• Dried Foods from Central Asia to Anatolia
  • Dried Foods from Central Asia to Anatolia
  • Dried Foods from Central Asia to Anatolia
  • Dried Foods from Central Asia to Anatolia
  • Dried Foods from Central Asia to Anatolia
  • Dried Foods from Central Asia to Anatolia
  • Dried Foods from Central Asia to Anatolia
  • Dried Foods from Central Asia to Anatolia
  • Dried Foods from Central Asia to Anatolia
  • Dried Foods from Central Asia to Anatolia

Drying is one of the oldest methods used since ancient times to preserve food for a long time. The method is based on the principle of first evaporating the water from the food and then removing this steam from the surface of the product. With the loss of available water, the water...

Dried Foods from Central Asia to Anatolia
Semiha YALÇIN-2 
Kamil BOSTAN-3 
Drying is one of the oldest methods used since ancient times to preserve food for a long time. During their stay in Central Asia, the Turks dried and preserved meat, dairy products, fruits and vegetables; They carried this culture to Anatolia during migration. Today, in our country, the methods of canning, freezing and preserving food in deep freezers rather than drying are becoming more and more common in home use and industry, but the Turks have not given up the habit of storing their food by drying.
In this study, food drying and winter dry food preparation techniques applied in Turkish Cuisine from Central Asia to the present, their effects on today's cuisine and their traces are summarized.
Keywords: Central Asian Turkish cuisine, Anatolian cuisine, Turkish Cuisine History, dry foods.
Drying is one of the oldest methods used since ancient times to preserve food for a long time. The method is based on the principle of first evaporating the water from the food and then removing this steam from the surface of the product. With the loss of available water, the water activity is reduced below the level at which microorganisms can grow; spoilage caused by bacteria, molds and yeasts is prevented and foods can be preserved for a longer period of time. Thus, the volume of the product is reduced and ease of transportation and storage is provided. 
This process was traditionally done in the sun. With the development of technology, methods using hot air such as cabin dryers, tunnel dryers, conveyor dryers, spray drying, roller dryers, foam drying, blow drying, and freeze drying are also used for these purposes (Bingöl, 2010).
While the Turks migrated from Central Asia, they brought many traditions with them to the present day. Turks who settled in Anatolia, while preserving their old habits, also encountered new food cultures. The culinary tradition of the Turks, which underwent changes in the process of coming from Central Asia to Anatolia, fused with the culinary culture that existed in Anatolia over time. The Turks have lived in these lands for centuries, dominated the region, and thus played the leading role and been decisive in shaping the Anatolian cuisine. 
The newly developed flavors in the Seljuk and Ottoman palaces, the interaction with many different regional cultures such as Europe, the Middle East and Africa throughout the historical process are important elements that provide the colorfulness and richness of Turkish cuisine (Baysal, 1993). 
It is seen that the effect of nomadic culture on the eating and drinking habits of the Turks from before the great migration from Central Asia to the present day. Since Central Asia, some preservation methods have been used in Turkish cuisine in order to preserve food for a long time and to preserve its durability. The Turks, who adopted a nomadic lifestyle, used the drying technique widely in terms of both ease of transportation and long-term storage without spoiling. 
Drying of vegetables and fruits, yoghurt and meat, tarhana made for soup and drying of some seafood are some of these examples. XI. Two great Turkish writers of the 20th century, Yusuf Has Hacib, in his book "Kutadgu Bilig" (Arat, 1947), which can be described as a policy book or an advice book (Arat, 1947) and in the work "Divanü Lügat'it Türk" by Kaşgarlı Mahmud (Atalay, 1940). detailed information is given and the dried products of the period are mentioned. With these dried products, various dishes, desserts and sherbets are still being made and consumed lovingly today.
Dried Meat
Meat had an important place in the daily diet of Turks in Central Asia. However, meat is not a durable product and can spoil in a short time. The oldest known method of preserving meat by making it durable is sun drying after salting. In Central Asia, meat was preserved by adding spices and drying, using a technique similar to today's pastrami. They gave names such as “yazok meat” and “kak meat” to the dried meat obtained by this method (Atalay, 1940). 
The dried meat of Central Asia met with fenugreek in Anatolia and turned into pastrami with its excellent taste, which is unique in the world. In Çelebi's Travel Book, where he describes the places he has visited and seen in his own style (Kahraman, 2013), it is stated that pastrami was made in Kayseri, an important settlement area of ​​the Seljuks, as of that period. In another source, it is stated that after the meats are salted in large pieces, they are pressed in large containers (barrels) for about three days; It is mentioned that it was then strung on a string and dried in the sun, and this meat was called “kakaç”, very similar to its name in Central Asia (Kosay and Ülkücan, 1961). 
“Sausage”, which is loved and consumed today, is a fermented meat product obtained by filling the mixture obtained by mixing the meat with salt and spices into the intestines of animals and maturing for a certain period of time. It is known that a similar product was made by filling the intestines with liver, meat and spices in a similar way to the present day, and it was called "su?tu" or "so?tu" (Özkan, 2013).
Kavurma is a traditional Turkish meat product. It is obtained by chopping the meat into small pieces, with or without bones, and then frying it in a bowl with its oil. It is known that animal meat slaughtered in autumn in Central Asia is cut into small pieces and cooked with its oil, then filled into cubes and stored for the winter (Baysal, 1990). This meat product, which is applied to a kind of drying by evaporating the existing broth, is among the indispensables of the Anatolian people today. Especially during the feasts of sacrifice, meat is still roasted and served to the guests, and the rest is stored by pressing in different containers to be consumed later (Ertaş and Karadağ, 2013).
Dried Fruits
It is known that Turks dried some of the fruits in Central Asia and kept them for the winter (Köymen, 1982; Genç, 1982). In the work of Yusuf Has Hacib, the Turks XI. It is mentioned that they ate grapes and fruits such as apple, pear, peach, apricot, plum, quince, mulberry, oleaster, pistachio and walnut after meals in the form of fresh or dried nuts in the 19th century (Arat, 1947). In the work of Kaşgarlı Mahmut, it is stated that for the drying of zucchini “Sağn agu” and the dried fruits are called “kak” (Atalay, 1940).
Today, dried fruit is still called "kak" in many parts of Anatolia. In Anatolia, fruits such as plums, apricots, grapes, apples and pears continue to be dried and stored for the winter, and these dried fruits continue to be consumed by cooking with water and sweetening with molasses in winter (Oğuz, 1976). In the Siirt region, melons are cut and dried. This is called “gorgit (kerkit)” and it is a winter season meal. Gorgit is the name given to dried melon peels. Although this food started to disappear gradually after the 1950s, it continues in Siirt, albeit locally. 
Compotes, a kind of sherbet made with dried fruits, had an important place in the Ottoman cuisine, as there were no alcoholic beverages during the meal in the Ottoman culinary culture. The word "hosaf" is defined as "a kind of dessert made by boiling whole or sliced ​​dried fruit with sugar water" according to the Dictionary of the Turkish Language Association and originates from the Persian word "hoş-ab", that is, "pleasant water". Today, compotes and compotes have lost their former importance. 
It is mostly included in the iftar and sahur tables and diet menus in Ramadan. Now, healthy drinks such as ayran, sherbet and compote are occupied by unhealthy carbonated and acidic beverages.
Before the table sugar used today, desserts were prepared with honey and molasses. In Central Asia, “bekmes” obtained by boiling grape juice with molasses soil and thickening it was consumed both alone and added to various foods (Köymen, 1982; Genç, 1982). In Anatolia, molasses is obtained by boiling and thickening fruits such as mulberry, plum, apple, pear, sugar beet, pomegranate, carob, especially grapes, according to local methods.
One of the most typical of the traditional dried fruit samples specific to Turks is fruit pulp. Pestil is one of our traditional foods that is very important in nutrition, which is usually prepared to be eaten in winter and has a high energy, vitamin and mineral value. It is defined as the product obtained as a result of drying or forming a plate after thickening by adding additives such as starch and flour to the juice obtained by separating the peel, seed and pulp of fruits such as grapes, plums, mulberries and apricots. Fruit pulp, which is a food with a very high nutritional value, constitutes an important energy source in the winter months (Batu et al., 2007).
Dried Dairy Products
In the culinary cultures of Central Asian Turks based on animal husbandry, milk and foods made from milk also have a very important place. In the Central Asian culture, the Turks used to dry the yoghurt, make it durable for a longer time and consume it. Drying allowed these perishable and non-durable foods to be preserved in a healthy and hygienic way for a longer period of time, when there were not many methods available. Milk or yoghurt-based foods that were dried and consumed with this method were called "Kurut". Kurut means dried yogurt, usually made from sheep's milk. 
It is prepared from non-fat yogurt or buttermilk. Kurut continues to be made in Southeastern Anatolia and Eastern Anatolia and consumed with soup, ravioli and some local dishes (Patır and Ateş, 2002; Coşkun, 2008; Çetinkaya, 2005). It is also called pesticide in Erzurum region (Ögel, 1978; Kosay and Ülkücan, 1961). In the same way, the tradition of making dairy products such as "keş", which is made by boiling, straining and drying yoghurt by adding salt after its fat is removed, still continues (Güler, 2010; Say et al., 2015).
Tarhana, a traditional food that has been known and loved by Turks since the time they lived in Central Asia, still has an important place in Turkish cuisine. Tarhana is thought to be one of the ways to preserve yogurt. In Divan-ı Lugat-it Türk, only the word “tar” is mentioned, and it is described as “a kind of yogurt that is collected and stored for the winter in summer”. According to the Dictionary of the Turkish Language Institution, the word "tarhana" derives from the Persian words "terhuvane" and "terhine". 
The word tarhana completed its development in Turkish in the 14th century and started to be used for winter food (Dayısoylu, 2003). The word "tarhana" appears in Turkish dictionaries as "tarhanah", first among the idioms of the Kipchak and Egyptian Mamluk Turks. It was translated from Arabic to Turkish during the Anatolian Principalities, and it is seen that the word tarhana and its food are described in Ibn Baytar's medical curricula. It is thought that these two products are of the same origin, due to some similarities in the production technique of tarhana with "kurut", which means dry yogurt, and it is one of the winter food varieties called "kurut" by the Turks (Öğel, 1978).
This food, which was used before the migration from Central Asia, spread to neighboring countries and the Balkans during the imperial period with the migrations (Koçtürk, 1964). “Kishk” made in Egypt, Syria, Lebanon and Jordan, “kushuk” in Iraq, “trahana” in Greece, “tahonya/talkuna” in Hungary and Finland can be counted among products similar to tarhana (Akbaş et al., 2006). 
Although the material put into tarhana shows regional differences, it is prepared with the same basic methods. Turkish Standards Institute defines tarhana as "a product obtained by mixing and kneading wheat flour, cracked wheat, semolina or their mixture with yoghurt, pepper, salt, onion, tomato, flavor and fragrance, harmless herbal substances and fermenting, then drying, grinding and sifting. defines it as ''food item'' (TSE, 2002). Fermented dough is called “fresh tarhana”. 
After this dough is dried in small pieces in the sun, it is crushed in the palm of the hand and sieved and stored in a cloth bag. In some regions, tarhana is not crushed into powder, its dough is formed flat in the palm of the hand, dried and stored in this way. Today, tarhana continues to be produced in a certain standard, with the same principles, but using modern equipment and commercially available in the market. It is also possible to consider tarhana the ancestor of today's ready-made soups.
Dried Cereals
Wheat comes first among the agricultural plants used by the Turks in Central Asia. In Central Asia, flour was obtained by grinding wheat in stone mills and was used as the basic ingredient of many foods (Baysal, 1993). Although flour making has turned into a more modern form with the effect of technological developments, stone mills, which traditionally produce flour by sorting, washing, drying and grinding grains such as wheat, barley and corn, still continue to operate, albeit very little.
“Yarma” obtained by forging (breaking) wheat was called “yarmaş” in Central Asia (Köymen, 1982). in Anatolia; The product obtained by moistening the wheat, pounding it in a mortar, separating it from its bran and drying it is called “beating”. The forging is broken in the mill and “splitting” is obtained. This product is used in the preparation of dishes such as keskek, ashura and soup.
The origin of bulgur, which belongs to traditional Turkish cuisine, goes back to Central Asia. The production stages of bulgur are basically the same since Central Asia. 
Wheat is washed, boiled and dried in the open air. After drying, it is beaten by sprinkling water on the mortar and the bran is separated and ground in the mill. Bulgur is passed through three different sieves and separated according to grain size and is used in the production of different dishes such as pilaf, mumbar, raw meatballs, and stuffed meatballs (Kosay and Ülkücan, 1961). Although rice consumption is becoming more and more common in big cities, bulgur pilaf maintains its popularity in Anatolia, especially served with meat dishes. Bulgur pilaf, which is prepared with meat on certain days traditionally celebrated in Anatolia with the habit of coming from Central Asia, is cooked in large cauldrons under the name of "festive pilaf" and consumed with phyllo dough.
One of the storage forms of flour, “phyllo dough” is also known as winter bread. It is known that a kind of noodle dish called “minced meat ügre” is made in Central Asia (Genç, 1982). Like noodles, couscous, vermicelli and starch are obtained by drying and its application continues today in homes and commercially.
Dried Vegetables
The Turks preserved the leaves, stems or roots of the plants they had collected from nature in Central Asia or they had grown themselves by drying them. When they came to Anatolia, they continued this habit; They dried and preserved the edible plants growing in the fertile soils of Anatolia. 
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Today, vegetables that are left to dry by stringing on ropes still decorate the walls and balconies of the houses in many villages and towns of Anatolia. Okra, pepper, eggplant and dried beans are the most dried vegetables (Kosay and Ülkücan, 1961). Gaziantep's stuffed zucchini, peppers and eggplants, Konya's dried okra soup, the Black Sea's dried green beans are the best-known dried vegetable dishes consumed in winter.
Turks lived in Central Asia with a certain food culture depending on their lifestyle. Migration to Anatolia and settlement here, the acceptance of the religion of Islam, vegetables and fruits that are abundant in Anatolia caused changes in the food culture of the Turks. However, it is still possible to see the traces of Central Asian nomadic culture in today's Turkish cuisine. Food preservation techniques applied in Central Asia in ancient times are still used in many products in Anatolia. 
These techniques were adopted by other cultures that the Turks encountered when they came to Anatolia. In other words, Turks have been influential in shaping the Anatolian cuisine culture. Although different food preservation techniques are used today, Turks do not give up on dried products; It doesn't look like he's going to give up. This can be considered as another indicator of Turks' commitment to cultural values.
Dried Foods from Central Asia to Anatolia
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As the head chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR, I see the source:
Sec. Ayla ÜNVER ALÇAY-1, Ms. Semiha YALÇIN-2, Mrs. Kamil BOSTAN-3, Mr. I sincerely thank Ekin DİNÇEL-4 for their academic studies on "Dried Foods from Central Asia to Anatolia" and wish them success in their professional life . It will definitely be considered as an example by those who need it in professional kitchens, related research and in the world of gastronomy.
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