• Artisan Dishes and Foods

Artisan, as a dictionary meaning, refers to the activities performed by the artist or that require a special mastery. In other words, it can be defined as producing locally known products made with traditional methods without losing their naturalness.

Artisan Dishes and Foods
Artisan, as a dictionary meaning, refers to the activities performed by the artist or that require a special mastery. In other words, it can be defined as producing locally known products made with traditional methods without losing their naturalness.
Artisan food and its characteristics; 
products are handmade, traditional production methods are used, products are ripened in natural fermentation periods, chemical additives or preservatives are not used. 
Artisan foods; 
In addition to their contribution to health due to their natural and additive-free nature; It is an area that needs to be emphasized in terms of supporting and spreading the producers and local products, thus creating an area of ​​economic value. The fact that the production process of these foods is sustained with a traditional, historical, experimental, intuitive and scientific understanding is very important in terms of our country's gastronomy (New Gastronomy Trends) and promotion. 
The purpose of this review is to create a research resource due to the scarcity of specific academic studies on artisan dishes and foods, to emphasize the importance of artisanal foods in the light of findings obtained from different sources, and to draw attention to the preservation of traditional Turkish food culture.
Keywords: Artisan, natural, handmade, gastronomy, traditional
As a dictionary meaning, artisan refers to the activities that require a special skill and are done by the artist. In other words, artisan defines a food or dish made by the hands of a skilled master or artist (Cambridge Dictionary, 2020). Chemical additives, colorants, thickeners, preservatives, etc., in which traditional production methods are used. It includes products that are naturally handmade and have local or regional characteristics (Azavedo and Walsh, 2018). 
It can be said that the increase in interest in artisan food and products in recent years, the findings and widespread belief that foods produced naturally and using ancestral methods are healthier in terms of health. At the same time, the importance of where the raw materials produced locally, naturally and without additives come from, and especially the fact that they are produced naturally, and that they have made a difference to industrially produced products in terms of taste, taste and consistency, have brought artisan foods to the fore. 
In the real sense, artisan is the method in which the masters preserve the naturalness of the flavors from the seed to the plate. The fact that artisan products are on the agenda again and gaining attention is an indication that there will be a serious increase in the number of restaurants serving not only producers but also in terms of consumers and restaurants (Dunne and Wright, 2015). 
Supporting and expanding artisan food producers and local products has also been recognized as an area that needs to be emphasized in terms of creating an economic value area. Continuing the production process of artisan foods with a traditional, historical, experimental, intuitive and scientific understanding is very important in terms of our country's gastronomy and promotion (Dunne and Wright, 2017). 
In this review, the literature review method was mainly used as the data collection method. The data collected from various sources were compiled and limited by the universe-sampling method, and the study was shaped by interpreting the sample items.
Artisan Concept 
“Artisan” is a term used with the same word meaning in all known languages. It is also used with the meanings of "craftsman" and "artisan" in English. It is a term used to describe foods that are produced naturally by non-industrial methods, often preserved for generations, but are now in danger of disappearing (Blundel, 2016). Artisan lifestyle is undoubtedly a method that meets the healthy lifestyles that societies need (Slavin, 2004). 
Artisan products often have distinctive and descriptive features. An artisan food has a unique taste, flavor and texture. The most obvious common features are; they are handmade.
Scope of Artisan Foods
When it comes to artisan foods, the first things that come to mind are various products such as breads, meats, cheeses, canned foods, and artisan restaurant meals.
When it comes to artisan local foods; Homemade sourdough bread is the first and widely known product that comes to mind (Gisslen, 2017).
Our traditional cheeses are known as world-famous geographically indicated cheeses such as pottery cheese, Divle Obruk cheese and Kars Gruyere (Toklu and Pekerşen, 2019). Various products such as pickles, vinegar types (apple, grape, plum, tangerine, watermelon vinegar, etc.), kefir, homemade chocolate, homemade jams, sauces (tomato sauce, acuka sauce, ajvar sauce), hazelnut and peanut butter Examples of artisanal food types can be given as products produced in natural fermentation and maturation processes (Kabak and Dobson, 2011).
Our dishes, which reflect the Turkish culinary culture, served in artisan restaurants can be shown as an example of artisan food varieties. What should be emphasized here is; traditional Turkish local food culture has an important place in artisan food culture. 
Our rich food culture, which was transported from Central Asia to Anatolian lands and kneaded with Anatolian lands, is prepared with our ancestral methods and using natural methods. Although it is ignored for a long time that our meals and various food products, which are made with great effort and time during the production process, have an important place in world gastronomy, it is seen that they are now getting the importance they deserve (Durusoy, 2017).
The Reason for the Spread of the Artisan Food Movement 
The factors contributing to the rising value of the artisan food movement are expanding the production of natural and additive-free foods, maintaining and branding the local food culture, and supporting natural and additive-free food producers. Reasons such as minimizing the negative effects of the use of additives in the production of basic nutrients such as bread and cheese on human health, re-understood the nutritional values ​​of the foods produced with ancestral methods, and their health benefits were effective in the spread of this movement (Hitz, 2008).
Positive effects such as the natural production of food (taking into account the long fermentation and waiting times) and the decrease in insulin secretion in the blood, the increase in probiotics due to the proliferation of beneficial bacteria in the intestine, and the minimization of the risk of cancer, reveal the necessity of increasing the artisan food movement today and also play an important role in its spread. (Bulut, 2011; Karaçıl & Tek, 2013).
Artisan Food or Food Producers There are many individual entrepreneurs, local product producers, tradesmen / artisan restaurants producing artisan food or food in the production of artisan food or food. Most of these manufacturers are promoting and marketing their products through the business accounts they have opened on social media due to the widespread use of the internet today (Durusoy, 2017).
After Fast Food in Turkish Society's Nutritional Habits 
The Revival of Esnaf Restaurants The fast food sector, as a fast and profitable business opportunity with a low budget and low cost inputs on the investor side, as well as providing the consumers with the opportunity to obtain and consume the food they buy very quickly, has achieved a rapid growth. (Korkmaz, 2005).
“Eating”, which is defined as a biological need for living and an action that people enjoy doing at the same time, has become an action that is passed on only to meet this need due to today's living conditions. (Aytimur, 2015).
However, this rapidly progressing process has led to the problem of obesity today, with reasons such as living conditions and the development of technology, decreased mobility, and changes in the way of nutrition. It is known that obesity, which is more common in children, is now the basis of general health problems all over the world (Styne et al., 2017). 
Diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases that develop due to obesity negatively affect the life processes and quality of life of other individuals (Ok, 2018). 
Apart from health problems, it has been determined that it negatively affects the daily life, social life and even psychology of individuals. Consumers, who started to be conscious by experts through research and media over time, due to both health problems and social reasons; They have moved away from the fast food movement and started to show a tendency and interest in artisan products produced with the traditional method (Garipağaoğlu, 2019).
Traditional Turkish cuisine, home-style dishes and 'watery' dishes are usually found in shopkeepers' restaurants. These are: dry beans, rice, chickpeas, bulgur pilaf, lentil soup, ezo bride, kelle paça, tripe, meatballs, boiled meat, juicy meatballs, Albanian liver, baked kokoreç, vegetable varieties with olive oil, purslane, spinach, eggplant. . These meals have a very important place especially for students who work at lunch hours and who want to eat healthy by eating home-style meals.
Artisan Catering Businesses in Turkey Today, by highlighting their unique flavors and local recipes that cook using traditional methods; The number of businesses offering artisan delicacies is higher than expected. The distinctive and most distinctive features of this type of artisanal enterprises are; It is businesses that adopt the art of food as a mission, without losing the amateur spirit, without compromising the sustainability in taste and product quality, and with an understanding that does not give up on traditional production methods (Yalçın, 2014). 
If we list some of the most well-known ones throughout the country;
• Çiya Sofrası: Experimental cuisine of the rich Anatolian food culture, which is gradually disappearing in the face of fast food (Istanbul)
• Zapata Artisan: The heart of artisan flavors in Moda (Istanbul)
• Mahmut Öztaşdelen: Craftsman's restaurant Mahmut Usta (İzmir)
• Öz Bolu Restaurant: Tradesman's restaurant (Istanbul) 
• Kanaat Restaurant: Esnaf Restaurant (Istanbul) 
• Metanet Restaurant: Local people's restaurant (Gaziantep)
• Boğaziçi Restaurant: Tradesman's Restaurant (Ankara)
Artisan Food Samples Bread 
The fact that the first food product that comes to mind when "artisan" is mentioned is related to the fact that human beings discovered how to cultivate the land and obtain bread as the first basic food from wheat (Figure 1) in the Neolithic times. B.C. at 4000; Mankind has learned and practiced farming to feed themselves in places such as the Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris valleys (Miller, Vandome, Mcbrewser, 2011).
From Ancient Egypt to the present, bread is one of the most important means of every meal and nutrition in the world and especially in our country (Ünsal, 2006).
Artisan Dishes and Foods
Figure 1. Wheat 
Bread is important in all cultures and religions, although bread has a predominant place in the eastern regions. “The bread a Jew offers to God (Jehovah) must be unleavened. For a Christian, the bread is Jesus. Bread is a sacred food for a Muslim. It is so sacred to be kissed and taken to the ground…” statements that reveal the sanctity of bread (Shipman-Çilingiroğlu, 2008). Even vows are made on bread. Since the production of bread, which is indispensable for our lives, also requires experience and mastery, bread comes to mind first when artisan is mentioned (Lawrence, Salles, Septier, Busch, Thomas-Danguin, 2009).
He defines bread made by a master or craftsman who has bread making experience, using traditional production methods, as "artisan bread". In short, it means bread made with dexterity (Ünal and Atılgan, 2016).
Although there are many known recipes and different techniques for artisan bread, it is actually simple to make. How the world; if it is composed of earth, water, fire and air; Bread also consists of flour, water, salt and (sour) yeast (Figure 2) (Ünüvar, 2007). traditional breads; It requires longer preparation time than industrial breads and therefore has a softer texture. 
Unlike the breads we consume daily with industrial yeast, artisan breads are structurally thicker and harder in the crust of the bread, with the skill and experience of the master producing; They are distinguished remarkably thanks to their softer and moist texture (Olgun, Başçiftçi, Ayter, Aydın, 2017). 
With these distinctive features, artisan breads have a more intense taste, smell and flavor than daily industrial breads. In addition, artisan breads have advantages over industrial breads with their increased volume, strong aroma, better internal structure and long shelf life (Bircan, Güray, Bostan, 2017). The glycemic index is low due to the sourdough used in artisan breads. Beta glucan is protected and its biological usefulness is higher than other breads due to its low phytate content (Boz and Karaoğlu, 2008). 
Artisan Dishes and FoodsArtisan Dishes and FoodsFigure 2. Sourdough 
The dough of artisan bread needs a longer waiting time than daily industrial breads in the first fermentation stage (first kneading and resting stage), called islanka (Ünsal, 2006).
Main Features of Artisan Bread Being Handmade: When it comes to artisan bread, the most appropriate definition is that it is "handmade". During the production phase of artisan bread, the producer artisan can get help from the dough kneading machine in the first stage, or he can also produce the bread by using only his hands from the beginning to the end of the bread production stage. 
Since it will not be possible to carry the production of more bread to commercial dimensions in the production process of artisan bread, even if the machine is used, it does not seem possible to commercialize it. Even if machine support is used at some points during the production phase; The mastery, experience and manual labor of the craftsman is the most important requirement in the bread making stages. Considering the reasons listed, artisan bread production cannot turn into automation within small limits and cannot find the opportunity to move to industrial dimensions (Wirtz and MacGuire, 2001).
Use of sour cream:
The fermentation process known as sourdough (sourdough) or pre-yeast, which forms the basis of artisan bread making, defines a sourdough dough formed with flour and water, which takes up to a week. The use of pre-yeast in the production of artisan bread, prolongs the fermentation period thanks to the long fermentation process, breaks down the proteins in the dough for a longer time, and creates more flavor than normal breads. In addition, thanks to sour cream, insulin intolerance is also reduced to a very low level. 
Therefore, the use of sour yeast in the production process of artisan bread is very important (Katina, Salmenkallio-Marttila, Partanen, Forssell, Autio, 2006).
No use of chemical additives or preservatives: The outer texture of the classical artisan bread, which is made with the traditional method, has a soft chewy inner texture consisting of a crispy crust. The basic ingredients of bread are flour, water, salt and a minimum amount of pre-yeast. To differentiate a classic artisan bread; natural and ordinary ingredients in daily nutrition can be added. Various spices and nuts such as extra virgin olive oil, milk, butter, eggs, walnuts, oats, sunflower seeds, dried tomatoes, raisins, olive paste, thyme, paprika, rosemary are some of the ingredients used in making artisan bread.
Traditional production methods: In the bread making method, from the Neolithic age to the present, known methods have been used almost unchanged. The efforts to produce by hand without any machine support except for the oven type used only for the cooking method draw attention, and support is received from the kneading machines only during the kneading phase. In bread production, the knowledge and dexterity of the bread master continues to be at the forefront at this point. 
Today, artisan bread artisans are striving to turn to more traditional methods, using natural flours, which are more commonly produced from high-ash heirloom grains. Even at the stage of baking artisan bread (Figure 3), efforts to return to the use of stone ovens preheated with wood are more common (Demirtaş, 2014).
Artisan Dishes and Foods
Figure 3. Artisan bread
Artisan cheese made naturally, without the use of sweeteners, artificial ingredients, preservatives and additives; It is obtained only by boiling the milk, curdling with lemon or vinegar, adding a certain amount of salt, and then straining the water for 24 hours. 
It can be stored for a long time in a cold environment by salting and pressing into a container or cube (Gözügül, 2010).
Artisan cheeses are traditional and authentic cheeses with a flavor that preserves its original texture and a distinctive aroma. When examined in general, 10 kg of milk is required to obtain 1 kg of artisan cheese. The milk used in making Artisan cheese is mostly made with fresh milk from the animals raised on the farm of the farmer, who is also the producer.
Since many artisan cheese types produced using traditional methods in our country cannot meet the demands due to the intense population growth, they have lost their handmade properties, taste, texture and aromatic properties by being put into industrial production. 
If we give an example of some of these cheeses; Erzincan Tulum or Van Herby Cheese have lost their traditional artisan cheese characteristics by going into fabrication production. While this is the case in artisan cheese production in our country; America and Europe, on the other hand, show sensitivity to preserve the characteristics of artisan cheeses, which have many traditional features (Yalçın, 2014).
We also have cheeses in Turkey that still preserve their artisan cheese characteristics. These; They can be listed as Kars gruyere, Smoked cheese, Isli cheese, Sulguni cheese, Circassian cheese and Divle pothole cheese. 
In order for these cheeses not to lose their local characteristics, it should be emphasized that they must be produced by the masters of the local masters who produce them from the villages where they are produced, and that each of them should be carefully preserved in terms of our gastronomic richness. 
While the varieties of our artisan cheeses, their unique features and production methods are decreasing gradually in our country, they are going towards industrialization and are almost in danger of extinction; especially in Europe and America, it is seen that their artisan products find the value they deserve. For example, it is mentioned that there are 75-100 artisan cheese producers in the USA that produce using traditional methods, and that such producers market their products in special sales stores where the cheeses from their hands are offered for sale (Thorpe, 2009).
The Relationship between Artisan Foods and Clean Labels Today, while conscious consumers expect the food they consume to be healthier and more nutritious, they quickly realize the importance of reading the labels on the products and pay more attention to the information on the packaging of all food and beverage products (Slavin, 2004). ). 
However, according to the result of consumer research; According to many consumers, it is said that they complain that the information on the packages is written in an incomprehensible language and consists of a very crowded ingredient list. Consumers state that they cannot understand whether the product is beneficial or harmful from the content they read. Due to the reasons listed, it is understood that the "clean label" application in the food sector has become increasingly popular and preferred recently (Ekşi, 2017).
The concept of “Clean Label” is explained by three important principles: Food should consist of additive-free products, should consist of a list of ingredients written in simple language in an easy to understand manner, and should have undergone the least refined processing. For these reasons, it can be seen that artisanal foods and clean labels can be associated (Özçil, 2017).
Although the mentioned concept is stated as “clean label”, what is actually meant is “clean food”. The main task of the information on the packaging is to reflect the content of the product in a transparent and understandable way. For this reason, for a clean label, first of all, the food must be clean (Ekşi and Yılmaz, 2019). What is meant by a clean label for the consumer is; It is the real disposal of the information that appears in food products and the removal of unnecessary information written at length on the label.
As stated, artisan products are craftsmen who are masters of their work, carefully preparing the products from the soil to the plate and presenting them to the consumer without being subjected to any industrial process.
Although clean label products are similar to artisanal products as they do not contain additives and are included in the list of simple materials, the fact that they are products that go through industrial processes and are not made by the masters of their work, as in artisan products, takes these products to a very different point from artisanal products. 
In the light of the findings obtained from this review, it has been concluded that the increase of academic studies that share the products grown in our lands and traditional methods is necessary in terms of contributing to our traditional food culture, gastronomy and gastronomy tourism. 
In addition, by showing that academic studies and findings that share the products grown in our lands and traditional techniques, reach a certain level of awareness in the society; It seems promising in terms of contributing significantly to our traditional food culture, gastronomy and gastronomy tourism. As individuals value handmade food and traditional products, avoid industrial and unhealthy foods, and adapt artisanal life to all life, artisanal foods will come to the place they deserve. 
Going after forgotten or forgotten flavors that attract attention in the same direction as the artisan trend and reviving old recipes. may indicate an increase.
Old Istanbul Cuisine Asian Cuisine A la Carte Steakhouses
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As the head chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR, I see the source:
Ms. Fatma Nur ŞEN NEGİZÖZEN and Ms. I sincerely thank Ilkay YILMAZ for  his academic studies titled "Artisan Foods and Foods" and  wish him success  in his professional life   . It will definitely be considered as an example by those who need it in professional kitchens, related research and in the world of gastronomy.