sector's qualified personnel gap. This shows that new training programs that are opened day by day are increasing the education levels of our country's kitchen workers. Now let's examine the content of these training programs in turn.
Non-formal Cookery Training
Non-formal education is carried out at the social level and it is related to age, level, etc. These are training programs that can be attended by anyone who meets the conditions regardless of the facts. Non-formal Tourism education; It is the training conducted at the social level to provide information about their profession to people who do not have vocational training despite working in tourism enterprises, and to train large masses of people on certain topics related to tourism. Institutions providing non-formal culinary education in our country are as follows;
* Public Education Centers Courses
Vocational courses that can be opened by the Public Education Centers affiliated to the General Directorate of Apprenticeship and Non-Formal Education are listed below: Hotel Management and Tourism Training, Hotel Receptionist Training, Amateur Tourist Guidance, Cookery-Hot Kitchen, Cooking Cold Kitchen, Transfer Staff (Tourism) Training. , Tour Operator, Touristic Goods Production, Tourism Information Personnel Training, Turkish Cuisine, Yacht Captain. Amateur Tourist Guiding and Tour Operator courses are courses that can be organized in cooperation with the Ministry of Tourism, and the Yacht Master's Course can be organized in cooperation with the Harbor Masters.
Citizens of all ages, education levels, social status and cultural levels can participate in education. Children under the age of 18 can attend the courses with the permission of their parents. Foreign nationals and immigrants can attend the courses organized with the permission of the governorship. Courses can be held between 7:00 and 24:00, seven days a week. Pre-registrations can be made throughout the twelve months of the year. When a sufficient number of 12 people is reached, the participants are informed about the time and hours when the course will be opened, and they are allowed to start the course.47
* Apprenticeship Training Centers Courses
At the Apprenticeship Training Centers affiliated to the General Directorate of Apprenticeship and Non-Formal Education, candidate apprentices, apprentices and journeymen in the field of Hotel Management; Reception (Front Office), Service (Waitress), Food and Beverage Cooking area; Cookery, Bakery, Pastry, Dessert, Sugar, Meat Products and Meat Management, Milk and Dairy Products Management trainings are provided.48
Young people who have completed primary school and who do not continue their formal education programs for various reasons and who want to gain a profession through the apprenticeship system may prefer apprenticeship education. Apprenticeship training centers are available in every province throughout Turkey.
As of the 1998-1999 academic year from the Apprenticeship Training Centers, 4695 people have graduated from culinary education across Turkey. In addition, 2248 people graduated from the pastry education branch.49
* Certificate Programs Implemented in Vocational High Schools "Adults Hotel Management and Tourism Education Centers", whose short name is YÖTEM, operate within the body of Anatolian Hotel Management and Tourism Vocational High Schools in order to provide tourism education for adults. YÖTEMs are non-formal education institutions that provide training in order to train qualified personnel needed by the tourism sector in a short time and to increase the quality of personnel working in existing tourism enterprises. In these training centers, general tourism courses can be organized in line with the wishes and needs of the region, as well as reception, service, kitchen, housekeeping, travel agency, animation and so on. Courses can also be arranged.
* Tourism Education Centers (TUREM) Courses
Tourism Education Centers; Established with the decision of the Council of Ministers, with the provision of subparagraph (d) of Article 17 of the Law No. 3046 as a legal basis, to provide young people with professional formation in the fields of "front office-reception", "housekeeping-housekeeping", "service services" and "kitchen". They are organizations that provide training as a course with the aim of It provides training on Front Office, Housekeeping, Food and Beverage Service and Food Production. The courses, which are opened every year in September, last thirty weeks. The training program is carried out alternately in the form of theoretical and practical training at school for one week, and internship training for one week at enterprises.50
* Workforce Training Courses
by the Turkish Employment Agency (İŞKUR), who have any professional knowledge
Labor Force Training Courses are organized in order to train the unemployed who are not registered to the institution in the professions needed in the labor market.
Within the framework of the protocols signed between the Directorates of Tourism Education Centers and the Branch Offices of the Turkish Employment Agency, courses are offered in the branches of front office, food and beverage service, housekeeping and food production.
It is a total of five months, three months of theoretical training and two months of practical training in enterprises.51
The gap filled by non-formal tourism education is that it is aimed at people who have not participated in any part of formal tourism education. In this way, a certain qualification is gained to the unqualified workforce working in the field of tourism. As a result, the service quality offered by this workforce will increase, customer satisfaction will increase and operating costs will decrease.
Formal Cookery Training
Formal education is regular education given to individuals in a certain age group and at the same level, under the roof of the school, with programs prepared according to the purpose. In this context, formal culinary education for diploma; Anatolian Hotel Management Tourism Vocational High Schools, Anatolian Vocational and Anatolian Vocational High Schools for Girls, and vocational higher schools and colleges affiliated to the Higher Education Institution are given by the Ministry of National Education.
secondary education
Tourism education of certain qualifications is given in high schools affiliated to the Ministry of National Education. Students graduating from primary schools prefer these high schools to study in the field of tourism. These formal education institutions were established to meet the qualified personnel needs of the tourism sector.
Graduates of tourism vocational high schools are directly employed in the sector or continue their education and study at universities. However, the general purpose of high schools is to train a qualified workforce with vocational and technical knowledge. In this context, schools providing education in this field are:
* Anatolian Hotel Management and Tourism Vocational High School,
* Anatolian Girls Vocational and Anatolian Vocational High School,
* Anatolian Cookery Vocational High School
In the above-mentioned schools, education begins after primary education. Students are given four-year tourism vocational training, practice and internship. There are "Reception", "Kitchen", "Service" and "Travel Agencies" sections as sub-areas. Students who want to become kitchen workers can train themselves in the kitchen area by choosing the kitchen department in these schools.
* Anatolian Hotel Management and Tourism Vocational High Schools
Anatolian Hotel Management and Tourism Vocational High Schools were opened in Ankara in the 1961-1962 academic year under the name "Hotel Management School", the second in Istanbul in the 1967-1968 academic year, and the third in Kuşadası in the 1975-1976 academic year. The name of these schools was changed to "Hotel Management and Tourism Vocational High School" in 1975. In the 1984-1985 academic year, "Anatolian Hotel Management and Tourism Vocational High Schools" were opened, which taught some courses in a foreign language. Until 2005, Anatolian Hotel Management and Tourism Vocational High Schools were divided into 5 departments: Reception, Service, Kitchen, Housekeeping and Travel Agency. 
Anadolu Hotel Management and Tourism Vocational High Schools, which train qualified foreign language speaking staff needed by tourism, which is one of the biggest sources of foreign currency inflows that will develop the country's economy, and the accommodation sector, which constitutes its basic infrastructure, and prepare students for both the profession and higher education, started to gradually adopt modular education in 2006-2007. has begun. These modules are:52
Food - Beverage Services,
* Kitchen,
* Service,
* Pastry
* Bar
* Host - Hostess (airplane, train and bus) branches are included.
Accommodation and Travel Services,
* Front Office,
* Housekeeping,
* Reservation Staff,
* Operational branches are included.
Entertainment Services,
* Animation,
* Children's animating branches are included.
With the Curriculum, it is aimed to raise individuals who can adapt to innovation and change, communicate in a healthy way with the people around them, set their goals and take initiatives to reach them, creative, open to criticism and have professional competencies, as well as providing students with basic knowledge and skills related to the field and branches. The student who completes the program and graduates can turn to business life or continue higher education. The qualifications gained by the student who leaves any year of the curriculum are evaluated in the certificate programs. 
The programs have been prepared in accordance with the international occupational classification, occupational standards, educational standards and competencies of occupations. In practice, these standards and competences must be constantly taken into account.
* Anatolian Vocational and Anatolian Girls Vocational High Schools
Within the scope of the METGE project, which started to be implemented with new changes in the 2006-2007 academic year, one of the programs in the tourism education of Anatolian Vocational and Girls' Vocational High Schools within the modular education system is Food and Beverage services. Occupation branches under this field are: Cookery, Pastry, Service Person, Bartender/Barmaid and Host/Hospitality. The student who graduates by completing the program can turn to business life or continue higher education.53
* Anatolian Cookery Vocational High School
First, Anatolian Cooking Vocational High School was opened in Bolu Mengen in the academic year of 1985-1986, teaching some courses in a foreign language, then the second Vocational Cookery High School was put into operation in İzmir Çeşme in the 1994-1995 academic year. These schools, which were later increased to four, were transformed into the department program of Anatolian Hotel Management and Tourism Vocational High Schools as of the 2001-2002 academic year, within the scope of the studies carried out by the Ministry of National Education, General Directorate of Trade and Tourism Education.
Two-Year University Education
Two-year culinary university education programs aim to train middle level managers for the sector.
Two-year vocational colleges opened within universities are for associate degree programs and Culinary education is given in 15 programs in 15 vocational colleges in 14 universities affiliated to YÖK throughout Turkey. Vocational Schools with the culinary training they provide; they train qualified personnel for food and beverage businesses equipped with technical skills for the sector. In addition, they train executive candidates for the kitchen, which is a subdivision of the food and beverage sector. However, there is something that can be perceived as a problem that there are many vocational high schools that are not sufficient in terms of quality, especially in terms of physical and technical infrastructure, while the room is too large in quantity. 
The vocational higher education schools that provide two-year university education in Turkey are shown in Table 15. In addition, Arel University culinary vocational high school curriculum is given in Appendix 2 to set an example for the content of the education in culinary vocational schools in Turkey.
Table 4: Schools Providing Cookery Education
Yalova University Yalova Vocational School
Adıyaman University Vocational School
Afyon Kocatepe University Afyon Vocational School
Amasya University Vocational School
Adnan Menderes University Didim Vocational School
Abant İzzet Baysal University Mengen Vocational School Uludağ University Harmancık Vocational School
Anadolu University Eskisehir Vocational School
Gaziantep University Gaziantep Vocational School
Erciyes University Safiye Cikrikcioglu Vocational School
Muğla University Muğla Vocational School
Muğla University Datça Kazım Yılmaz Vocational School
Harran University Sanliurfa Vocational School
Beykent University Vocational School
Istanbul Arel University Vocational School
Nevşehir Principle Education and Health Foundation Cappadocia Vocational School
Four-Year University Education
The purpose of the colleges providing education at the undergraduate level; “To train the tourism sector, the Ministry of Tourism and the executive candidates that they will need, as well as the scientists of the future who can do research and careers in universities.”54
Until 2003, there was no culinary department providing undergraduate education in our country. It broke new ground in Turkey by opening the " Gastronomy and Culinary Arts " department under Yeditepe University Fine Arts Faculty in 2003 . In the following years, Istanbul Okan University and Izmir University of Economics opened this department, and as of today, there are undergraduate programs in 3 universities in Turkey. Purpose of undergraduate culinary education; It is to train managers (head chef) for the kitchen department of food and beverage businesses.
* The main purpose of the Gastronomy and Culinary Arts Department, which is within the scope of Yeditepe University Gastronomy and Culinary Arts Department Fine Arts Faculty, is to train young executive chefs equipped with the necessary knowledge and skills, who can compete in the international arena. The department is the first undergraduate program in the world to provide gastronomy education under the umbrella of the Faculty of Fine Arts at a university.
Another aim of the department is to preserve the rich Turkish culinary culture in an academic environment and to promote this culture in the international arena. During the four-year undergraduate program, candidates are taught all the intricacies of food and beverage management and the art of cooking, from the most basic to the most advanced.55
During the undergraduate program, students are trained in restaurant, food and beverage management, cooking techniques and art-culture. Food and beverage management and cooking techniques are prepared as theoretical and applied courses. The language of instruction in the department is English. French is taught as an additional language. Classical cooking techniques, French, Turkish, Ottoman, Mediterranean, Far Eastern cuisines and Modern Kitchen Techniques are given in practice. 
In addition to other practical courses such as the art of pastry, chocolate preparation techniques, and introduction to winemaking, students will examine culinary art and culture from different perspectives in depth, theoretically and practically, with theoretical courses such as art history, world culinary culture, and food history. In the program, which believes that eating and drinking is an art, students are given education in fields such as basic art education, painting and sculpture. In the department, there are two professional kitchens and 1 training restaurant, arranged with high-end technology, where students can develop their knowledge, skills and creativity.
The Gastronomy and Culinary Arts Department, which provides a four-year undergraduate education, is a department within the Faculty of Fine Arts and admits students with a talent exam. Candidates who pass the OSS exam are required to come to our university with the specified documents and pre-register between the dates published on Yeditepe University's website.
Candidates who pre-register are taken to the aptitude test (drawing exam) organized by the Faculty of Fine Arts, and then to the interview (oral interview) on the specified date. The students who are entitled to enroll in the department as a result of the evaluation of the ÖSS exam score, aptitude test and interview results together are announced through the lists posted on the faculty and published on the internet. The quota of the department is limited to 50 people, 5 of whom are on scholarship.
The curriculum of Yeditepe University Gastronomy and Culinary Arts Department is shown in Appendix 3. In addition, the course contents of the department are given in Appendix 4.
* Okan University Department of Gastronomy
The main aim of Okan University Gastronomy Department is to train conscious and knowledgeable executive chefs, equipped with knowledge and skills, who can compete both in the country and internationally. It also aims to contribute to the promotion of Turkish culinary culture in the international platform that will ensure its preservation in the academic environment of our university. Our students, who have completed a one-year English preparatory education, are taught the details of food and beverage management and the intricacies of the art of cooking during their four-year education period. 
Nutrition, food and beverage management, service, cooking and food hygiene and safety trainings are provided.56
While culinary practices, classical cooking and modern culinary techniques are taught to the students, the art of pastry and beverage culture and wine education are examined practically and theoretically. Thus, students will have the opportunity to showcase their creativity. The training kitchen and restaurant equipped with high-level technology will be implemented as soon as possible. Students will have the opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge and skills in the practice kitchen.
In the department, they will be able to practice in parallel with the current theoretical knowledge accompanied by expert lecturers. In addition, they will be able to benefit from other departments by taking advantage of the Minor and Double Major opportunities available at our university. Students will be able to benefit from exchange programs with partner universities within the framework of the European Union Erasmus Program. In departments where the medium of instruction is Turkish, our students receive one year of English preparatory education, and they also have the opportunity to learn a second foreign language by choosing either Russian or Chinese during their undergraduate education.57
The curriculum of Istanbul Okan University Gastronomy Department is given in Appendix 4. As can be seen in Annex 5, students are given mainly theoretical and applied cuisine lessons, as well as foreign language lessons.
* Izmir University of Economics Culinary Arts and Management Department
Culinary arts, which have been among the programs of various universities and institutes in the world for a long time, have recently become the focus of attention in our country. In this, as well as the effect of the change in the cultural structure, the fact that tourism is the fastest developing sector in Turkey also plays an important role. The aim of the Culinary Arts and Management Program, which is within the body of Izmir University of Economics School of Applied Management Sciences, is to train chefs and chef candidates who are well-versed in world culinary cultures, as well as having practical knowledge and skills. Since these individuals will primarily work in the tourism and accommodation sector58, culinary arts education should have a quality that develops communication and managerial knowledge and skills.
The aim of the Culinary Arts and Management program is to train individuals equipped with the necessary theoretical and practical knowledge in the field of gastronomy and culinary arts. The most important feature that makes the program different from its peers is that it gives special importance to the development of management knowledge and skills. The first two years of the four-year education are devoted to business and management courses. In this period, students will get to know the business functions of the business such as management, finance, marketing and will have the opportunity to learn practically how the activities in this field will be carried out. 
Again in this period, it is aimed that the students acquire sectoral knowledge and skills, especially with courses for the accommodation industry. The third and fourth years of the training are completely practical and will be given in the form of on-the-job training. In this period, students will learn the world's famous cuisines in practice, as well as the theoretical background of culinary arts.
The language of instruction of the Culinary Arts and Management program is English. In addition, students will learn a second foreign language given by our university during their education. These students, who will graduate with a command of two foreign languages, will largely meet the need for visionary chefs equipped with theoretical and practical knowledge in the sector.
Izmir University of Economics Curriculum Appendix 6; course contents are shown in Appendix 7. According to the curriculum, students graduate in order to meet the need for well-trained personnel in the sector with the foreign languages ​​they take, as well as to train themselves well in terms of professional and managerial aspects with intensive, practical and applied kitchen lessons.
Private Cooking Courses
* Whirlpool Academy of Culinary Arts
Culinary Arts Academy is the first and only culinary education institution approved by the Ministry of National Education. In addition, it also issues the “City&Guilds” Certificate valid in Europe. In addition to professional culinary training, he also gives professional pastry training.
Profesyonel aşçılık eğitimi 18 hafta yoğun olarak devam eder. Eğitimin sonunda 3 ay staj mecburidir ve bu staj haftada 6 gün, günde 8-9 saattir. Okul staj ile ilgili kayıtları tutar. Stajını bitiren öğrenci iki farklı sınav ile değerlendirilir. İlk sınav % 50 geçer not beklenen T.C. Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı sınavıdır. Başarı T.C. Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı sertifikası ile belgelenir. İkinci sınav, dönem içindeki görevlerini tam anlamı ile yerine getiren, yine dönem içindeki sözlü, yazılı ve uygulamalı sınavlarında başarılı olan, günlük ödevlerinde ve kendisine dönem başında verilen proje genelinde başarı gösteren öğrenci, tüm dünya ile aynı anda yapılan ve % 65 geçer not beklenen City&Guilds sınavına girmeye hak kazanır. 
Success is documented by the City & Guilds diploma, which is recognized and accepted around the world. As an education center approved (accredited) by City & Guilds, education is committed to everyone regardless of gender, age, racial difference, nationality, religious belief, sexual orientation, marriage, job or physical disability.59
Curriculum Titles
Theoretical Courses: Hygiene and Food Safety in the Kitchen, Health and Safety in the Kitchen, Nutrition, Storage, Cost Calculation, Menu Planning, Food Preparation Methods (Equipment Introduction), Plate Designs
Practical Lessons: Knife Usage, Basic Fruit and Vegetable Cutting Techniques, Mis En Place and Flavoring Mixes, Meats and Butchery, Poultry, Seafood, Offal, Basic Cooking Techniques, Basic Broths, Thickeners - Binders, Soups, Basic Sauces, Eggs, Rice, Pastas and Sauces, Bulk Doughs, Potato Garnishes, Vegetable Garnishes, Vegetarian Dishes, Olive Oils - Stuffed Stuffed, Salads and Sauces, Sandwiches, Canapés, Pickles, Basic Bakery, Basic Pastry, Chocolates.
* Istanbul Culinary Institute
Istanbul Culinary Institute is an education and production center established to research, learn, promote and develop Turkish cuisine in Turkey and around the world.
Combining the educational goal with cultural and commercial purposes under the same roof, this center has a cooking school, a practice restaurant, wine and coffee bars. Istanbul Culinary Institute also aims to host events such as films, seminars and exhibitions about different eating and drinking cultures in Turkey and the world, publishing a periodic bulletin on these issues and supporting related publications.
There is an applied culinary education certificate program at Istanbul Culinary Institute. The aim of this program, which was prepared in cooperation with Istanbul Bilgi University and Istanbul Culinary Institute, is to respond to the need for educated personnel in the industry and to train personnel in the industry with the knowledge of Istanbul Bilgi University and the expertise of Istanbul Culinary Institute. 
It is a program that has a content enriched with the support of experts in international and Turkish cuisine in kitchens equipped with quality equipment. By combining theory and practice, it aims to provide a profession with intensive training as soon as possible.60
* Gastrovizyon Culinary Arts Academy
After 400 hours of theoretical and practical training, Gastrovizyon culinary arts academy gives a professional culinary education certificate to students who are successful after 12 weeks of internship in the sector. In addition to this training, there are training programs such as pastry, bakery, food and beverage management.61
In addition to the above-mentioned establishments in Turkey, there are other large and small establishments that provide training on culinary education. These organizations also organize training programs mostly for amateurs. 
Compared to the USA and European countries, there are very few private culinary training establishments in our country. Recently, there has been a tendency towards the culinary profession in our country. Against this demand, there will be an increase in the number of these establishments providing culinary training in the coming years. With this increase, the quality of the training given due to the competitive conditions will increase, therefore the cooks working in the sector will be more qualified personnel.
Has Chef Ahmet Özdemir Note:
I searched for an academic study as well as "sassy" studies on Culinary Education. Frankly, I was wondering how much work has been done on this subject, who has spent time on such an important issue and wanted salt in the soup. When I examine the details of some universities, including national education, the number of studies that I can consider does not exceed the fingers of one hand. Obviously s. I found it appropriate to share "Murat Çakır"'  s  Evaluation of the Training Process of the Personnel Employed in the Kitchen Department of the Hotel Enterprises: A Field Study for 5-Star Chain Hotels in Istanbul  . Thank you for such a detailed academic study. I believe that it will definitely be taken into account by those who are interested in the subject in the world of gastronomy and the culinary community.
In the academic study, I published the information I needed by citing the source. You can review the original and the whole study here;
1 Banu Bulurman, “Information Society and Education”, Journal of Industrial Relations and Human Resources, Issue:1, 2002, Vol: 4, p. 2.
2 İbrahim Kocabaş, “Management with Targets for Efficiency in Education”, Journal of Productivity, National Productivity Center, Ankara, Mert Matbaacılık, Issue: 2, 1994, p. 171.
3 Necla Tural, “The Relationship between Education and Productivity”, Journal of Productivity, Ankara, National Productivity Center (MPM) Publication, Issue: 3, 1991, p. 179.
4 Saime Oral, Olgun Çiçek and Gürhan Aktaş, “The Place and Importance of Non-formal Education in Creating Tourism Awareness”, I. Tourism Symposium, İzmir, Dokuz Eylül University, 1994, p. 223.
5 Necdet Hacıoğlu, Tourism Education in Turkey, Balıkesir, Uludağ University Balıkesir School of Tourism and Hotel Management, 1989, p. 5.
6 Zeyyat Sabuncuoğlu, Personnel Management, Istanbul, Teknographic Printing Co., 1991, p. 124. 7 Nevin Döğüşlü Deniz, Global Education, Istanbul, Turkmen Bookstore, 1999, p. one.
8 Deniz, ibid, p. 2.
9 Saffet Bilhan, “Efficiency in Education” Journal of Productivity, Ankara, National Productivity Center (MPM) Publication, Issue: 1, 1992, p. 56.
10 İrfan Erdoğan, Turkish Education System Towards a New Millennium II- Problems and Solutions, Istanbul, Sistem Yayıncılık, 2005, p. 9.
11 İlhan Sezgin, “Tourism Vocational Education”, Tourism Education Advisory Meeting: I. Communiqués, Istanbul, Tourism Development and Education Foundation Publication No:5, 1998, p. 28.
12 M. Mustafa Erdoğdu, Ed. İrfan Kalaycı, “A State Policy That Will Increase Turkey's Competitiveness in the EU Process: In-Service Training Mobilization”, European Union Courses, Economy-Policy-Technology, Ankara, Nobel Yayın Dağıtım, 2006, p. 369.
13 Oral, Cicek and Aktas, supra, p. 224.
14 Ercan Duygulu, “The Role of Education in Working Life and Career”, (Online) http://www.isguc.org/arc_view.php?ex=181, 09.04.2004.
15 Deniz, ibid, p. 10.
16 Ahmet Nohutçu, “From Techno-Economic Paradigm Transformation to New Democratic Management Mechanisms: The Effects of Information and Communication Technologies on State and Public Administration”, II. National Information, Economy and Management Congress, Derbent/İzmit, Kocaeli University İ.İ.BF, 2003, p. 2.
17 Cihan Dura and Hayriye Atik, Information Society, Information Economy and Turkey, Istanbul, Literatür Publishing, 2002, p. one.
18 İsmail Hira and Mustafa Kemal Şan, “Post-Industrial Social Theories”, II. National Information, Economy and Management Congress, Derbent/İzmit, Kocaeli University İ.İ.BF, 2003, p. 64 – 65.
19 R. Cengiz Akçay, “Globalization, Educational Deprivation and Adult Education”, Journal of National Education, Issue: 159, Summer 2003, p. 3 – 5.
20 Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association (TUSIAD), Higher Education Science and Technology in Turkey and in the World, Istanbul, Publication No: TUSIAD-T/94, 6-167, Esen Ofset A.Ş., 1994, p. 33.
21 Mehmet Metin Arslan and Levent Eraslan, “New Education Paradigm and Transformation in Turkish Education System”, Journal of National Education, Issue:160, Fall 2003, p. one.
22 İlhan Tekeli, Thinking on Education, Ankara, Turkish Academy of Sciences Publications, No: 5, 2004, p. 18 – 20.
23 Istanbul Chamber of Commerce (ITO), The Importance and Functions of Higher Education Institutions in terms of Interregional Development Differences, Istanbul, ITO Publication No: 1998-19, Prive Ltd. Sti., p. 18.
24 Dura and Atik, supra, p. 256 – 258.
25 TİSK (Turkish Confederation of Employer Unions), Our Vocational Education System and Skills Training Problems in Businesses and Solution Suggestions Report, September 2004, p. one.
26 Cevat Alkan, Hıfzı Doğan and S. İlhan Sezgin, Principles of Vocational and Technical Education, İstanbul, Alkım Publications, 1998, p. 4 – 6.
27 Ali Erkan Bakı, “The Effects of Vocational and Technical Education on National Income Increase and Employment”, Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, İzmir, Dokuz Eylül University Institute of Social Sciences, 1996, p. 3.
28 Bekir Özgen, Formal Education in Turkey, İzmir, Nazar Printing and Trade, 1994, p. 110 – 114.
29 Read, supra, p. 2.
30 Recep Altın, supra, p.10.
31 Alkan, Doğan and Sezgin, supra, p. 12. 32 Alkan, Doğan and Sezgin, ae, p. 7.
33 Fatih Türkmen, Economic and Social Benefits of Education and Investigation of the Relationship between Education and Economic Growth in Turkey, Ankara, DPT Specialization Theses Publication No: DPT: 2655, 2002, p. 12.
34 Osman Kemal Ağaoğlu, Tourism Education and Activity in Turkey, Ankara, National Production Center Publications, 1991, p. 21.
35 Hasan Olali, Tourism Policy and Marketing, Izmir Ege University Faculty of Business Publications, no: 6., 1982, p. 14.
36 Ronald Kinton, Victor Ceserani, The Theory of Catering, London, 5th Edition, 1987, p.120
37 Cetin, supra, p.16-17
38 McIntoch and Goeldner, Tourism Principles, Practices, Philosophiers, Canada, John Wilay and Sons Inc., 4th Edition, 1984, p. 80.
39 Özcan Demirel, Comparative Education, Ankara, Pegem Publishing, 2000, p. one hundred.
40 Kemal Turan, “Evaluation of Turkish-German Education Systems by Comparing the Process of Accession to the European Union”, Journal of National Education, Year: 33, Issue: 167, Summer 2005, p. 2.
41 Şehnaz Demirkol and Elbeyi Pelit, “Tourism Education System in Turkey and Possible Developments in the European Union Process”, Journal of Gazi University Faculty of Commerce and Tourism Education, Ankara, Year: 2002, Issue: 2, 2002, p. 12.
42 John Twing, Vocational Education and Training in United Kingdom, Italy, Published by CEDEFOP (European Center For The Development of Vocational Tarining), 2000, p. 63.
43 Marion Stuart, “Critical Influences on Tourism as a Subject in UK Higher Education: Lecturer Perspective”, Journal of Hospitality, 1/2002, p. 5-18.
44 Chiris Cooper, Robert Scales and John Westlake, “The Anatomy of Tourism and Hospitality Educators in the UK”, Tourism Management, Vol.13, No.2, 1992, p. 236.
45 Nermin Kahraman, “Hotel Management-Tourism Education in France and Algeria, Comparison with the Example of Turkey”, Tourism Education Congress Papers and Discussions, TUGEV, Turizm Bankası Publications, 1984, p. 51.
46 Necdet Hacıoğlu, Lecture Notes on Tourism Education in Turkey, Balıkesir, 1989, p. 6.
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