• What Are
  • What Are
  • What Are
  • What Are
  • What Are
  • What Are

Food color is one of the basic elements of recognizing food, gaining confidence, predicting flavor before tasting and having knowledge about its formulation. Therefore, color plays an important role in food selection and consumption preferences, as it will affect the pleasure and..

New Trend in Gastronomy: Black Foods 
In addition to the cultural values ​​and beliefs of the society in which one lives, there are differences in eating and drinking behaviors and/or expectations depending on the preferences and tastes of people that internalize their individuality. 
Eating and drinking activities, which have moved beyond being a physiological need for people to survive, have brought the desire to experience foods with different tastes, tastes and appearances, with the effect of globalization, and the process of including them among the unforgettable memories for individuals has come. 
In this way, it is seen that different trends emerged as eating and drinking activities turned into entertainment, being an indicator of status, and being a tool for the individual to express himself, and became a fashion with their visuality and consumption patterns. 
The aim of this study is to make a compilation about the types, production and consumption of black foods, which has come to the fore as a new trend in gastronomy, and to contribute to the idea that different studies can be made on black foods by drawing attention to this trend, which is not considered in the literature.
Keywords: Gastronomy, Trends, Black Foods.
Globalization and the accompanying technological, economic and sociological developments cause very different changes in terms of the food and beverage sector. Different gastronomic elements that emerge in this process can attract the attention of individuals. Gastronomy is a discipline that examines the relationship between all consumable food and beverage items and culture, as well as the art of eating and drinking well. 
From a historical and etymological point of view, the concept of gastronomy is a life art that guides where and how the food should be eaten, what food and which drink should be drunk, and helps people to have knowledge and skills about food and beverage so that they can enjoy their meal more (Cömert and Özkaya, 2014). 
With the increasing interest in food and cooking in recent years, the desire to understand the chemical and physical principles that determine the nature and interactions of what we eat has also increased (Wolke, 2004). As a result, it is observed that many studies have been carried out with historical, behavioral, biological, sociological and socioeconomic approaches to food in terms of production and consumption from past to present. 
In an other saying; There are many studies that try to reveal the situation and relationships related to food production, distribution, consumption patterns and habits, diversity and different presentations of products, cooking techniques, different culinary cultures, the place of religion in food consumption, table customs, sensory perceptions, values ​​for human health, and related professions. research takes place in the literature (Akarçay, 2016). One of the subjects included in these studies is colors.
Food color is one of the basic elements of recognizing food, gaining confidence, predicting flavor before tasting and having knowledge about its formulation. Therefore, color plays an important role in food selection and consumption preferences, as it will affect the pleasure and taste of consuming food (Yılmaz & Erden, 2017). Colour; It plays an important role in food selection by influencing taste thresholds, flavor perception, food preference, pleasantness and acceptability (Clydesdale, 1994). 
With this study, it is aimed to reveal how the trend towards black foods such as Black Hamburger, which is unique to Japan, which is stated to be produced with bamboo charcoal in China in the 1400s, and which is identified with the day called “Halloween” in America, emerged, its characteristics and varieties. . In future studies, different issues can be discussed on how black foods take place in individuals' perceptions and preferences, or on the effect of individuals on mood or subjective well-being.
Conceptual Framework
Consumers obtain information about which foods are good or bad for them, thanks to food manufacturers, scientists and marketers, and through the various communication tools used. 
The desire to acquire a certain food or a certain brand that they think they express themselves, the sensory or non-sensory benefits of the product or the creation of a social and symbolic value for purchase or consumption, being healthy (Chandon and Wansink, 2012), healthy taste and appearance. Subjects such as the relative importance of people rather than being a food item are the factors that affect the food preferences of gastronomy consumers. On the other hand, there is a desire to seek novelty, to discover and experience differences.
At the same time, colors are the most determining factor as an indicator for food (Cordain, et al., 2005, Heseker, 2012). The appearance of food, especially its color, is an important source of information for the consumer to predict flavor before tasting. The color of the food affects the consumers' ability to recognize the aroma correctly.
It has been known that colors have different symbolic values ​​and meanings in different cultures since the earliest times of history (Mazlum, 2011) and people's general color preferences have been different for many years (Rösch and Jungvogel, 2013). The meanings of colors in culinary culture are as follows (Yılmaz and Erden, 2017):

How can I reach Turkish cuisine chefs?

White: as in the marketing concept, it expresses simplicity and cleanliness. It is a color associated with health and foods known as natural antibiotics, such as onions and garlic. It is also stated that it represents a low-calorie food (Akgül and Güneş, 2015).
Yellow: It is known to create a luxurious and rich perception in marketing communications as it is used in packaging as a color that gives warmth, vitality and brightness. Since the color yellow symbolizes ephemerality, it is also preferred in fast-food-style restaurants where customer density is experienced (Olgaç, 2016). Red: this color best perceived by the eye in warm colors is the connotation of excitement, passion, power and extroversion, as well as power and fire in marketing communications. “The fire is calling you!” Burger King advertisements with the slogan reveal the red food perception (Yılmaz and Erden, 2017).
Blue: Blue, which is in the cold color category, is known to have calming and relaxing properties associated with coolness and calmness. It creates an appetizing perception towards food and appears as an unpleasant color in food (Hopia et al., 2015).
Black: Associated with cold, mystery and ambition. In the dark food group, which is perceived as a cold, prestigious and sophisticated color in marketing communication; It is known that there are stimulants such as chocolate, coffee, cocoa and they are foods that give energy. Grape, black cumin, olive and black mulberry can be given as examples of black foods (Yılmaz and Erden, 2017).
It is seen in the studies that colors have an important place in the kitchen as in many other subjects. It is known that colors, which can play a decisive role in the appearance, color and taste of food and beverages, create a psychological expectation and may not always be within expectations. 
As it is known, the science of gastronomy has recently become an increasing value (Yılmaz and Şenel, 2016). The importance of new trends is increasing, especially as a result of the differentiation in the products that people prefer over time. One of them is "Black Food", which has just started to become a new trend.
If we consider black foods under two groups; first, natural black foods, which are stated to be healthier than other colored vegetables and fruits, and second, foods prepared and presented in completely black color by using activated charcoal, bamboo charcoal and cuttlefish. Of these black foods, natural ones can be called black garlic, black beans, black rice. Of these;
Black Garlic is the fermentation of white garlic by keeping it under high temperature and high humidity conditions for a certain period of time. In this process, the cloves of the garlic turn black, giving it a sweet flavor and a molasses-like appearance. By converting bioactive alkaloids and flavonoid compounds into antioxidant compounds during the aging process, the reduced allicin content reduces bitterness and its strong odor turns into flavor. 
Black garlic with a dried fruit flavor has a sweet and smoked flavor. In addition to daily consumption, black garlic, which has been consumed for centuries in South Korea, Japan and Thailand and met 10 years ago in Taiwan and other countries, also has antioxidation, antiallergic, antidiabetes, antiinflammation and anticarcinogenic effects. For the last few years, top chefs have been drawing attention to the flavor of black garlic in chicken, fish, soup and risotto (Kimura et al., 2017).
Black beans, the homeland of which is America, is very important in human health with its high antioxidant effect. In previous studies (Mojica, Meyer, Berhow, and de Mejía, 2015) Negro-Otomi variety (black bean) was found to have the highest antioxidant concentration (2.5 mg/g fold) than other bean varieties (Mojica, et al. , 2017).
Although less popular than Black Rice, Brown rice or wild rice, black rice, also known as forbidden rice, is an ancient grain that has more impressive health benefits than many other closely related rice varieties. This rice has a long history in Southeast Asian countries such as China, India and Thailand and consists of many varieties. 
There are more than 200 varieties of black rice in the world (Kong. et al., 2008). Black rice has long been consumed in Japan and China and is considered a healthy food due to its antioxidant effect (Yawadio, et al, 2007).
Black foods, which are colored using activated charcoal, bamboo charcoal and cuttlefish, have only just begun to emerge, but have already begun to take their place on social media. Activated charcoal is used therapeutically in cases of poisoning in the field of health. Due to its absorbent effect, it is used as an antidote or to reduce stomach acidity (www.self.com). 
However, recently activated charcoal has been used in foods with its coloring effect. Activated charcoal is obtained by burning natural plants such as coconut shells, wood, bamboo and the like, and when exposed to some gases at high temperatures during a special process, it becomes activated charcoal and the resulting activated charcoal is added to foods. The structure of activated charcoal consists of a very absorbent fine black powder. Activated charcoal keeps toxins and chemicals in the gut, preventing their absorption. This helps it trap toxins and chemicals in the gut.
It is known that it is added to foods in much lower amounts than the dosages used in medicine (www.oggusto.com). Today, it is thought that colorful foods will leave their place to a single color. It is stated that black colored foods have been very popular for a long time in many countries of the world, from India to America. 
The reason for this popularity is thought to be due to the low number of black foods and arousing curiosity in people, although there are various colored foods. At the same time, in recent studies, foods close to black will be called super foods in the near future (www.gidahareketi.org).
Düriye Bozok, Gülhan Yalın 2 (Annex.1) 2018
Examples of Black Foods 
Pasta with squid ink
What Are "Black Foods" in Gastronomy
New Trend in Gastronomy: Black Foods
Black pasta obtained with squid ink is known to contain high antioxidants.
Black Garlic
What Are "Black Foods" in Gastronomy
New Trend in Gastronomy: Black Foods
Garlic is a widely used pungent condiment and also has some biological activities such as antioxidant and antibacterial (Horita et al., 2016; Noda, Asada, Sasaki, Hashimoto, and Nakamura, 2013). Black garlic is a fermented version of regular garlic. Black garlic, which is frequently used in Asian cuisine, is also preferred in Europe because it is very useful. (www.cnnturk.com). 
Many studies show that instead of raw fresh garlic, black garlic has broad biological activities such as anti-cancer and antioxidant (Kim, Kang, and Gweon, 2013).
Black Burger
What Are "Black Foods" in Gastronomy
New Trend in Gastronomy: Black Foods
It is known as a Japanese hamburger and is obtained with bamboo charcoal. So much so that the history of this business in China dates back to the 1400s. It is known that cheese is produced from bamboo charcoal as well as hamburger bread (www.hurriyet.com).
Black Ice Cream
What Are "Black Foods" in Gastronomy
New Trend in Gastronomy: Black Foods
Black ice cream, which was first prepared by LittleDamageIceCream in Los Angeles, California and started to be produced in various countries of the world with its explosion on social media, is produced with almond charcoal (blog.adgager.com).
Black Caviar
What Are "Black Foods" in Gastronomy
New Trend in Gastronomy: Black Foods
It is obtained from sturgeon living in the Caspian Sea. It is known to have many health benefits.
Black Croissant
What Are "Black Foods" in Gastronomy
Black Croissant
It is obtained by using the ink of squid.
The importance of the science of gastronomy on the experiences of people cannot be ignored. Especially recently, people have been looking for a change in their eating and drinking tendencies in order to catch a difference. In this context, one of the new trends in gastronomy has been determined as a result of the literature review in which black foods have started to spread rapidly in the world. 
It has been seen that people are the center of attention, especially on social media. 
However, when the existing literature is examined, it is aimed to fill an important gap with this study, since there is not enough literature other than internet resources.
In addition to this, no examples have been found in Turkish Cuisine yet. In this context, it is assumed that Turkish Cuisine, which is considered as one of the few culinary cultures of the world, will of course be affected by these ongoing changes and developments and will begin to practice it. 
For food and beverage businesses, products prepared in different colors will increase the awareness of consumers. In addition, since a previous study on black foods has not been found in the literature, it is assumed that it will set an example for future studies.
Akdağ, G., Özata, E., Sormaz, Ü., and Çetinsöz, B. (2016). A New Alternative for Sustainable Gastronomy Tourism: Surf&Turf. Journal of TourismandGastronomyStudies4 (1), 270-28.
Akgül, D. and Güneş, D. (2015), Colors, Meanings and Effects on Brand Awareness: The Case of Kırşehir. 14th National Business Congress. Aksaray.
Bucak, T. (2014). SlowFood Stream. In: ON Özdoğan (Editor), Trends, Concepts, Approaches, Success Stories in the Food and Beverage Industry. Ankara: Detay Publishing, 21-46.
Chandon, P., Wansink, B. (2012), “Does food marketing need to make us fat? A few reviews and solutions”, Nutrition Reviews, Vol. 70, No. 10, 571-593.
Clydesdale, M. (1994), “Changes in Color and Flavor and Their Effect on Sensory Perception in Elderly, Nutrition Revews, Vol. 52, 19-20.
Cordain, L., Eaton, SB, Sebastian, A., Mann, N., Lindeberg, S., Watkins, BA, ... BrandMiller, J. (2005). Originsandevolution of the Western diet: healthimplicationsforthe 21st century. TheAmericanJournal of ClinicalNutrition, 81(2), 341–354.
Comert, M. and Ozkaya, F. (2014). Importance of Turkish Cuisine in Gastronomy Tourism. Journal of TourismandGastronomyStudies 2 (2), 62-66.
Erdem, B. and Akyürek, S. (2017). A New Culinary Trend: Living Kitchens. Journal of TourismandGastronomyStudies 5(2), 103-126.
Everts, S. (2012). Note-By-NoteCuisine. Chemical&Engineering News, http://cen.acs.org/articles/90/i46/NoteNote-Cuisine.html (Accessed 17.01.2018).
Fischer, E. (1955). Insektenkost my MenschenEinBeitragzurUrgeschichte der menschlichenErnaehrungund der Bambutideri, Translation: Tunakan, S.,Ztschr. Ethn. Bd., 80(1), 1-37, Braunschweig.
Gastronomy (2015). Britannica Concise Encyclopedia: http://www. britannica com/EBchecked/topic/226766/gastronomy , (Accessed August 2, 2015).
Gioffre, R. (2010). A Recipe That Changes Habits: Fusion, Dimension Publishing Group, Istanbul.
Heseker, H. (2012). LebensmittelverzehrundNährstoffzufuhr – Ergebnisse der NationalenVerzehrsstudie II [Foodconsumptionandnutrientsupply – resultsfromtheNattionaleVerzehrsstudie II] 12. Ernährungsbericht(pp. 40– 85). Bonn: DeutscheGesellschaftfürErnährunge.V. (DGE).
Hopia, A., Sandell, M., and Paakki, M. (2016). Consumer'sReactionsto Natural, AtypicallyColoredFoods: An Investigationusing Blue Potatoes. Journal of SensoryStudies 31;2016:78-89.
Crimea, A, (2005). What is Fusion Cuisine, How Fits Us?. Hurriyet Newspaper.
Kimura, S., Tung, YC.,Pan MH.,Su, NW., Lai, YJ., Cheng, KC., (2017), Black garlic: A critical review of its production, bioactivity, and application, Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 25,62-70.
Kong L, Wang Y, Cao Y (2008) Determination of Myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol in black rice bran by capillary electrophoresiswith electrochemical detection. J Food Compos
Linden, E., McClements, DJ and Ubbink, J. (2008). MolecularGastronomy: A FoodFador an InterfaceforScience-Based Cooking?. FoodBiophysics, 3, 246-254.
Mazlum, O. (2011). Cultural Associations of Color. Dumlupınar University Journal of Social Sciences, Issue:31,125- 137.
Mil, B.(2009),''Globalizing Food From Cooking to Gastronomy'',3. National Gastronomy Symposium. Antalya.
Mojica, L., Meyer, A., Berhow, M., & de Mejía, EG (2015). Bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have similar high antioxidant capacity, in vitro inhibition of aamylase and a-glucosidase while diverse phenolic composition and concentration. Food Research International, 69, 38–48.
Mojica, L., Berhow, M., and Mejia, E. (2017). Black bean anthocyanin-rich extracts as food colorants: Physicochemical stability and antidiabetes potential. Food Chemistry 229, 628–639.
Olgac, S. (2016). Menu Design, Menu Management. Anadolu University Press, Eskisehir, 98-130.
Özdoğan, ON, Özdoğan, YG and Tütüncü, S. (2014). FastFood Stream. In: ON Özdoğan (Editor), Trends, Concepts, Approaches, Success Stories in the Food and Beverage Industry. Ankara: Detay Publishing, 1-20.
Rösch, R., and Jungvogel, A. (2013). Vollwertig essen undtrinkennach from 10 Regeln der DGE [Wholefoodsanddrinksaccordingtothe 10 rules of
theGermanNutritionSociety]. DeutscheGesellschaftfürErnährunge.V. (DGE).
Sandıkçı, M. and Çelik, S. (2005), ''Fusion Kitchen Applications and Its Importance in terms of Guest Satisfaction'', (pp.4254). 1st National Gastronomy Symposium, Antalya.
Santich, B. (2007). TheStudy of Gastronomy: A Catalyst for Cultural Understanding”, The International Journal Of The Humanities, vol: 5(6), 53-58.
Saruhan, G. and Tuncer, C. (2010). Cultural entomology, Anatolian Journal of Agricultural Science, 25(1), 21-27.
Scarpato, R. (2002). Gastronomystudies in search of hospitality. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 9 (2), 1-12.
Uyar, H. and Zengin, B. (2015). Establishment of Gastronomy Tourism Index in the Context of Evaluation of Gastronomy Tourism as an Alternative Tourism Type. Journal of Academic Social Research, 3(17) 355-376.
Wolke, (2004). What Did Einstein Tell His Cook? Istanbul: Epsilon Publications.
Yawadio R, Tanimori S, Morita N (2007) Identification of phenolic compounds isolated from pigmented rices and their aldose reductase inhibitory activities. Food Chem 101:1616–1625
Yılmaz, H. and Erden, G. (2017). A Study to Determine the Effects of Colors on the Taste Perception of Soups. Journal of Tourism and Gastronomy Studies 5/Special issue2, 265-275.
https://www.oggusto.com/Access Date: 10.01.2018 https://www.self.com/ Access Date: 03.01.2018 https://www.yemek.comAccess Date: 03.01.2018
http://www.gidahareketi.org/ Access Date: 03.01.2018
https://www.cnnturk.com/ Access Date: 03.01.2018
https://www.hurriyet.com Access Date: 03.01.2018
http://blog.adgager.com Access Date: 03.01.2018
As the head chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR , I see the source:
Ms. prof. Dr. DÜRİYE BOZOK and Mr. Res. See. I sincerely thank GÜLHAN YALIN for their academic studies titled "New Trend in Gastronomy: Black Foods" and wish them success in their professional life . It will definitely be considered as an example by those who need it in professional kitchens, related research and in the world of gastronomy.
The original text, which is accepted as a source, is as follows. Google translate was used for the necessary language change....
*** You can contact me through my contact information for more information on the subjects specified by labeling, taking into account my professional background in the above article, and to get support for Restaurant ConsultingKitchen Consulting  in the titles within my Service Areas. ***
Turkish Cuisine Chefs, Turkish Chef, Restaurant Consultancy, Kitchen Consultancy.