• What is World Culinary History?
  • What is World Culinary History?
  • What is World Culinary History?
  • What is World Culinary History?

For this purpose, starting from Mesopotamia, where the first settlement was seen, the chronology up to the present is explained, and then information about the development of international cuisines that still exist is given. In addition, the development adventure of Turkish cuisine in the Anatolian..

Culinary Culture and History from Mesopotamia to the Present
*Ertuğrul DÜZGÜN-a, 
Today, there are many societies in many parts of the world in terms of social, cultural, economic and religious beliefs. Due to the enumerated differences of these societies, different culinary cultures have emerged in the process. The aim of the research is to examine the cultural interactions of these communities, which lived in different geographies and climates and had cultural interaction with many civilizations. 
For this purpose, starting from Mesopotamia, where the first settlement was seen, the chronology up to the present is explained, and then information about the development of international cuisines that still exist is given. In addition, the development adventure of Turkish cuisine in the Anatolian lands is also explained. In the last part of the study , suggestions were made for the tourism sector in order not to lose the culinary culture, which is a cultural heritage for the countries .
Looking at the culinary culture created by the nutrition system, which is one of the most basic needs of people, historically; cuisines have gone through different stages of development in parallel with factors such as the traditions and customs of societies, socio-cultural dimensions, and welfare status. In addition to these, the developments and displacements caused by the struggles and migrations of the communities to determine their living spaces have also been important in determining the culinary culture.
It is known that diet plays an important role in the evolution of humanity. Factors such as foraging, food consumption and the use of food in biological processes have gained priority in the relationship of the living thing with its environment (Durlu-Özkaya, 2009).
The fact that Anatolian lands are located at the crossroads of the continents of Europe, Asia and Africa is also reflected in the food cultures of the communities who lived here. 
For example, meat and fermented dairy products used by Turkic tribes who lived in Central Asia and adopted a nomadic lifestyle, products from Mesopotamia, which is a granary, products in the Mediterranean and its surroundings, famous for their vegetables and fruits, combined with the pleasant spices spread to the world from South Asia and India and gave birth to a unique culinary culture. In this period of enrichment, attention was paid to the point of being original, and behaviors towards making the cuisine, which is a determinant of culture, a cultural identity were exhibited. 
Many definitions have been made on the subject, including this originality in the kitchens. Scarpato (2002) stated that cuisine is a very comprehensive discipline that includes all the food and beverages we consume and includes everything called food. Gvion and Trostler (2008) explained that a meal that is integrated with a certain region and people is the sum of the materials used, cooking techniques , chopping techniques and presentation styles and eating methods. Horng and Tsai (2011), on the other hand, listed the products, food and cooking methods that provide the formation of unique table cultures of countries or regions.
The need for food and drink, which is one of the most important needs for individuals to ensure the continuity of their lives, is the first of the necessary steps to be eliminated in Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory (Aymankuy and Sarıoğlan, 2007: 8). Over time, steps have been taken such as the use of utensils, the invention of equipment such as cutlery and the formation of tableware, which are helpful elements in the development of this mandatory step. 
However, the concept of transforming food into an art, assuming that food is not only seen as the fulfillment of obligatory needs, but is a cultural indicator, emerges as an important element starting from the early ages and continuing to the present day. 
To give an example from Turkish cuisine on the subject, Turkish cuisine, which has acquired new features especially with increasing immigration and religious movements in the past, was also influenced by many different culinary cultures in this geography during the Ottoman period and as a result, it created a rich cuisine culture. From this point of view, while talking about Turkish cuisine; We can say that it developed by interacting with Byzantine cuisine, European cuisine, Chinese cuisine, Iranian cuisine, Arabic cuisine and Mediterranean cuisine.
What is the Historical Development of Kitchens and Culinary History ?
The need for food, which has emerged as a compulsory need since the first life signs of humanity, and the concept of the kitchen, which has developed to meet this need, have passed through different phases in various periods.
The first ages are the period when man ate to survive and even ate without knowing what it was for and what it was, and his only goal was to survive. It is known that cooking methods have not been discovered yet because there is no fire, and the meat is kept for a certain period of time to soften during this period. Therefore, it can be said that in the aforementioned period, even eating carrion was a primitive time period used when there was no other choice (Dilsiz, 2010:9). The fact that man has gained the habit of eating only meat and grass is because he had no other choice at that time (Gilles and Olivier, 2007:10).
With the use of fire, people began to cook and eat what they ate; 
They tended to develop methods that enhance flavor and facilitate chewing. For this, they first tried to domesticate wild plants. They also kept the produced plants and used them when necessary. The people of the period, who benefited from plants, also turned to farming, harvesting and gathering activities as well as hunting (Ciğerim, 2001: 50). As a result, people started to adopt the settled life in order to get the return of the products they planted. 
This period, which is called the Neolithic Age in historical chronology, is one of the most important periods in human history. Because it is the period when the foundations of settled life, that is, today's rural and urban settlement, were laid. 
The changes and developments that took place in this period brought many developments that would facilitate human life (Sevin, 2003: 45). The fact that mining emerged for the first time by the scientific world and that its cradle is Anatolian lands is a fact that has been accepted as a result of the finds to date (Bilgi, 2004: 3). In addition, Göbeklitepe, which also coincides with this period and entered the literature as the oldest place of worship in history, is an indication that the Mesopotamian region hosted the first settlements.
After people adopted the settled life order, the tradition of setting a table and tasting different foods together began to develop rather than perceiving eating as a time to fill the stomach (Merdol, 1998:137). The Neolithic period was followed by the Chalcolithic Age. In the Chalcolithic Age, which is the continuation of the Late Neolithic, many metals, especially copper, were processed and made available to humanity (Başak, 2002: 13). 
With the melting of the mines, the production of tools that provide the ease of use that people need has started. The development of technology that allows people to smelt copper through ore has allowed them to produce as much metal as they need. Thus, copper gave its first cast examples in the making of tools such as axes and chisels (Bilgi, 2004: 10). 
With the entrance of the Bronze Age, multi-part and closed molds were used for casting. Thanks to these, the same molds can be used more than once (Erginsoy, 1997: 1142). In the Iron Age, there were many mining societies. Urartians, on the other hand, are the most developed community of this period. 
During this period, more valuable metals developed. In general; There are variations in metals such as gold, silver, iron, copper or works made of bronze (Çilingiroğlu, 1997: 107). Then there was the development of the communities in the Middle Ages and later. Especially in the Middle Ages, it can be mentioned that the Roman and Byzantine empires, which were an extension of it, developed in Anatolian lands.
Turkish cuisine, from the past to the presentTurkish cuisine, on the other hand, has passed through various stages from the past to the present. It has gone through various historical processes such as the Central Asian period, the Seljuk and Principalities period, the Ottoman Palace Cuisine and the cuisine of the Republic period (Toygar, 2001: 54). Turks, who have adopted the nomadic lifestyle, have interacted with many different societies in the historical process. Therefore, it may not be possible to limit Turkish food culture only to these periods. The interactions in question are; It can be understood from written sources that are important for Turkish history such as Kutadgu Bilig, Orkhon Inscriptions, İbn-i Batuta Travel Book, Evliya Çelebi Seyahatname , Babürname and Kanunnameler.
Famous traveler Ibn-i Batuta, who visited Central Asia in the 14th century and noted in his Travelogue, talks about the eating and drinking habits of Turks as follows: “Turks do not eat bread and similar solid foods. They cook a meal made from millet called bulgur. First, they put the water on the fire, when it boils, they throw a piece of bulgur into it, if there is meat in the house, they cut it into pieces and add it to it and cook it together. On top of the meal, they drink a drink called kumis made of mare's milk” (Gürsoy, 2004: 83).
The Seljuks, who adopted the nomadic lifestyle, came to Anatolia as semi-nomadic and started to be more interested in agriculture by taking advantage of the experiences of the previous communities by adopting a settled life in these lands, which are quite suitable for agriculture and agriculture. However, very limited information about their cuisine has reached today from the Anatolian Seljuks (Şahin, 2008: 45). 
Because modest and simple lifestyles are reflected in kitchen etiquette as well as in architecture. In the Ottoman Empire; Turkish culinary culture has made an important development. In retrospect, it can be said that the most interest in Turkish cuisine was experienced during the Ottoman Empire, which ruled for more than six centuries. 
Turkish Cuisine Chefs, Turkish Chef, Restaurant Consultancy, Kitchen ConsultancyMeals in the Ottoman Empire can be gathered in two parts as Village (provincial) Cuisine and City Cuisine. It was the Palace Cuisine that provided the combination of these two cuisines and formed the basis of today's Turkish cuisine (Aktaş and Özdemir, 2007:25). Ottoman cuisine has been shaped by the elite group living in and around the palace in Istanbul since the 15th century. This shaping covers many topics from the materials used in the kitchens to the cooking techniques, from the variety of food to the eating habits, the etiquette at mealtimes and the construction of the kitchen (Yerasimos, 2007: 12).
With the concept of cuisine, not only the food and drinks related to the cuisines of the nations, but also the techniques for the preparation, cooking, consumption, storage and service of these foods and beverages, the tools and equipment preferred during the service, the location and architecture of the kitchen, the mass dinner ceremonies and the belief that develops at this point. and a subjective cultural structure, including practices and practices, should come to mind (Durlu- Özkaya and Kızılkaya 2009:266).
Davis and McBride (2008) interpret kitchen preparations as “one of the methods of expression of culture, like sculpture or dance”. The concept of cuisine, which is encountered in all societies with a different cultural structure, is a scientific art that has developed depending on the taste of humanity and has survived from the first age to the present day (Ciğerim, 2001:49). In summary, human beings have been transforming nutrition, which is one of their most basic needs, into an art, unlike all other living things, from past to present (Baysal and Küçükaslan, 2007:4).
This art of cooking, which emerged in the Mesopotamian region, has been divided into two main cuisines around the world, as Chinese and Asian cuisines, as can be seen in the figure created by Çetin (1993). In the following process, Chinese Cuisine has provided the formation of Japanese Cuisine. 
On the other hand, it can be said that while Asian cuisine provided the development of Egyptian cuisine, Egyptian cuisine influenced Ancient Greek cuisine, Ancient Greek cuisine formed the foundations of Roman cuisine, and Roman cuisine, which developed accordingly, contributed to the formation of rich French cuisine, and French cuisine supported the formation of a large and hot cuisine. . In addition to the contribution of the ancient Greek cuisine to the development of the mentioned cuisines, it can be said that it interacted with the English cuisine, and the developing English cuisine also influenced the Northern European and North American cuisines.
After the foundation of the art of cooking was laid in Mesopotamia, the kitchens began to separate from each other over time. The first of this distinction has been realized as Asian and Chinese cuisine. Some researchers state that this distinction is first divided into Anatolian and Chinese cuisine. 
From this point of view, it can be said that while Chinese cuisine only affected Japanese cuisine, Anatolian cuisine contributed to the development of Egyptian cuisine and influenced the Ancient Greek (Greek) cuisine, on which the cuisines of many countries were based. Subsequently, the Ancient Greek cuisine influenced the Roman cuisine, and then the French cuisine was influenced by it, and then the French cuisine inspired the English cuisine. 
As a result of all these interactions, the formation of culinary cultures that reflect the nations' own selves has taken place (Ciğerim, 2001:50). It can be said that the origin of these culinary cultures is the Mesopotamian region and this region is located in the geography called fertile lands in Anatolia.
According to Race (2014), Mesopotamian cuisine has a direct influence on the basis of all cuisines in the world. Because Mesopotamia, the land where the first settled life started and agriculture was made for the first time, hosted civilizations in every field of knowledge, including culinary arts; Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Syria have been influential in the gastronomy to its current state. 
In addition, because the people of the region are engaged in trade, they frequently travel and bring new things from the places they go, so it creates a synthesis that takes place in many cuisines of the region. The cultural interactions experienced in these lands, where Assyrian, Persian, Greek, Roman, Byzantine, Umayyad-Abbasid, Arab civilizations, Seljuks and Ottomans left their traces, also affected the culinary culture of the region.
When Turkey is considered in terms of world civilization heritage, it will be seen that it is like an open-air museum with the most diverse, magnificent and richest culture in the world. Rome is the first civilization that comes to mind when Italy is mentioned, and the Hellenic Civilization is the first thing that comes to mind when Greece is mentioned. However, when Turkey is mentioned, the magnificent heritage of various civilizations, one after another, comes to mind. The magnificent legacy left by many civilizations, especially Hittite, Phrygian, Lycian, Lydian, Ion, Roman-Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman, is located in these lands (Batman and Çınar, 2008: 189).
The Ottoman Empire, which ruled for six centuries, has an important place in the formation of Turkish culinary culture. The Ottoman Empire, with its multinationality, multi-religious understanding and territorial dominance spanning three continents, showed its wealth in the culinary culture and created a unique empire in the kitchen. 
The cuisine of the Turks, in which meat and meat products predominate, and the local Anatolian cuisines fused with each other in the process and created a new synthesis. Olive oil and fish on the Aegean islands and coasts, meat dishes from the south, appetizers and desserts with syrup, almost melted in a pot with the influence of Byzantine and Roman culinary culture. With the spread of the empire over large areas, Middle Eastern, Southern Mediterranean and European dishes were also included in this pot, enriching the Anatolian cuisine culture even more (Gürsoy, 1995: 43).
Turkish cuisine, which is in interaction with these cultures, has developed itself in this regard. Turkish cuisine, which has an important position in world cuisines today, is shown as one of the three major cuisines of the world, together with Chinese and French cuisines.
The issues of how societies eat any food or why they do not eat that product give clues about the culinary cultures of that society. Kitchens are the most important cultural rings from the past to the present. Culinary culture has the characteristic of being an important factor that changes the hardest and contains the cultural values ​​of societies for the longest time. 
The culinary cultures of the societies are shaped according to the geographical conditions of the region they live in, agricultural characteristics, socio-economic conditions, religious characteristics and relations with other societies. Culinary culture finds its place in these features. This happens in two ways; cuisines either create their own unique culture by taking advantage of the factors around them and interacting with them, or they get lost in this interaction and assimilate under the influence of other cultures. 
What is World Culinary History?
At this point, it is necessary to go down to its foundation in order to understand how the culinary culture has developed, to examine its interaction with other society cultures and to determine how it has survived to the present day.
Eating and drinking, which is one of the most important needs that ensure the continuity of life, has emerged as an occupation of great importance since the existence of human beings. This occupation has diversified and developed depending on the development of human beings, the climate and geography of the place where they live. Primarily, this occupation, which primitive societies started with hunting and gathering, continued with the invention of stone tools and the discovery of fire. 
However, these people gained their kitchen experience in the Neolithic Period. When it comes to the Neolithic Period, mankind turned to agriculture as well as hunter-gatherer. In this way, production has emerged and people have moved to settled life, which forms the basis of today's city life, in order to wait for these crops. In this period, people stopped eating only meat and started to cook by mixing different plants, animal products and spices. 
Especially Mesopotamia and Anatolia played an important role in the Neolithic period. Because the oldest sources of this period emerged in the Mesopotamian region. Göbeklitepe, which is located within the borders of Şanlıurfa province in today's Southeastern Anatolia, constitutes the most important example of this. The spread of innovations that emerged in the following periods to the world from these lands significantly increased the efficiency of Anatolia.
In order to determine the place of Turkish cuisine, which is shown as one of the three largest cuisines of the world along with Chinese and French cuisines, in world cuisines, it is necessary to look at other cuisine cultures and the history of these cuisine cultures. The Mesopotamian region, known as the cradle of civilizations and also the place where agriculture was first made, has had a rich cuisine due to the diversity of its climate and the heritage of dozens of civilizations. The art of cooking, which first emerged in this region, was later divided into two around the world as Chinese and Asian cuisines. 
Afterwards, Chinese Cuisine, which is often compared to each other in terms of culinary cultures, formed the basis of Japanese Cuisine. On the other hand, the development adventure of Asian cuisine started and it contributed to Egyptian cuisine. Similarly, the Egyptian cuisine also influenced the Ancient Greek (Greek) cuisine, and this cuisine formed the Roman and French cuisines; It can be said that French cuisine contributed to the formation of a large and warm kitchen. In addition, it can be said that Ancient Greek cuisine interacted with English cuisine, and this interaction even affected Northern European and North American cuisines.
Turkish cuisine, which has been enriched by being influenced by Chinese, Iranian, Arab, Byzantine, European and Mediterranean cuisines, reached wide geographies especially during the Ottoman period and has become one of the few cuisines of the world by incorporating the richness of many culinary cultures in these geographies. The role of the Ottoman palace cuisine is quite large in the development of Turkish cuisine in this period. Today, the fact that intercontinental products have entered the market all over the world, the popularity of European and especially French cuisine has caused Turkish cuisine to turn its direction towards the West.
Turkey's greatest wealth as a country in Anatolia, the cradle of civilizations that has hosted many civilizations throughout history, is its historical and cultural heritage. Elements such as culinary culture, natural forms, lifestyles, which differ in all seven geographical regions, are our main values ​​that we have to protect and ensure their continuity. 
Our local cultures, which were formed by nourishing from various civilizations, should not remain only as flavors unique to that region, but first of all, Turkish people should be informed about these values, and then it should be promoted to the whole world and our cuisine, which has turned its direction to the West, should be prevented from losing its cultural values. This situation is also important for the tourism sector. 
Because food culture has a great importance in sustainable tourism. Tourists have recently become famous in a region and have started to prefer those regions in order to taste the foods integrated with that region and to observe the production sites and stages. In addition, tourists who come here to see the food culture will be able to contribute to the development of alternative tourism resources in the region.
Turkish Cuisine Chefs, Turkish Chef, Restaurant Consultancy, Kitchen Consultancy
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