• Mevlevi Food and Drink Culture
  • Mevlevi Food and Drink Culture
  • Mevlevi Food and Drink Culture
  • Mevlevi Food and Drink Culture
  • Mevlevi Food and Drink Culture

This menakıbname of Eflâkî is a unique source in terms of religious and social history. 13-14 of the work. It is not possible to find the information about life, such as economic conditions, traditions, and clothing, which he gave about the Anatolia of the 19th century, in history books. his situation can be..

Looking at Mevlânâ's Table from Menâkıbü'l-Ârîfîn: The Eating and Drinking Culture of Mevlânâ and His Surroundings According to Menâkıbü'l-Ârîfîn
prof. Dr. By Zehra
Introduction: About Menâkıbü'l-Ârifîn
Menâkıbü'l-Ârifîn is Ahmed Eflâkî's (d. 761/1360) work written in Persian by the order of Ulu Arif Çelebi. Ahmed Eflâkî wrote this book twice. The work he started to write in 718/1318 is almost like a draft, and he named this work Menâkıbü'l-Ârifîn ve Merâtibü'l-Kâşifîn, then expanded the work with the new material he compiled and completed it in 754/1353, shortening its name to just Menâkıbü'l - said Ârifîn. As such, Menâkıbü'l-Ârifîn is the result of Ahmed Eflâkî's thirty-six years of work. The majority of; Apart from Risale-i Feridun Sipehsâlar, Sultan Veled's Velednâme, Rebabname, İntihanâme and Ma'ârif, Bahaeddin Veled's Ma'ârif,
This menakıbname of Eflâkî is a unique source in terms of religious and social history. 13-14 of the work. It is not possible to find the information about life, such as economic conditions, traditions, and clothing, which he gave about the Anatolia of the 19th century, in history books. (Köprülü, 1943:423) This situation can be explained by Eflâkî's perfect penetration of the sources he compiled, as well as his being based on his own observations and experiences. Indeed, it is this aspect that makes the work an important source. In addition to being a comprehensive example of the history of Mevlevi Culinary Culture, this important source with a wide range of bets also has an exceptional place in terms of cultural history. 
It would be a correct approach to look for the issue that determines its place by making the work special and important in this proportion, in the center of gravity of the information it gives about the reflections of social life. In other words, Menâkıbü'l-Ârifîn is not independent of the environment and time. It reflects the time and the ground in a very detailed way, almost like a mirror. As Köprülü stated in his determinations, although the Mevlevi menakıbnames were written primarily for the purpose of cult propaganda, the authors reflected the social environment they lived in very accurately and vividly (Köprülü, 1943:422). Although the real events are distorted or camouflaged with the motifs of the legend in order to glorify the veli, who is ultimately the hero in these legends, it is not difficult to identify the events in question (January, 1992:
When Menâkıbü'l-Ârifîn, who conveys Mevlânâ and his time and those around him from many perspectives, with this attention, a rich material about the culinary culture of the period is determined in the work. In this book of legends, there are many details about the eating and drinking culture, from the eating habits of Mevlana to how the food was eaten at the table of the Mevlevi, which tools were used to cook it, and the materials used in cooking. By identifying and classifying these elements, it is possible to look at the social lives of Mevlânâ and Mevlevi in ​​terms of nutritional elements through Menâkıbü'l-Ârifîn and at the same time open a window to the cuisine of the Seljuks.
In addition, it should be noted that many elements of culinary culture related to the subject are used as a metaphor by moving away from their real meanings and it is seen that the mystical world is shaped within the framework of meaning. This symbolic discourse is also exemplified in the study. However, the use of some foods for therapeutic purposes in diseases was not ignored in the work, and the healing from the table was also included in the study. According to Menâkıbü'l-Ârifîn, Findings Regarding the Cuisine and Nutrition of Mevlânâ and His Surroundings1
What Did Mevlana Eat, What Did He Drink?
Undoubtedly, nutrition is the most basic physiological need for human beings. In other words, human beings have to eat to live. However, when we look at the nutritional habits of people from the past to the present, it is seen that the issue is not so simple. Nutrition has always been on the agenda, mankind has always questioned it and the issue has become a vital problem to be solved. Perhaps it's the primary factor in this situation that it turns into living to eat. In fact, BC statesman, philosopher and orator Marcus Tullius Cicero said, “You must eat to live, not live to eat.” He puts the last point on the subject with his words. Of course, one cannot live without eating, but if a problem is mentioned, it is understood that our eating attitudes go beyond physical needs. 
As a matter of fact, the experts of the subject solve the problem with the word "balance". Being balanced is the key word in nutrition as in all areas of life.
Well, I wonder if Mevlânâ, who has been an exceptional person in terms of his influence not only in the Turkish neighborhood but also in the whole world from east to west since the 13th century, did not eat or drink, and how would this wise man, who was in everyone's eyes, be fed? Abidin Pasha, who gained fame with his six-volume commentary on the first volume of Mevlânâ's Mesnevi, describes Mevlânâ at the beginning of his work, Tercüme ve Şerh-i Mesnevî-i Şerîf, and says: It tended to turn yellow due to the abundance of piety and struggle. They were neither thoughtful nor weak, but they commanded badehu kesb-i nehâfet from the kesret-i riyâzat” (Âbidin Pasha 1324: 12). According to this, Mevlânâ's body, which was red at first, then turned yellow because of too much hypocrisy, is neither overweight nor weak. 
However, he became weak afterward, as he was still in a lot of obedience. In Menâkıbü'l-Ârifîn, Sultan Veled relates that his father always said: "My soul died when I was five years old" and that he was obedient both in youth and in middle age, engaged in worship from night to morning and exaggerated a lot (CI/ 190). According to what Eflâkî reported, Mevlânâ exaggerated not only in piety but also in starvation. For this reason, it is learned from Menâkıbü'l-Ârifîn that this naive person went to the bath one day and was ashamed of his weak body when he saw his body in the bath (CI/379).
On the axis of these determinations, it is seen that Mevlânâ's attitude towards nutrition even pushes the limits of the principle of eating to live. In fact, Mevlânâ, who reflects and guides your philosophy with his every word and behavior, reflected the issue of "food" as an indicator that includes meanings in his words about eating and drinking and in his parallel attitudes. He speaks of a spiritual food that will nourish the soul. According to Rumi, fatty and sweet bodily meals are pleasant, but of course, when digested, they turn into something najis. In that case, it is necessary to feed the soul, not the body, so that the soul can take wings and fly:
“Something greasy and sweet looks clean and nice. But after a night has passed, these will become filth in you/ You eat greasy and sweet things that can be food for the soul, not the body, so that your wings will end and you will learn to fly” (CI/307)
In a conversation with his son Sultan Veled, the answer that Mevlânâ wanted to give to those who asked his way after him was “not to eat and drink” (CI/245).
In many mentions in Menâkıbü'l-Ârifîn, it is seen that he recommended material hunger and did not eat for long periods of time before his piety. Even as a six-year-old child, it is reported that he ate food in three to four days, sometimes seven days (CI/p. 155).
In their conversations, he asked himself "What is Riyazet?" when asked:
“A little food is enough for the one who prays. Eating a lot makes you sleepy. When I am hungry, a slice of bread and a handful of water from the Euphrates is enough for me” (C.II/56). Arif Çelebi's mother, Kirake Hatun, said, “I saw that Mevlana did not eat for about a month.” says (CI/386). Usually, when he is immersed in the sama, he does not eat, drink water or sleep for days because of the heat of the sama:
“At another time, he sama' for seven days and seven nights and did not eat any food. Friends prepared a nice and delicious meal, maybe Mevlânâ would show mercy and eat some food. Mevlana: “O soul! Be patient and listen to my word, do not eat of this food; If you eat it, it will eat you,” he said, and recited the following poem: “If you eat that light meal for once, you will spill soil on your tandoori bread. He started the sema by saying, 'Hunger, hunger, hunger again, and then returning to its origin.' (CI/444)
Muineddin Pervâne arranges a sema for Mevlânâ. When the heat of Sema lasts until midnight, all the dishes become cold and stale. Pervâne calls Sheikh Muhammed Hadim and tells him about the food issue. When Sheikh Mohammed Hadim alluded to what he said to his majesty Mevlana: "How can the mill stop, find peace and resolution without the water being cut off by the head of the passenger (emir-i ab)?" said. Thereupon, Pervâne bowed her head, shedding tears, and orders them to loot the food, and the meal is cooked again. (C. I/p. 187)
In a narration transmitted by Hüsameddin Çelebi, Mevlânâ describes the relationship between hunger and nafs to his conversation partners by analogy with a snake. Saying that by eating little, he will die the snake of the soul, he prays to Allah to be on this practice:
“Man has three thousand snakes in his body. Every thousand snakes are resurrected with a bite of food. If you eat one less than three bites, a thousand snakes will die in your soul. If you eat less than two bites, two thousand snakes will die. In summary, if you eat one more bite, a thousand snakes of your soul will come to life. If you eat too little, it dies. God willing, God will give us and our friends practice in eating less, saying less, and sleeping less.” (CI/457).
As can be understood from this analogy, Mevlana saw hunger as one of the ways of self-discipline. As a matter of fact, in one of his conversations, he narrates the struggle and the struggle of the dervish, who has been worshiping and obedience for years, with his nafs. The dervish, who circumnavigated the Ka'ba many times in order to kill his soul, and took the trouble of traveling on foot, could not overcome his nafs. This time he was busy with fasting, asceticism and hunger; thus he conquered his soul. As a result, Rumi concludes his statement as follows: "God knows better, that is, no obedience other than hunger can defeat and become a Muslim" (CI/452). When he was locked in a solitary confinement in a cell for forty days, he took nothing but a pitcher of water and a few barley breads with him (CI/161).
On the other hand, in the work, the foods that Mevlânâ loved and took place in his daily life are also mentioned. At the beginning of these are yoghurt and garlic, the traditional food of not only Mevlana but also Turks. It is seen that he especially likes garlic. He eats dew garlic seeds in iftar and advises those around him to consume it in this way (CI/386). Again, according to the narration of Ulu Arif Çelebi's mother, Kirake Hatun, when he came home at midnight, he asked for yogurt and had twenty heads of garlic beaten in a large bowl of yogurt given to him. He also chopped the bread that had stale mold in it and ate it all. 
Kirake Hatun said, "I put a piece of that yogurt in my mouth, my tongue immediately swelled from the sharpness of the yogurt." (CI/386-87) says. A similar narration is also reported from Bahaeddin-i Bahri. Mevlânâ, who went to the spa with this person and stayed there for ten days, did not eat any food during this time. Then all of a sudden a Turk brought a big bowl of yogurt. Mevlânâ put a lot of garlic in this yogurt and ate it (C. I/412).
In Menâkıbü'l-Ârifîn, only meatballs and figs are identified as foods to be associated with Mevlânâ. In response to the insistence of the host, after the person named Celaleddin-i Mustavfi did not eat anything at the iftar table;
“My stomach is very weak. Now he looks like a weak animal with a scarred back. Just like an animal, it groans and collapses when it is wanted to be stabbed on its back and cannot carry its load. If he had not been beaten and smashed, he would have eaten a few meatballs” (CI/498)
replied as. In another legend, he bought and ate a fig brought from the vineyard of a friendly elder (CI/441-42).
Ayran is mentioned in two poems included in the narrated legends. Ayran was used as a symbol concept in a conversation in which he said that he did not taste the taste of greed, that he had been making food for forty years, and that poverty was also an art:
“I wish there was no greed in my heart. There is a realm in my heart. I haven't looked at honey's face since you gave me buttermilk; because every blessing has a sadness.” (CI/301) says. In a similar usage, “As long as I have a bowl of buttermilk, I drink it. I am not bound by the bowl and pouch of this and that. Even though poverty and necessity threaten me with death, I still cannot sell my freedom for servitude.” (CI/414)
It is seen as a symbol of humility and being independent of everything.
In the narrations mentioned in Menâkıbü'l-Ârifîn, the practices that appear above the physical strength of the person are understood as the necessity of the style of a legend book. Although Eflâkî aims to glorify Mevlânâ with this discourse, through these legends, Mevlânâ's philosophy on self-cultivation is clearly identified, his turning away from matter and his journey in meaning are followed.
Table in Menâkıbü'l-Ârifin
As understood from Menâkıbü'l Ârifîn, meals are eaten at the table:
“One day, Muineddin Pervane visited Mevlana. All sharia and tariqa greats were also present at this meeting. After the Sema, a big table was set.” (CI/235).
“One night, Muineddin Pervane organized a great sema for Mevlana and called many great people. After the whirling was over, the elders sat at the table, ate, and dispersed.” (CI/306).
Meals are eaten from a bowl and a spoon is used:
“... He was always with us when we visited the tomb of the Prophet in Medina. But he never sat down with us and ate from a bowl with us” (CI/p. 219). “The propeller took the bowl and presented it to Mevlana for a spoonful to eat, and repeatedly said: “This is made from halal food.” Mevlana would take a spoon from it, take it to his mouth and put it back into the bowl” (CI/207).
Tables equipped with various blessings are mentioned in the work. However, Mevlânâ was not pleased with these tables, but found them excessive and vilified. Returning from Kayseri from his embassy duty and talking about the various blessings they ate and drank at Pervâne's table, he was enraged by those who praised them, and emphasized the absurdity of the situation by saying, “Friends should be ashamed because they praise the footpath excessively and boast that they ate and drank like this” (CI/430).
Mohammed always asked Hadim, "Is there anything in the house today?" he would ask, if the sheikh Muhammed Hadim said, “There is nothing,” he would be happy and grateful: "This house smells of Pharaoh," (CI/408).
In Menâkıbü'l-Ârifîn, a transfer that can be associated with meal times during the day could not be detected. It is seen that food is eaten only at the end of the sama'. As it is understood from many narrations transmitted, the meals are after the sama'. It can be thought that such a timing is in order not to cause an inconvenience caused by returning. However, the situation is exactly the opposite in the legend transmitted from the person named Nureddin. Accordingly, the aforementioned person performs a big circumcision wedding for his son, and Mevlânâ is present at the wedding for sixteen days. During this period, the sema' is arranged at intervals. 
Mevlânâ is so immersed in the taste of the sama that he neither eats, drinks nor sleeps for sixteen days. Sixteen days later, they bring delicious meals, but Mevlânâ does not eat anything again, on the grounds that he has no appetite. On the night of the circumcision ceremony, he orders them to bring food and eats four cups of each meal. That night, Mevlânâ ate fifty cups of food, and the most interesting thing is that he immediately gets up for the sema. For this state of Mevlânâ, who does not have a single lump in his stomach, Eflâkî says it is one of the rare and unprecedented miracles (C.1/326-327).
It is mentioned in a few narrations that these people sat at the table and ate after the sema' to which Muineddin Pervâne had arranged the sama' for Mevlana and invited the great people (CI/306, 340).
Named Foods
Many foods from salty to sweet, from fruit to vegetables are mentioned in Menâkıbü'l-Ârifîn. From this point of view, both the abundance of the Mevlevi table Mevlevi Food and Drink and, of course, the richness of the Seljuk cuisine in terms of the period are affirmed.
Beyond being an indispensable part of Turkish tables, bread, which is described as a "blessing" in our culture and almost sacred, is a staple food, as understood from Menâkıbü'l-Ârifin. The need for bread became concrete by comparing Rumi to bread in the language of a Greek monk:
“Mevlânâ is like bread. No one can avoid needing bread. Have you seen any hungry running away from bread?" (C.II/60).
A slice of bread is enough for a hungry person (C.II/56). But on the other hand, satiety is from God, and bread is an excuse.” (CI/478)
The mention of bread with other foods also indicates that it is additive. Sometimes dry bread is soaked in water and iftar is served with them (CI/131), sometimes moldy bread is chopped into yogurt (CI/386). During his stay in Konya, Shams used to dip a piece of dry bread in trotter water and make tirit every ten or fifteen days (CI/163), or he would tirit half a loaf of bread in head water every seven days (C.II/87). In a transfer about Shams, it is learned how much the bread was bought at that time. Accordingly, a beautiful white bread could be bought for a single stamp. At that time, one hundred and twenty stamps cost one dirham. (C.II/86).
There is only barley flour as the raw material of bread (C.II/336). Barley bread, bran bread (CI/151) and tandoori bread were mentioned as bread types. It can be understood that tandoori bread is an acceptable type of bread based on the comparison in the statement that a person who eats nur food will not look at the face of tandoori bread:
“Whoever eats straw and barley becomes a sacrifice. Whoever eats the light of God becomes the Qur'an. Once you eat that light food, your tandoori bread (does not look at it), you scatter soil on it.” (CI/270)
Barley flour is mentioned as flour. After he became a disciple of Sayyid-i Sirdan Baheddin Veled, his austerity reached such a level that he wandered barefoot in the forests and mountains for twelve years. Sayyid, who had a repertoire of barley flour with him, used to make and eat buğra (?) every twelve days (CI/146).
5.2. Sop
What a beautiful saying that “God created some people for wars and some for tirit in the bowl”. (C.II/132) 
Mainly, tirit, which is made by chopping bread fried in broth, is accepted as one of the important and modest dishes of the Mevlevi cuisine. Because the logic of this dish is to prevent waste. Because the prepared broth is obtained by boiling the remaining cheap parts of animal meat, especially offal, and stale bread is chopped into it. In this way, both cheap meat and stale bread are evaluated. In Menâkıbü'l Ârifin, it is mentioned about tirit which is eaten by chopping or dipping bread in head water (C.II/87, 130), trotter juice (CI/163). In addition, the garlic yogurt that Mevlânâ chopped and ate moldy bread was also called tirit (CI/386-87).
Herise, or more commonly known as keskek, is a dish that is usually cooked in Mevlevihanes during the month of Ramadan (Mehmet Kamil, 2015: 44). In Melceü't-Tabbahîn, it is described that the peeled keskeklik wheat is boiled and softened after being kept in water for one night, the filtered wheat is beaten with a keskek mallet after adding cow or mutton meat, then it is put on the fire and cooked with broth until it thickens. Herise taken to the pans would be ready to eat by drizzling clarified butter on it and adding cumin or sumac (Mehmet Kamil, 2015: 115). This dish, which has a place in the Mevlevi cuisine, is used as an element of simile in Mevlana's Masnavi, it describes the people of love, who are not different from each other by being cooked spiritually:
“They are like everyone else, they are no longer different. However, those who have reached this office and are not suffocated cannot realize this.” (Masnevi CV/b.3460)
Herise is mentioned in two legends about Ulu Arif Çelebi in Menâkıbü'l-Ârifîn. Ulu Arif Çelebi, who did not fast for three days and three nights, asked for her in the morning (C.II/270). In another legend, heris became a means of miracle. Çelebi took the bowl full of herise from a child passing by the madrasa and ate it. Afterwards, he asked the child to close the bowl and leave, and the child, who progressed a little, was ecstatic when he saw that the bowl in his hand was full of herise, as before, and grew up with him as a follower of Çelebi (C.II/233).
Hutab is a dish that was made at that time, but about which no information is known. As far as it is learned from Menâkıbü'l-Ârifîn, it is made in sin, it is fragrant (C.II/304) and is sold for one dirham. Mevlânâ had a khutab of two dirhams and took them to a female dog who had bred all of them in a ruin (CI/367).
After the sema, which was held in Muineddin Pervâne's house and in which Mevlânâ also participated, Georgian Hatun sent two of them to eat for friends (CI/367).
Desserts: Sugar/ Honey/ Halva
Sugar, as the most important ingredient of dessert and sherbet, is often mentioned as an element of simile and sometimes literally. In one of Mevlânâ's conversations, “If a person eats poison when he is hungry, he digests it and this poison does not harm him, whereas eating sugar when he is extremely full becomes poison for him.” By looking at the statement (CI/449), it is understood that it is inconvenient for health to be eaten when full.

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Eflâkî talks about vegetable sugar and almond sugar as a kind of sugar. Kemâleddin-i Kâbi, one of the Seljuk judges, wishes to gain the discipleship of Mevlânâ by arranging a sema. He wants to prepare a sherbet to be drunk after Semâ and for this purpose he searches all of Konya. As a result, there is only thirty zambil, or basket amount, of pure vegetable sugar. When it is not enough, the Sultan's wife asks Gumâc Hatun. Gumâc Hatun gives ten zambils. But it is still not enough. Thereupon, he deems it appropriate to give honey sherbet to the foot team. 
Finally, after he filled all the vegetable sugar obtained into the pool of the Karatay madrasah, he sent some to the sultan's wine to adjust its taste. It is served to the notables of the state and religion who participate in the sama after it has a taste (CI/228). According to the conclusions drawn from this legend, sherbet is drunk after sema to calm the heat, and this sherbet is made from vegetable sugar. Vegetable sugar is first quality (Master, 2009: 89). However, as it is understood from the legend, it is a product that is rare and not easy to obtain. 
For this reason, if the number of guests to be served sherbet is high, honey sherbet made from vegetable sugar was offered to the guests of the lower layer, which in this case should be of second quality compared to vegetable sugar.
Almond candy is also mentioned on the occasion of a wedding. Mevlana, who attended the wedding, asked if there was almond sugar and asked them to bring it. From here, it can be concluded that almond candy is a wedding treat (CI/417).
Honey is a dessert offered to guests at Menâkıbü'l-'Arifîn (CI/276). Apart from the familiar honey, Eflâkî also mentions “white honey”. Sultan Veled, who was a guest in Hüsameddin Çelebi's vineyard, and his companions brought white honey in a honeycomb from the Çelebi hives. Çelebi gave the hive of honey to Sultan Veled and they benefited from this hive for a long time. At the same time, every patient they made and gave syrup from this honey would heal in a short time (C.II/173).
The most mentioned dessert in Menâkıbü'l-Ârifîn is halva. From this point of view, it is understood that the favorite dessert of the period was halva. However, the content of this halva is unknown. According to the reports, it is cooked in a pot and is defined as homemade halva (CI/287), and it is also served hot (CI/404). It seems likely that the dessert in question is flour halva. There are examples of it being done for charitable purposes, especially after a deceased person (C. II/338). In one legend, Mevlana's daughter Melike Hatun shrouds the cat, who did not eat or drink anything for seven days and seven nights after Mevlânâ's death, and eventually died, and buried it in the vicinity of the blessed tomb. They also make halva for friends at the burial ceremony of the cat (C.II/52).
It is seen that halvah is made and distributed to the poor as alms for charity. A merchant's wife, who went to the Ka'be-i Magnificent, makes a lot of halvah on the eve of the Eid-al-Adha and distributes it for this purpose (CI/220).
One of Rumi's disciples cooked halva to serve at iftar (CI/287). Hot halva has been prepared for a congregation from a long journey (CI/404). Fahreddin-i Lala, who played games with Ulu Arif Çelebi in his childhood, feeds this little boy sweet halvah. Therefore, halva is also a dessert loved by children (C.II/285).
Menâkıbü'l-Ârifîn is not considered rich in fruits. Melon, figs, apricots, grapes, pomegranates and apples (CI/477) are mentioned. In addition to nuts, walnuts can also be included here (CI/502).
According to the narration of Sultan Veled, Mevlana Shamseddin from time to time asked his followers and lovers for melons, and they brought sweet melons:
“Mevlânâ Şemseddin used to ask for melons from his followers and lovers from time to time. Sure, they brought sweet melons, too. He too would eat and smash their shells on their heads and say: 'O dead people! What did you bring?' he would say. At that time, discoveries would occur in them, they would see strange things from the unseen world and the curtains would be torn.” (C.II/96).
It is reported that Bayezid-i Bistami did not eat melons for sixty years:
“One day, Mevlana Shamseddin said: Bistami was embarrassed. He did not eat melons for sixty years. "Why aren't you eating?" they asked. He said, "I don't know how his majesty Mustafa cut him." Then, how can a person who does not know how he cut melons can inform about sciences that are more secret and difficult than this? (C.II/86).
Figs were offered to Mevlana in a friendly vineyard:
“One of the greats of the friends brought a fig from the brothers' vineyard to Mevlana. Mevlânâ took the fig: “It is a very nice fig, but it has a bone” and put it on the ground. That dervish said, "How does a fig have a bone?" she was amazed. He got up slowly, took those figs and left. He came back a moment later. He brought another basket of figs and placed it in front of Mevlana. Mevlânâ took one and ate it” (CI/441).
Wallachia soaked a bowl of apricots to eat after the bath with his friends:
“One day, His Excellency Çelebi went to the bath. He said to his servant (Aflaki), who was this earth: "Stay at home," and after they had bathed, they had soaked a large bowl of apricots to drink with their gracious friends” (C.II/301).
Grapes, on the other hand, have been mentioned in relation to time. Ulu Arif Çelebi states that when he went to visit the vineyards with his friends, “the grapes had grown in the vineyards” (C.II/238).
As a vegetable, Mevlana's favorite garlic, which is exemplified above, is often mentioned (CI/386, CI/387, C. I/412).
Ulu Arif Çelebi ate cucumbers in a friend's orchard:
“Suddenly, His Excellency Çelebi Arif honored our garden. Necmeddin Dizdar and his amirs rushed down from the Gevale castle, reached His Excellency Çelebi and laid their heads. After a long conversation, Çelebi: "Kerimeddin, won't you bring a few cucumbers from this orchard for friends?" he commanded. I said: “Hüdavendigar (your command) put it on my head over my eyes, but only yesterday. Fresh cucumbers will only come out after a month,” I said. Then he said: "Don't say too much, just go and bring it." So I slowly got out and entered the garden. And I saw that there are four elegant cucumbers on a sapling.” (C. II/279).
These two vegetables can be included among the vegetables mentioned in the work, with the reference to Kiramana Hatun groaning with the pain of separation and describing their qualifications, while cleaning carrots and turnips, after Mevlana sent her sons Sultan Veled and Alaeddin to Damascus to study religious sciences:
“One day, when Mevlana sent Veled and Alaeddin to Damascus to study religious sciences and after a long time passed, Kiramana Hatun was sitting alone cleaning carrots and turnips and moaning with the pain of separation between Bahaeddin and Alaeddin. was counting their qualifications.” (C.II/233)
Other Foods
Other than those mentioned above, the following foods have been identified:
It is seen that pilaf was also included with meat dishes at that time. One night, for the dervishes who left their cells and went to the house of one of their friends, peppered rice was prepared with fatty duck:
“One night they came out of their cells and went to one of their friends' house and told him about their hunger. He prepared a fatty duck and pepperoni rice for them.” (CI/344).
Rice with fried meat;
“Let the maid bring that pot,” he commanded. Then he asked for the dish and the bowl, and he poured some from the pot into the bowl with his own hand. I saw that this is fried meat rice. It was unique in its beauty and taste” (CI/343),
fried bird on a skewer;
“Zahireddin was extremely embarrassed and said nothing. At that time, they had fried a bird on a skewer for him.” (C.II/337), Meatballs;
“ 'My stomach is very weak. Now he looks like a weak animal with a scarred back. Just like an animal, it groans and collapses when it is wanted to be stabbed on its back and cannot carry its load. If he had not been beaten and smashed, he would have eaten a few meatballs'” (CI/498),
“We saw that a dervish wanted a kebab, but he could not find a fire. After he made his kebab and finished it, he blew it and the fire went out” (CI/408).
“Arif Çelebi: According to the imaginations of our friends, our food is wine and kebab, and our life is water” (CI/260).
“The asceticism of Sayyid-i Sirdan was such that he ate only once every ten or fifteen days. When his nafs pressed himself, he would get up and go to the bounty store” (CI/151), Simit,
“A man went to a city. (His purpose) was to understand the negligence of the people of this city and to pickpocket there. He saw a little boy there. The boy had a bagel in his hand. This pickpocket man asked him for a bagel.” (CI/415),
“This sultan sent cheese from food, Armenian slaves from people, and donkeys from animals.” (C. I/p. 183), 114
Pickled turnips;
“They say: (At the meeting of friends) When Sayyid wishes for pickles:
“Turnip pickles are beneficial and the best of all pickles.” (CI/p. 147) Lentils;
“Sultan Veled said: One day, two Turkish jurists came to visit my father and they brought a piece of lentil as a gift.” (CI/315).
Apart from these food names, vinegar and ice as complementary elements are also mentioned by Eflâkî.
“Poetry: The world found relief from the hand of the Messiah because he did not reach for the vinegar soup.” (C.II/173)
“Poetry: God gave us wine. Circus to you too. If this is our destiny, then why should we fight with each other?” (C.II/285)
“Thereupon, Mevlana immediately ordered, they brought ice. He began to eat the pieces of ice. He ate inexplicably.” (CI/188)
Drinks Mentioned
The main drink in the work is sherbet. It is detected in many legends. While some of them are sweet drinks, some of them are generally any diluted drink. Eflâkî records sherbet as the third thing Mevlânâ chose from this world after the whirling dervish and hamam (CI/387). It is seen that sherbet is prepared to offer to those who are thirsty after the sema, at iftar or to serve to guests. Vegetable sugar sherbet (CI/228), honey sherbet (C.II/173), other than rose water sherbet (CI/269), with seven fruits and mahmude (bingöz herb) to treat the disease of a young Frankish emir who fell into the hands of pirates in the Frankish country. The mixture he prepared was also described as sherbet (CI/194).
Eating and Drinking Culture of Mevlana and His Surroundings
Another beverage is ayran. It can be said that ayran was accepted by Mevlânâ from the following examples:
“I wish there was no greed in my heart. There is a realm in my heart. I haven't looked at honey's face since you gave me buttermilk; because every blessing has a sadness.” (CI/301)
“As long as I have a bowl of buttermilk, I drink it. I am not bound by the bowl and pouch of this and that. Even though poverty and necessity threaten me with death, I still cannot sell my freedom for servitude.” (CI/414)
Eflâkî talked about the compote they made with Ulu Arif Çelebi by soaking apricots to drink after the bath (C.II/301). Muineddin Pervâne had a sour compote made for Mevlânâ to drink after the sema, but it is not said from which fruit this compote was made (CI/307).
The most frequently mentioned beverage in Menâkıbü'l-Ârifîn is wine. Sometimes it is used as a symbol and sometimes it is used in the real sense.
Cooking Methods
It is possible to identify some of the cooking methods based on the names of the dishes mentioned in the work. With a mention of fried meat rice (CI/343), frying; These methods include frying a bird on a skewer (C. II/337), grilling by arranging bottles, and boiling grapes to make molasses (C.II/238).
Bread, on the other hand, was cooked in a wood fire in the tandoor (CI/477), the hotter the baker's tandoori, the more bread it is possible to bake (CI/310).
Kitchen utensils
In Menâkıbü'l-Ârifîn, it is seen that the name of the main items necessary in a kitchen is mentioned. Georgian Hatun had a complete kitchen set consisting of trays, cauldrons, copper and china bowls, mortars and candlesticks prepared for the dowry of the daughter of Şeyh Selâhaddin,Girti Hatun (C.II/157). The kitchen utensils that Eflâkî mentions in the work can be exemplified as follows:
Bowls were used not only for maî things like compote and ayran, but also for other dishes. Chinese bowls are mentioned:
“The propeller ordered his men to make sour compote and put it in a china bowl.” (CI/307)
“Mevlânâ sat in the hot spring for ten days and did not eat at all. All of a sudden a Turk brought a big bowl of yogurt.” (CI/412)
“As long as I have a bowl of buttermilk, I drink it. I am not bound by the bowl and pouch of this and that. Even though poverty and necessity threaten me with death, I still cannot sell my freedom for servitude.” (CI/414)
“Kadi Sıraceddin had come to inquire about Mevlânâ's illness. I was holding a bowl of sherbet in my hand in case Rumi might wet his lips.” (C.II/408)
“One day, His Excellency Çelebi went to the bath. He said to his servant (Aflaki), who was this earth: "Stay at home," and after they had bathed, they had soaked a large bowl of apricots to drink with their generous friends. While I was vacuuming the house, I found a dirham under Çelebi's cushion and threw it in my bag. Meanwhile, my eye fell on the bowl of compote.” (C.II/301)
Veled narrated that: One day I was sitting at the door of the madrasah. I saw a boy pass by with a bowl of herise.” (C.II/233)
“Let the maid bring that pot,” he commanded. Then he asked for the dish and the bowl, and he poured some from the pot into the bowl with his own hand” (CI/343).
“I walked in and saw that this man is cooking homemade halva in a pot.” (CI/285)
“We had dinner now, and I put hot water in the pot to wash the utensils,” said the maid. Rumi said, 'Let the maid bring that pot.'" (CI/343)
Hutab and halva are placed in the tin:
“Again, they narrated that there was a great sema in Pervâne's house. Mevlana had entered the private room and started to pray. Her Majesty the Georgian Hatun sent two large bowls of khutab for the friends to eat.” (CI/367)
“As soon as they were honored with the honor of standing in front of Mevlana, the queen of women (God be pleased with her) Fahru'n-nisa fi'l-fuem (whom women are proud of) put a tray of halva made at home in front of the guests.” (CI/404)
The pitcher is used as a water and wine container:
“Sayyid prepared a cell, made Mevlana sit in solitude in this cell; closed the cell door with mud. They say there was nothing in the cell but a pitcher of water and some barley bread.” (CI/161)
“On that day, nearly twenty lucky friends drank sips of wine and rejoiced like Jesus. When a third of the night has passed, there is nothing left but a pitcher of wine.” (C.II/302)
Wine is put in:
“No matter how much Mevlana Alaeddin begged and pleaded, he did not accept. He ordered them to prepare a bag of wine. He hadn't eaten or slept all these days. He put the mouth of the overalls on his blessed mouth, drank all of them at once, and got up and began to swam.” (C.II/261)
The goblet was often used as a glass in which wine was poured:
“Çelebi Polad Bey narrated that one night in Karahisar-ı Devle castle, we had a conversation with the sons of Owner Fahrcddin and their regents, in the service of his Excellency Çelebi. We were busy drinking pure, old and delicious wine. Arif Çelebi, with two full glasses in his hand:...” (C.II/267)
However, it is seen that it is also used as a milk and water glass:
“Two chalices from the light came from God, showing the world. One was filled with pure wine and the other with an easy-drinking milk.” (CI/349)
“But they protect the water glass from the dog's tongue, because the water in a small glass is changed and spoiled by the dog's licks.” (C.II/66)
Kira Hatun crushed the Hijaz sand that came out of Mevlana's shoes in a mortar. He applied it to the eyes of those whose eyes hurt, like a tûtiya, and cured them by adding it to the syrup of the sick. “And I didn't tell anyone that as long as he was alive. I smashed these sands in a mortar.” (CI/339).
“I immediately got up, gave the water jug ​​to the dervish, and put some of the food I owned in front of this dervish, who was heartbroken.” (C. I/373)
It is mentioned in the description of Mevlânâ, who was a guest at Pervâne's table, when he ate a meal: “Pervane took the bowl and presented it to Mevlânâ for a spoonful to eat and repeatedly said: “This is made from halal”. Mevlânâ would take a spoon from it, take it to his mouth and put it back into the bowl.” (CI/307)
Healing from the Table
In Menâkıbü'l-Ârifîn, some foods are almost prescribed for the treatment of some diseases in accordance with an understanding that can be called folk medicine or alternative medicine. It is remarkable that Mevlânâ gave advice at that time, just like a prescriptive physician.
Sayyid-i Sırdan finds it beneficial to eat turnip raw for eye health: “They say: (At a meeting of friends) When Sayyid nibs desire pickles:
“Turnip pickles are beneficial and the best of all pickles, eating turnip dew brings light to the eyes.” he would say. Because Sayyid was excellent in medical sciences and divine wisdom, and whatever he said, he would have emerged from the realm of the unseen.” (CI/p. 147)
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Mevlana used garlic and almonds for malaria treatment, and the patient was cured in three days:
“Mevlânâ wrote on three cloves of garlic and when he could not eat it, he wrote on three almonds and gave it to the malaria, he was well in three days. This is what the garlic or almond writes on: azan, permission, food (?).” (CI/p. 293). Fahreddin-i Sivasi, who caught malaria, also recovered with the same method: “Fahreddin-i Sivasi caught a high fever and dangerous malaria, was bedridden for a while and burned like a propeller. All the doctors were helpless in his treatment. Mevlana went to visit him, and when he saw him in this state, he ordered them to supply garlic grains and beat them and feed them to the sick." (CI/334)
He ordered Celaleddin Çelebi, who was complaining about too much sleep, to drink the sap of the poppy:
“Again, one day, one of my dear friends, Çelebi Celaleddin, complained to Mevlana about his excessive sleepiness. Mevlana ordered the poppy to extract its pulp and eat it. That's what he did, and he was completely sleep deprived." (C. I/334)
A young man, who fell into the hands of pirates in the Frankish country, prepared a drinkable medicine from seven kinds of fruit and put mahmude in it to treat the disease of the Frankish emir. Mahmude is a herb called bingozine or Turkish ivy, and the resin-like substance obtained from the roots of this plant is used as a laxative (www.saglikaktuel.com):
“This poor young man, inspired by God, commanded, they brought seven kinds of fruit. The young man prepared a drinkable medicine with a taste, put some mahmude in it and made the patient drink the syrup by mentioning the name of Mevlana three times. With the grace of the Franks, the grace of God and the help of the men of God, it was good to drink this sherbet three times.” (CI/194)
It is a known fact that sweets increase body temperature. For the same reason, in Menâkıbü'l Ârifîn, it is stated that halvah and therefore dessert will touch a hot person and therefore it is not appropriate to eat it:
“The people there said: “This state of the sheikh does not harm the sheikh. Because he has a mature soul. As a matter of fact, halva does not harm the doctor, but it touches the patient with fever. It is not right for the patient to eat halva (for this reason). (CI/ p. 170)
What is said about black cumin in the work is a good example of folk beliefs. Accordingly, black cumin thrown into the fire is against the evil eye:
“All of these are like black cumin thrown into the fire to ward off the evil eye of bad people.” (C.II/277)
Using Elements of Cuisine as Metaphors
In Menâkıbü'l-Ârifîn, many elements of the kitchen have been used as metaphors and turned into indicators with multidimensional meanings. These expressions can be explained and understood within the philosophy of Mevlana, and therefore within the mystical world of Mevlevi. A few examples will suffice here:
“Sayyid got up, performed ablution, made a ghusl, put on his clothes, and curled up in a corner of the house while drinking his death glass.” (CI/150)
“Poetry: May this wedding be blessed and happy to us. May this wife and wife always mix well with each other like milk and sugar, wine and halva. For us, this marriage is like a date tree that makes us benefit from both its leaves and berries.” (CI/158)
“Because we sifted all the people, no one else remained on the sieve.” (CI/193)
“Mevlânâ was also enchanted by the cup of beka and was radiating meanings in a state of being immersed in the light of love.” (CI/222)
“Because his body, blessed from the tiredness of the night prayers and the daytime semas, and not eating anything, was as thin as the lip of a glass.” (CI/305)
“God said: O servants, do not hesitate to remember me a lot so that your heart may be purified. The more purification you have in your heart, the greater the brightness of God's light will be in the heart. As a matter of fact, the hotter the baker's tandoori gets, the more bread he gets. He doesn't take bread when it's cold." (CI/310)
“When there is such a sea of ​​bast and an ocean of mercy, it is unfortunate to turn one's body into bacon in a private corner,” they said. (CI/334)
“He was always heartbroken and tearful. (From the fear of his soul) “A sound like that of a boiling pot would be heard from inside him”. (CI/456)
“Charity is like water. Be careful which tree and which plant you give it to. If you give a fasiq, you increase the thorn, if you give to a reformer, you increase the apples and pomegranates,” he said. (CI/477)
“Even if the aspirant wants to have a discovery right away, he slowly reaches his goal by waiting. As a matter of fact, even if a person wants the apricot tree he has planted to bear fruit and shade in the same year, the tree does not bear fruit until it grows thicker because it is weak. (CI/480)
“Man is like a vessel, a bowl. Although it is wajib to wash the outside of it, it is more obligatory to wash the inside. Although it is fard to wash the outside, it is more fard to wash the inside.” (CI/576)
“A Greek monk said: “Mevlânâ is like bread. No one can avoid needing bread. Have you seen any hungry running away from bread?" (C.II/61)
“A body without knowledge, a city without water; a body without fasting, a tree without fruit; a body without shame, a pot without salt; A body without zeal and effort is like a slave without a master, a slave without a owner.” (C.II/104)
“The disciples were very happy whenever he came to Mevlana's presence. When Mevlana saw him as a true aspirant who was thirsty for the water of life and the sherbet of rose water, he was very enthusiastic and uttered strange words to illuminate the divine truth and knowledge.” (CI/269)
French philosopher and semiotician Roland Barthes defines nutrition as “What is that thing we call food? It's not just a collection of products analyzed statistically or in terms of nutritional content. It is also a system of communication, a body of images, a convention of customs, situations and manners.” defines it as (Bober, 2014: 14). Based on this definition, food is not just food. Research on the eating and drinking cultures of human societies provides us with valuable information that will go up to identity analysis. 
The food master Brillat-Savarin sums it up with the words "Tell me what you eat and I'll tell you who you are". The people they eat and sometimes even do not eat, and the geography, culture, mythology, beliefs, history, etc. related to it. It is a kind of intangible document that provides enlightening information to get to know, understand and learn about its subjects. Looking at the kitchens of Mevlana and thus of the Mevlevi with this attention will lead the researchers to a kind of material not found in the chronicles. As a result, Eflâkî's Menâkıbü'l-Ârifîn, which is undoubtedly an invaluable resource in terms of Mevlevî studies, has been discussed in terms of culinary culture this time beyond being a legend book for the reasons that are tried to be explained. 
It was tried to open a window to the kitchen of Mevlânâ and those around him, and it was desired to understand both Mevlânâ and Mevlevi thought with this dimension. It has been concluded that the examined work reveals a very rich material on the subject. Very good examples of the elements of eating and drinking have been identified for Mevlânâ, who even described his journey in search of meaning with the words “I was raw, cooked, burned”, and for the Mevlevîs who attributed an almost sacred meaning to the kitchen. 
It has been witnessed that the way to become a perfect human being passes through the kitchen, sometimes a slice of dry bread and sometimes even moldy bread is enough to satisfy hunger, and this is how self-education takes place. The findings of the study were tried to be classified as much as possible, and the information obtained from table culture to sweet and salty dishes, fruits and vegetables, and cooking methods from the tools used were evaluated within the limits of this study. Although its relevance to the subject is indirect, the use of foods in folk medicine in a way that can be understood with mystical explanations is also presented to attention.
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As the head chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR, I see the source:
Ms. prof. Dr. I sincerely thank Zehra Göre for her academic studies titled "Eating and Drinking Culture of Mevlânâ and His Surroundings According to Menâkıbü'l-Ârîfîn" and wish him success in his professional life . It will definitely be considered as an example by those who need it in professional kitchens and the gastronomy and culinary community.