• Menu Management in Gastronomy...
  • Menu Management in Gastronomy...
  • Menu Management in Gastronomy...
  • Menu Management in Gastronomy...
  • Menu Management in Gastronomy...
  • Menu Management in Gastronomy...

We will try to open the Definition and History, Structure, Content, Function, Process, Materials, Planning, Update, Classification, Production, Safety, Harmony, Cost, Price, Cost Control, Evaluation, Design and Marketing of the Menu. In the third part, the operation of the menu in Gaziantep...

Menu Management in Gastronomy...
Huseyin ALTINEL 
Assist. Assoc. Dr. Şehnaz DEMİRKOL  
In today's Gastronomy Management; On the one hand, consumers with their sensitive demands; on the other hand, rapidly growing businesses; They bring with them an increasingly fierce competitive environment. In the face of these developments, businesses, in order to protect their ever-shrinking cakes in the said competition; they have turned to some professional management tools. 
Gastronomy business is considered profitable because of the basic need of nutrition and therefore its continuity. That being the case, professionals also know that the job is much more difficult than it seems. Because the event does not only concern the kitchen of a family, but also refers to an industrial production. Our businesses have to act professionally in order to achieve the profits in their targets. Menu management comes first among these professional methods that will reveal an efficient gastronomy management.  
In this study, which consists of three parts, in order to reveal a professional approach, Menu Management, in the First Chapter; We will see the Definition, Development, Purpose, Quality Security System ISO-9000 and Total Quality and Menu of Total Quality Management in order to benefit from the Definition, History, Scope, Importance and Purpose and principles of Gastronomy. In our Second Part; 
We will try to open the Definition and History, Structure, Content, Function, Process, Materials, Planning, Update, Classification, Production, Safety, Harmony, Cost, Price, Cost Control, Evaluation, Design and Marketing of the Menu. In the third part, the operation of the menu in Gaziantep Gastronomy; We will try to see it through Tourism and Municipality Certified Enterprises. 
We will look at how menu management actually works in this region, which has a special place in Turkish Cuisine, which has recently started to be mentioned with gourmet tours. In order to make the determinations of the research in question, the face-to-face interview method was used in the region, while the real situation was tried to be observed in person.   
This research, which we try to support with a sample of our province; It is intended to be a guide to Gastronomy Businesses and Tourism.  
Food and beverage activities that have started to be seen as “Gastronomic Tourism” from today's tourism establishments to independent restaurants and the favorite type of recent years; In addition to being continuous and profitable, it has also started to attract attention as a challenging endeavor. We say profitable because as long as human beings exist, they will continue to eat and drink in order to live, and the continuity here will be reflected as profitability. It is difficult because the issue here is not a simple feeding operation, it concerns much wider masses; It is a giant industry with its components and marketing. 
Here, in order to obtain the desired profit by being successful in such a complex business; It will be inevitable to use a successful Menu Management. Our work prepared with this understanding; We wish and wish that it will open some special doors to the employees of the sector. Even a small contribution to the sector with this and similar studies will make us very happy.  
On this occasion, it should be noted that; My esteemed advisor, Mr. Assist. Assoc. Dr. To my teacher, Şehnaz DEMİRKOL, when I knocked on his door as a student returning to postgraduate education, I was greeted with a sincere attitude and understanding, Head of Tourism Management Department at Istanbul University-Social Sciences Institute, Prof. Dr. Füsun İSTANBULLU DİNÇER To my teacher, the spiritual elder brother of my studentship in the 80's, my only idol, Prof. Dr. To A.Celil ÇAKICI, And to my dear wife Bircan and our only son Barış Can, who stood by me in all circumstances, I must confess that I am in the peace of offering my heartfelt thanks. 
In the meantime, I would like to express my gratitude to my honest colleagues who have been sincere and helped me compile the real results during my research in the sector.  
Today, Gastronomy Management takes its place at the top of sensitive sectors and continues to maintain this position. It would be very accurate if this fine sensitivity is handled separately in terms of Producers and Consumers. 
While consumers perform their basic needs of eating and drinking; They are now approaching this issue, which also concerns their health, very carefully, and they want to get the maximum benefit from the products they pay for. In this respect, the policies of a gastronomy business (from hygiene to production and quality); Factors that affect whether the facility is preferred by consumers or not.   
On the other hand, our businesses are not faced with these consumer expectations only in strict lines. At the same time, the long, laborious and costly Menu Consulting System, Management process, in which these products are created in our business, reveals itself.  
However, unfortunately, in our country, there have been no substantial examples of this sector in which a full response was received. While trying to satisfy the consumer, many businesses, often in a panic psychology, skipped and lost their cost calculations; or vice versa, they were able to upset and lose consumers this time with high pricing based only on operating profit.   
Nowadays, it is necessary to deal with this giant sector, which has a basic feature such as continuity, with a much more professional approach. Doing this in the name of Turkish Cuisine, which has a rightful place in the World Cuisine class, is also a plague. 
In order to be successful in Gastronomy Management, which emerges with extremely sensitive features for both consumers and businesses, some concepts and steps must be known first. In this sense, we will start this journey by first revealing what Gastronomy is. Afterwards, we will see the details of the Menu Management, which was created based on the characteristics of Gastronomy. And in the end, we will evaluate the points discussed in the study through Gaziantep, a Gastronomy Point, using the face-to-face interview method (in order to identify some special cases). 
First part 
Definition and History 
The word gastronomy comes from the Greek words gaster (stomach) and nomas (law). However, it is much more important to assimilate the conceptual meaning of the word gastronomy rather than its origin. Gastronomy in its broad sense; It is the comprehensive knowledge provided on all matters concerning human welfare and food.  
Functionally gastronomy; With the motivation created by the basic principles, it guides those who look for every ingredient that can be turned into food, buy and prepare it at affordable prices. Gastronomy, which expands its borders with such integrity; by establishing relations with anthropology, sociology, economics, chemistry, agriculture, ecology, medicine, traditional knowledge and modern technologies; It has also shown that it is not only within the framework of food and beverage. Gastronomy, at the same time, those who are interested in this business; It is an important factor that directs them to better and helps them achieve a superior competitive power. 
In gastronomy; Those who specialize in culinary and service arts are called Gastronomers, and those who understand good food and a little bit of cuisine are called Gurme. 
On the other hand, Gastronomy is subject to a classification; When considered over Production, Consumption and Both Functions, it appears with the following features. 
Gastronomy with Production Dimension: 
The science and art of preparing good food, cooking, serving and setting a beautiful table, 
Activities and knowledge about eating well, 
It is the principles and practices related to cooking-cooking. 
Gastronomy with Consumption Dimension: 
Enjoying good food and drink Exaggerating good eating habits 
It is a fondness and passion for luxurious and delicious food. 
Gastronomy with Production and Consumption Dimensions: 
The process of preparing, cooking and serving food, 
The art of serving and eating food using appropriate rules and equipment, 
How much of the food on the menu is sold, 
Including the culinary traditions and customs related to certain regions and countries; the science and art of eating good food
It is the harmonious combination of pleasures such as palate and appetite, historical knowledge, culture, habits, talent, effort and care in accordance with our liking (Baysal et al., 2007: 6-10). 
Now let's try to see the phases of Gastronomy from Antiquity to the Present. 
Today, we know that food is the most basic need of human beings that comes with thousands of years of history. Although the hunting pictures drawn by the first people on the cave walls express a fear; It is also very important in terms of showing that the same people do not hesitate to risk their lives for the sake of hunting those animals in order to feed themselves. Because the feeling of hunger in people was very strong and this situation could even suppress the fear of death. Today, we do not need to face various dangers to fill our stomach; We can prepare delicious meals at home with the various materials we shop and turn our table into a feast, or we can try dishes we don't even know the name of in a restaurant.
The fact that catering services have become an industry represents both a very new and a very old process. It is new because there has been a great change in this subject, especially in the last 150 years. It is old; because, as we mentioned above, human beings have produced and consumed the food that is their basic need since thousands of years of history. For example, I.O. In the 10,000s, there were findings that tribes in Denmark and the Orkney Islands ate together by preparing food in large kitchens. Again, I.O. In the 5th millennium B.C., records have been found that mass meals were eaten around the Swiss lakes. From the figures in the ancient Egyptian temples and tombs; We see that the people of that period knew how to prepare and serve mass meals and even sold them in the markets.  
Undoubtedly, there were cooks who were famous for the taste of the dishes they prepared at that time. In Chinese records based on BC, travelers stayed and ate in inns on the roads; in big cities, food, rice, drink, etc. It is seen that there are shops that can be considered the ancestors of today's restaurants where products are sold. 
In India, on the other hand, units providing catering services have become so widespread that some legal arrangements have been made so that these services can be provided and controlled in a certain system. In Mohenjo-Daro, an ancient settlement unearthed in an excavation in Pakistan, right next to India; It has been determined that people benefit from restaurant-like units with stone ovens and mass food production benches.   
For example, the Persian King Xerxes gave a feast that lasted for 180 days, while King Solomon slaughtered 22 thousand cattle for the feast; We learn from the Bible. Also in the Bible, information about King Salamon's daily allocation of food for his 700 wives, 300 concubines and countless servants is also quite interesting; "Thirty measures of flour, ten fattened oxen, twenty normal oxen, one hundred sheep and other foodstuffs". As can be seen, not only kings but also religious books could not remain indifferent to the subject of food.  
Again, we learn from historical documents that the Assyrian King Sardanapalus organized competitions on this subject as a supporter of the art of good and fine cuisine and enjoyed magnificent feasts. As in the Culinary Olympics, which is still held every four years in Frankfurt, masters used to compete against each other to get a degree and show their skills at that time. Archaeological findings obtained in Kaniş (Kültepe / Kayseri), the settlement center of the Assyrian trade colony, also show us that there were places similar to restaurants in this city. 
In ancient Greece, the phenomenon of food appears as one of the indicators of civilization. The influence of Epicurus, who believes in the philosophy of good food and a good life and dedicates his life to spreading this philosophy, is undeniable. In ancient Greece, feasts were an indispensable part of life. The Bacchanal Festival, which is organized for Bacchus, the God of Wine, and where food and entertainment is unlimited, is known even today. According to the documents of the period, the cooks were respected people at that time; we even learn that recipes could be patented during this period. 
The Romans brought the food cultures of the lands they conquered and established their empires to Rome, causing the formation of a rich culinary culture. Undoubtedly, the biggest share in this was the cooks brought from the conquered lands.  
In various ceremonies and victory celebrations of the empire; Food and beverage services were provided to very large communities. Knowing that the celebration, which was held after a military victory during the reign of Emperor Julius Caesar, lasted for days and that 260 thousand people ate here; It gives a fundamental idea of ​​the Romans' tradition of mass food. Due to some Roman Emperors, who were very fond of celebrations, the state was even on the verge of bankruptcy from time to time. 
One of these emperors is Lucullus. The tables he prepared were so magnificent that the word "Lucullan" in English is still used to describe such extravagant tables today. In addition, a sauce that has the feature of softening the meat is still called by the name of this emperor today. On the other hand, we see that the word Taverna, which has changed only one letter, has remained from the Roman period. At that time, small restaurants serving food and wine were called "Taberna". These tabernas are also the ancestors of the tiny restaurants called Trattoria in today's Italy.  
In Rome, cooks were usually chosen from skilled male slaves brought from Greece. Since cooking was considered an art, a good cook contributed to his master's prestige in society. Therefore, the cook could also gain from this situation, and he could even come to the level where he could buy his freedom by making good savings with the money and gifts given by his master.  
Again, according to a rumor, it is said that the luckiest cook was Cleopatra's. Mark Antony was so pleased with the food prepared by this chef that he gifted him a whole city. Another important feature of this period is that the first cookbook was written by a Roman. Some of the recipes in the book written by Apicius are still used in New York's famous Forum and Four Ceasars Restaurants. Although the name of Apicius is remembered with food today; His bankruptcy and suicide after a sumptuous feast is also remembered as a tragic end.   
Although the tradition of catering regressed a little after the collapse of the Roman Empire, as we learned from the books on the Crusades, these activities continued in certain inns located on very busy and safe roads. On the other hand, it is known that the tradition of catering mostly lived among monks and monks in the monasteries of the period. Since many important developments were made in these monasteries, from pastries to wine, brewing and cooking techniques; This situation made a great contribution to the masters who later established the kitchen and service units. Some recipes from the clergy of the period are still used today. Benedectine, Cointreau, which continues to be produced with formulas kept secret by their makers,  
In the Middle Ages, mass food production was carried out by certain tradesmen. The Chaine des Rotisseurs (Grillers Guild), which continues its life as a gourmet club today, was founded in the XII century. It was founded in Paris in the 19th century. At that time, the working principles and rules of these guilds were determined. For example, each guild had a monopoly on producing its own specialties (special food) and had the right to refuse others to produce these varieties. Over time, these guilds started to train professional kitchen teams and these teams inspired the core of today's kitchen staff. 
Again, some of the professional culinary standards and traditions applied today (like the use of the long hat by the chef and the short round hat by the apprentices) date from that period. Later, black hats symbolizing nobility in the Middle Ages were worn by master chefs, who were also given the title of "chief chef" by their colleagues. Today, an association operating in the USA with the name "Golden Toque" (Golden Cook's Hat) gives these black hats as an honorary title to chefs who are chosen as masters of masters by their colleagues, just like in medieval France.  
In the Middle Ages, meals were cooked on a fire lit outside the building or under a hole in the roof of large houses that served as a chimney; In places of worship, it was held on the landing, which was also the living and bedroom. Meals were cooked in large cauldrons or hand-turned skewers and eaten with the fingers on a slice of stale bread that served as a plate. Staffing was easy, as the kitchen staff of this period were a kind of medieval slavery. However, food quality was often low, as food supplies were limited to only local agriculture. It should not be forgotten that the inadequacy of seed quality and the primitiveness of tools and equipment have a great role in this problem. People used to set their tables and fill their bellies according to their economic power, as they do today. On the other hand, the Crusades We know that the great contribution of the Medieval European cuisine to the cuisine of the Middle Ages was thanks to the fact that the cooks participating in these expeditions brought the Middle Eastern and Asian dishes to their own countries. However, it is obvious that they could not spread these innovations. 
Culinary Culture has shown significant developments in Europe in the few centuries following the Middle Ages. In this development, especially the spread of trade and new kitchen techniques played an important role. In this period, besides the kings, it is seen that the nobles and the clergy also became rich. The large banquet paintings adorning the castle and monastery walls of the period prove this. At this time, good food - good drink, which began to be decorated with music and dance, was considered a sign of prosperity, especially among the rich. 
In this way, the kitchen unit has started to take place as a private room in the building. The stove and oven under a large chimney, the high ceiling arranged so that the smoke does not affect the employees, have emerged as the physical features of the kitchen that are still valid today. In addition to cauldrons and skewers, basic hand tools of the kitchen such as knives, cleavers, pestles and pestles have also been widely used. The ingredients used by the cooks in cooking are also richer, and especially the spices, raisins, almonds and sugar of the Far East add more pleasant flavors to the dishes. 
Meat, which was preserved by salting but which also caused the dish to be too salty, was now subjected to desalinating treatments (e.g., seasoned with sweet substances such as wine and honey) and served with seasonings to enhance its flavor. The hardness of the meat was sought to be cured by mincing or crushing. At that time, chicken, goose, duck and other game meats were roasted over the fire, decorated and brought to the table as a whole. Since forks had not yet been used, meat was carved with daggers and eaten in small pieces. The tradition of the nobles to do a poison test before starting the meal was another detail that attracted attention.   
During the Renaissance, the cooks working in the estates of the nobles became highly respected people who were paid very high wages. There were even some who rose to the knighthood among them. A cook named Taillevent, who has three pots and six roses on his tombstone, was named after the King of France VI. Charles was knighted. Taillevent, named "Le Viander" (Meat Dishes Chef) and considered one of the classics of its kind; He wrote the book containing information about meat dishes such as cooking techniques, recipes, thickening of sauces with bread crust and making stew varieties, which were considered new for that period.  
The concept of good food developed in parallel with the developments in the branches of art during the Renaissance period, and this issue emerged as "Rebirth" in Italy and entered a period of rise in France with the nobles leading the way.  
The 16th century is the period when Europe was introduced to the turkey, potatoes, corn, green and red peppers, tomatoes, coffee and chocolate (cocoa) brought by Columbus from overseas discovered places and other explorers on their way back from Middle East and Asia expeditions. France is not yet known for its fine dining, as the food is not so well taken care of. In Italy, the culinary culture from the Roman Empire period continues only in some rich cuisines. This culinary culture owed its glory to the rich food materials and cooking techniques of the Mediterranean countries. In medieval France, heir to the French throne II. Henry's marriage to Catherine of Florence's Medici family in 1533, and Catherine's arrival in Paris, bringing her team of Italian cooks with her,  
In addition to delicious dishes, the French palace first met ice cream, which has a very old history, in this period. According to the documents available today, the snow accumulated in the pits dug on the top of the high mountains was mixed with cream, honey and other sweeteners, then this mixture was again covered with snow and preserved. Finally, it was brought to the end of the meal by the runners specially selected for this job and presented to the king. The Carthaginians learned how to make ice cream from the Persians and brought them to Sicily; The ice cream passed from there to Florence. No more French nobles; they started to try veal, artichoke, mushroom, watermelon, melon, pasta, ice cream and pies. Meanwhile, in addition to this change in their kitchens, French service customs and traditions have also begun to transform into Italian style. 
Although Catherine herself continued to eat by hand; She introduced the fork, knife and spoon to France. The French nobility, who ate with their hands and daggers, started to take their forks and knives with them when they went to dinner. However, it will still take a century for forks, spoons and knives to enter daily life in France and England. II. After the death of Henry IV. His nephew, Henry of Navarre (1589 – 1610), who came to the throne as Henry VIII, became accustomed to the understanding of good tableware as a result of his frequent visits to the palace and began to take great pleasure from it. Later, when he came to the throne, he gave great support to the development and establishment of the concept of good food, so the leading families of France took care to set quality tables. Henry of Navarre also went down in history as a gourmet. Today, a soup containing large pieces of chicken and steak is also IV. Henry's (Potage Henry IV) is named after him. The French chefs of the period learned and adopted the new culinary culture very quickly and laid the foundation for the development that would reach the French Cuisine, which is still valid in a few generations. 
Heavy, very spicy medieval dishes were replaced by more and more delicious and light dishes, and besides vegetables and fruits, even flowers became elements of culinary art in decorations. IV. After Henry, the Kings of France and court society continued to be increasingly interested in "good food service". Setting up quality tables, developing master chefs and kitchen staff, and supporting the creation of refined recipes have begun to be considered as an indicator of refinement. XII in the Bourbons in the 1600s. Louis XV. Great importance was attached to the tables of Louis, the development of culinary art and the training of masters. XIV, nicknamed "sublime" because of his fondness for magnificence and luxury. Louis (1643–1715) pioneered the establishment of schools to train masters and cooks. Some nobles of the period also 
Today, a refined sauce with plenty of onions continues to be served under the name of Count Soubisse. During the XV.Louis (1715-1744) period, the kitchen continued its development by increasing it. Daughter of King Stanislaus (1704 - 1735) of Poland, who was also a good cook and gourmet, and XV. Maria Lescynaska, the wife of Louis, considered herself responsible for overseeing the kitchen and table, like Catherine Medici, and this resulted in the formation of magnificent table and refined dining standards. XV. Mme Pompadour and Mme Barry, mistresses of Louis, were not only fond of good food, but were also master cooks, and many dishes still named after them grace the European table. Mme Barry in particular was such a masterful cook that the king therefore honored her with the Blue Ribbon (Cordon Bleu), which was awarded only to the greatest masters. This was the period when the fame of French cooks spread and shined throughout Europe. The nobles of other countries either sent their cooks to train with famous French chefs or paid large transfer fees to bring famous French masters to their kitchens.  
The job of the cooks in question was not easy at that time, and they had to prepare more than tens of dishes even just for dinner. Here is this situation; has accelerated the evolution of kitchen tools and utensils, for example, pots and pans have been designed suitable for use, and braisers with charcoal have been used to keep the cooked food hot until serving. Towards the 18th century, cookers (stoves with ovens) that could hold up to 20 pots were introduced into the kitchens, and thanks to this technical equipment, for example, pan applications that were impossible to be made in medieval open hearths could be done easily. Despite all these developments, cooks still lacked a clean energy source to keep the heat under control and the equipment to lift and move large pots. 
Although the French Revolution, which took place in 1789, put an end to the rule of the Bourbon Dynasty, it did not overshadow the interest of these French people for good food and fine dining. Immediately after the revolution, the people continued this tradition instead of the nobles and many famous gourmets were trained among them. From Brilliat Savarin, the author of the book "The Physiognomy of Taste", to Grimod de la Reyniere, the editor of the world's first gourmet magazine, from Alexandre Dumaspere, the creator of the "Great Dictionary of Culinary Terms", to Chateaubriant Viscountu, who gave his name to the famous meat dish, are among these famous gourmets. Meanwhile, some noble families, who lost their fortunes significantly, turned their houses into restaurants and started selling food together with their former servants and cooks; some of these were the forerunners of restaurants in Paris, which continue to operate today. 
In the history of gastronomy, we see that first the knife, then the spoon and finally the fork were used. The Romans called the cutting blade "cultellus", and the larger chopper blades used for the kitchen "culter coquinaris". They also had a small spoon that was shaped like a human tongue, which they called "ligula" or "lingula" (little tongue). On the other hand, we learn from the archaeological findings that a two-pronged fork, which was developed in Ancient Greece and was used to fry meat on fire, was used by the Romans. However, it was not counted as a "fork" because it was not used in accordance with its current function. The first fork in Europe XIV. century began to appear. Queen Klemans of Hungary in 1328 It is known that there are about 30 spoons and a golden fork among his belongings. Again, after the death of Queen Jan Devreaux, a fork and 64 spoons, which were carefully placed in a sheath, were found among utensils. Based on these two information, XIII. It is concluded that forks were used in very special banquets in the second half of the century, but it was not common. Venice and Florence, fork XI. Although it was recognized as of the 19th century, it was considered inauspicious due to religious reactions in Venice and could not be used widely because it turned into a social problem. but it is concluded that it is not common. Venice and Florence, fork XI. Although it was recognized as of the 19th century, it was considered inauspicious due to religious reactions in Venice and could not be used widely because it turned into a social problem. but it is concluded that it is not common. Venice and Florence, fork XI. Although it was recognized as of the 19th century, it was considered inauspicious due to religious reactions in Venice and could not be used widely because it turned into a social problem.  
The invention and widespread use of the fork; It is considered as a turning point in the civilization of eating and drinking and the development of table rules. Therefore, the fork is a kind of symbol of reform.  
The fact that the interest in "good food" in Europe turned into a trend and passion also affected Tsarist Russia. When Tsar Peter (1682–1725) returned to his country after spending his youth in Paris, knowing fine dining tables, he took some of the master French chefs with him and started the development of another culinary culture in Russia, quite different from the French cuisine. The basis of this difference; Russia's game came from a variety of fish and vegetables. The Russians were more voracious and alcoholic than the French. It is possible to easily observe this difference (exaggerated fancy dishes etc.) even in food styles. In a short time, a Russian cuisine with high standards and national characteristics emerged. On the other hand, the Russians to the French; strogonoff, caviar, 
In the same period, Italians also developed their own unique culinary art. The presence of Chinese cooks among the things that Marco Polo (1254-1324) brought with him from his Far East trip to Italy enabled Chinese food culture to enter the cuisines of Venice and Florence. With this effect, it is seen that especially the Northern Italian cuisine has been enriched. Thus, the understanding of refined food has also developed further with these influences. But as Italy at that time consisted of many independent duchies and political units, it took a long time for a national cuisine to develop. 
The Italian Cuisine, which developed later and whose main element consisted of pasta (actually brought from China by Marco Polo), has become one of the best cuisines in the world today. Considering the fact that each cuisine is influenced by the ingredients of its own region, these traces can be easily seen in Italian cuisine as well. Italy is very rich in seafood, as it is a thin and long peninsula, and therefore, seafood is more prominent in its cuisine than meat. In addition, the abundance of olive trees and vineyards has expanded the production of olive oil dishes and wine. In Southern Italy, tomato sauces and tomato dishes (especially pasta) are popular and still are. 
More fruits and especially citrus fruits are used in the cuisine here. Although garlic is used in both local dishes, it is seen to be a little more limited in Northern Italy. Another difference is manifested in meat. Beef is used more widely in Northern Italian cuisines, and goat meat is more commonly used in Southern Italy. Small countries such as Poland in Renaissance Europe also produced their own refined dishes. Influenced by the French in particular, Polish cuisine has developed greatly due to the love of King Stanislaus and his palace dignitaries for good food (Ömer KILIÇ, History of Food, (online), https://www.xing.com/app/forum, 20 February 2009). 
Here is the food-beverage process that we tried to give its history over some countries above; It started from the palaces and spread to the public, and this development led to the formation of the foundations of Gastronomy, which is today's Food and Beverage Science and Art.  
1.1.2. Scope, Significance and Purpose 
Scope: Gastronomy is primarily a science. Gastronomy; benefits from both natural sciences (physics, chemistry and biology) and social sciences (economics, sociology, anthropology, psychology, business administration, management, marketing, etc.). It is also a rich research area for these sciences. Since the subject is about eating and drinking; Physiology of taste and taste, wine production, functions of nutrients in the human body, determination of their qualities in the selection of foodstuffs in direct relation to the science of nutrition; development of production processes in accordance with cleaning, hygiene and sanitation rules in order to prevent physical, chemical and biological deterioration of food; largely based on science. Gastronomy, starting from its principles; seeking, providing, anything that can be turned into food, It has the function of preparing and guiding people on this subject. Here is gastronomy today; Based on these features, it continues its activities spread over a wide area, from accommodation businesses to independent restaurants, as well as the sciences it has relations with. 
Importance: At the core of gastronomic services is direct service to people, and this is an original delicacy with an intensity unprecedented in any other field. From this point of view, it is extremely important that gastronomy is developed in parallel with the developments in the supply of beds in our country's tourism and that it reaches the income it deserves. On the one hand, there is a respectable production (Turkish Cuisine richness), on the other hand, there is a demand for its consumption by very special groups (Gourmet tours, etc.). Now in the world; Intellectual groups have emerged, traveling to discover an ethnic cuisine from an aged wine, a good seafood, a good game meal. And these groups can pay very high prices for the products in question. It is even known that these groups try to cook in the kitchens of the country and pay a fee in return. In this sense, agencies have organized Gourmet Tours. Turkish Cuisine, which has rightfully entered the World Cuisine Class due to its characteristics (recognition, originality and diversity), should be marketed with a good presentation and significant revenues should be achieved. Our country in this regard; It has more than enough materials from grapes to be used in quality wine making, to the most delicious grains and livestock products. And most importantly, our people have the pleasure and dexterity to process these materials and turn them into food and beverage with excellent results. it has the most delicious grain and livestock products and many ingredients. And most importantly, our people have the pleasure and dexterity to process these materials and turn them into food and beverage with excellent results. it has the most delicious grain and livestock products and many ingredients. And most importantly, our people have the pleasure and dexterity to process these materials and turn them into food and beverage with excellent results.     
The menu analysis  of the Turkish Food and Beverage Managers Association regarding the amount of food and beverage consumption made in five-star hotels in 2007The results are important in this regard. In a hotel, per person per day drink was 3.2 liters (all alcoholic and non-alcoholic liquids), food consumption was 5.1 kg (grossly all food entering the kitchen). The monetary equivalents of these figures are: 3.2 Euros for Drinks and 5.2 Euros for Food. Together they cost 8.4 euros. The daily consumption of the personnel in the facilities (1 Euro per person) is added to this calculation. This shows us that gastronomy is also an export sector in its geography. How much importance is given to this sector; farming, industrialism and animal husbandry will grow as well. While this growth is taking place, its parallel contribution to employment is also known.  
On the other hand, Gastronomy also appears in the form of Gastronomy Tourism (TCTurizm Ministry-Tourizm Terizmleri Sözlüğü, 1999: 77), which consists of visits made by people who have a special interest in taste, to places that are interesting in this sense. However, despite this being the case, there are hardly any detailed studies showing the weight of gastronomy in people's decisions in the selection of touristic destinations in our country. However, when the togetherness of tourism and gastronomy is so much in question, it should be a must to examine it by considering it, at least for the sake of a market research.  
Gastronomy plays a very important role in the promotion of the country and therefore in its income. Countries that have been able to increase their tourism revenues continue their investments in this area. For example, knowing how many of the more than 40 million tourists visiting Paris annually are influenced by the Eiffel Tower and French Gastronomy and come to this city, will probably constitute an important reference point for our country in this field. Even roughly, we think that at least 10% of the tourists going to these countries are for gastronomic reasons. 
The World Tourism Market has been developing and changing rapidly, especially in recent years. The increase in purchasing power and the holiday opportunities of the employees caused the tourism market and the demands of the travelers to change after the 1990s. Culture, heritage and art; contributes significantly to touristic destinations. Here again we see that; The gastronomy of a country is one of its most basic cultural expressions. For this reason, it is possible to say that gastronomy is an important force in national and international tourism movements. It is known that Tuscany region in Italy, Napa Valley in USA-California, South Africa, Australia and Chile, Champagne and Burgundy regions of France have been destinations of gastronomy for many years. 
For example, even Napa Valley, which has a population of only 150 thousand and has more than 200 wineries, can stand out as the second most tourist attraction on the west coast of America after Disneyland. Indeed, the only reason tourists visit this region is the wine and the delicious food that accompanies it. Millions of Northern European tourists flock to the Italian region of Tuscany to taste Chianti wine, truffles, Florentine meat dishes and Lucca's olive oil. There are 35,000 vineyards and wineries in Australia. In South Australia alone, a small region can host 7.5 million tourists each year, thanks to its wine and food. In other words, with this determination, besides the national destinations and historical heritages, We see that local gastronomic values ​​can also come to the fore. For example, as Gaziantep Gastronomy has started to attract the attention of many travel enthusiasts in recent years.  
It may be difficult to determine how much role gastronomy plays alone in the world tourism market, but it is impossible not to see how this element makes a significant difference in tourism. Gastronomy is a very important power for Turkey, which bases its tourism largely on the familiar triad (sea, sand and sun), with which it can show its rich difference against its competitors.  
Purpose: Purpose in gastronomy; is to ensure that people enjoy life by protecting them with the best possible nutrition. The preparation and presentation of food and beverages represents an art beyond what you know. Therefore, Gastronomy is also an art. Eating and drinking is a basic human need. However, gastronomy seeks an aesthetic beauty as well as the basic need of eating and drinking. Here is the human; Unlike other living beings, we witness how he transforms even his most basic need into an art. The most remarkable point is that this art is a journey from the existence of man to the present day. In other words, eating and drinking, which is at the bottom of the "ladder of human needs", can go up to the top of the ladder with an artistic (gastronomic) approach.  
On the other hand, the situation between eating and drinking and gastronomy; It is much larger than the difference between dressing in a cloth and getting dressed. Gastronomy, which can appeal to all senses of man, carries all aesthetic values. Food and drinks; it is revealed one by one with its visual, auditory, taste and flavor beauties. For this reason, the plate of each prepared dish and the glass of the drink served; it almost refers to the framework of a work of art that has been tried to be put forward with aesthetic and beauty concerns. While light, shadow and colors find their natural compositions in this frame; the consistency and aromas give this work a different atmosphere and contribute to the formation of a spirit in total.  
Here, gastronomy, in order to provide these aims; For the questions of why people eat, what their tastes are affected by, why they like one thing and dislike another, psychology science, sharing food and drink, eating out while someone is eating at home and trying to understand their motivations, sociology and economics, history in the evolution of kitchen tools, the most important part of human culture. While looking for ways to present the local menu, which is its main product, to the guests, it applies to marketing science and to folklore in designing an authentic product. Each discipline, on the other hand, sheds light on a different dimension of gastronomy, helping its employees and gourmets to understand and master its nature. As can be seen, gastronomy, as a multidimensional event and a multidisciplinary science, has included environmental relations among its goals (Orhan GENCELI, 
Here we are, on this subject, which will be so comprehensive and detailed in the following; We will try to see it by using the principles of Total Quality Management, which has been at the top of the management literature in recent years. More precisely, this management approach; We will use it as a tool to make menu management more efficient.   
For this, first of all, we will start by looking at what Total Quality Management is. 
1.2. Total Quality Management (TQM) 
In today's rapidly rising globalization, businesses have embarked on an intense search for restructuring. The dynamic and complex nature of the process creates an environment of uncertainty, and in return, a fierce competitive feeling develops in businesses. In this process, the basic conditions for businesses to be successful in competition are; meeting the consumer demanding the goods and services produced by the business and satisfying his ongoing needs. The main point to be reached here will only be reached by catching the quality in the product. In a sense, this success also means the registration of power in competition (Halis, 2008: 37). 
Here we are, the gastronomy enterprises, which are the constantly shining star of today's service sector; We want to handle and evaluate using Menu Management. We will try to see and evaluate (total quality menu) the process that businesses will follow in order to be successful in this huge and heterogeneous market, in the spirit of a chain of principles. Undoubtedly, the basis of this approach will be the principles of Total Quality Management. 
1.2.1. Definition, Development and Purpose 
Definition: In order to achieve total positive effects with customer and personnel satisfaction and to achieve excellence in business results; It is the management and direction of policies and strategies, personnel, resources and processes with an appropriate leadership understanding.   
Development: The inclusion of quality in the process expresses the most important feature of total quality development. Indeed, in long-term administrations, this approach dominates every step; will enable us to achieve the overall and ultimately desired goal. It is possible to see this situation especially in the evolution from the classical understanding to the total quality understanding. In the table on the back page, the elements in the classical management approach; we see what it turns into in total quality management (see Table: 1). 
Table 1: Comparison of Classical Management Approach with Total Quality Management 
Menu Management in Gastronomy...
Thanks to the details in Table 1, the results turned into the following situations (see Table: 2). 
Table 2: Results in Total Quality Management 
Customer complaints 
Accidents at work 
Faulty production 
Waste of time   
customer satisfaction 
Source: Muhsin HALİS, Total Quality Management, Sakarya 2008, p.46. 
Purpose: To ensure the participation of everyone, to maintain the quality and to reduce the cost. Indeed, experience has shown that; Permanent quality ensures cost reduction in the long run. On the other hand, total quality management manifests itself not only in production and service focused on market needs, but also in other areas. For example, top quality performance, creating practical processes, avoiding waste, creating an effective communication network, etc. at many points up to areas such as; again, it is seen in its own unique goals and methods. If we list the mentioned objectives of Total Quality Management; 
1.  Ensuring efficiency and effectiveness, 
2.  Ensuring organizational development through restructuring, 
3.  To achieve effective strategic management, 
4.  Ensuring customer satisfaction by improving quality, 
5.  Improving market share, profitability and competition, 
6.  To address the needs of its own market more effectively and healthily, 
7.  Achieving the highest quality performance in all areas beyond product and service quality, 
8.  To be able to use simple approaches to quality performance access, 
9.  Continuous review of the whole process to reduce the rate of defective products in non-productive activity, 
10.  Determining the necessary developments and creating performance criteria, 
11.  Creating an effective competitive strategy by fully understanding the competitors, 
12.  Benefiting from the team approach activity in problem solving, 
13.  Identifying effective ways of communication, 
14. In  a never-ending product development strategy, it is the continuous monitoring of processes (Halis, 2008: 39-45). 
1.2.2. Basic Principles 
Knowing what the basic principles in Total Quality Management mean in the work to be done; It is extremely important for the work to be carried out clearly. As the aforementioned statements become clear, it will be seen that some of the principles in the classical management approach are no longer valid, and some of them have begun to gain more importance (see Table: 1).  
If we try to list the principles of Total Quality Management; 
1.  System: Every business is considered as a complex system with its supply and demand aspects, managers and workers. 
2.  Quality: Meeting customer demands is the primary target; Achieving this goal is considered the "quality key" for the continuation of business existence and growth. 
3.  Continuous Improvement: Continuous improvement is the basic guiding principle; This also applies to competence in our job. It is accepted that businesses that follow total quality management can become “learning” institutions only if the personnel are competitive and creative. 
4.  Teams: Teams and groups; They are considered to serve as primary tools from planning to problem solving. 
5.  Relations of Openness and Trust: To develop openly trusting relations among personnel at all levels of the enterprise; it is accepted as a prerequisite for success (Halis, 2008: 46-52). 
Here are some standards that have been developed and transformed into a system so that the total quality management, which we try to put forward from its definition to its goals and principles, can work in practice; Let's try to see them now. 
1.2.3. Quality Security System and ISO-9000  
Achieving the goals is possible by arranging the standardized activities within a certain system. The most fundamental basis of the quality security system is to maintain customer satisfaction in a standardized manner. In other words, the product requested by the customer; should be able to find them whenever and however they want. In this sense, a good quality security system; The method must be able to provide a consistent and consistent process with the materials and equipment. Being successful in this passes through two points; 
1.  In terms of the customer; providing confidence that the desired products can be provided by the business, 
2. In  terms of business; effective and efficient use of resources. 
quality assurance system; It is all planned and systematic efforts that safely ensure compliance with standards developed for quality and the fulfillment of all desires in terms of quality of a product or service. In this sense, ISO-9000 criteria appear as a fundamental step in the implementation of total quality management. On the other hand, it is possible to see that our system is applied independently (just like the menu, which is our subject), even when a total management approach is not applied to the business.  
Although the ISO-9000 quality assurance system seems to increase the business bureaucracy and bring additional burdens at the beginning; We can list the benefits provided as a result of the stable continuation of the activities as follows; 
1.  All activities can be documented, as the process that materials go through until they are designed and turned into a product is predefined. 
2.  Thanks to the system, the product with the requested features is provided and the consumer is prevented from being harmed. 
3.  While trying to provide the product and/or service with minimum cost, legal conditions and standards can also be met when requested by the consumer. 
4.  Thanks to the quality circles, the advantage of being able to do one job at a time is developing; This reduces time and raw material losses. 
5. In  our globalizing world, having the ISO-9000 system approved by international standard organizations is also an external reference for the business. 
6.  Thanks to this system developed by accepting customers as partners of the business, the consumer can meet the highest quality product at the highest level. 
7.  Again in this system, the certification of enterprises is a strong guarantor that the desired quality is produced. 
8.  Instead of understanding the errors that have occurred, it aims to eliminate the causes of what may occur; It provides benefits in many areas such as continuous and high quality production, superior competitiveness and high motivation in personnel. 
9.  Since all the stages that the materials will go through for production have been described and the personnel have been trained in this regard; There is no new cost that will arise with the targeted quality level. Because, thanks to this system, more efficient use of business resources is possible.  
10.  Now, the ISO-9000 system has started to appear in the collective bargaining agreements of developed countries. The personnel of the enterprises, which have achieved high quality and competitiveness thanks to their personnel, can become more committed to their institutions as the worry of being unemployed is eliminated. 
With various researches, the opinions of the companies about the ISO-9000 system; detected as follows. 
1.  Ensuring unity of purpose, 
2.  Strengthening the coordination between departments, 
3.  Designing a better product, 
4.  Giving importance to nature and environmental protection, 
5.  Ensuring an effective management, 
6.  Reduction of residual, rework and customer complaints, 
7.  Ensuring product and process reliability through statistical data, 
8.  Keeping quality costs under control, 
9.  Increasing commitment and ownership to quality, 
10.  Decreased costs - increased profits, 
11.  Increasing product and service quality, 
12.  Increasing job peace of the personnel thanks to the increased motivation, 
13.  Reduction in customer loss, 
14.  Ensuring close cooperation with customers and suppliers, 
15.  Making the contracts clearer, 
16.  Increasing customer satisfaction, 
17.  Decreased loss of customer trust, 
18.  Gaining more share by reducing market loss, 
19.  Reaching the plans, programs and targeted budgets in more realistic ways, 
20.  Increasing competitiveness, 
21.  Saving in purchasing and materials, 
22.  Preventing problems in a timely manner, even before they occur, 
23.  Best use of resources, 
24.  Ensuring the formation of company culture, 
25.  Improving communication among personnel, 26. Increasing the prestige of the enterprise, 
27.  Developing work with team spirit, 
28.  Increasing the power of qualified personnel thanks to the trainings applied, 
29.  Increasing efficiency along with efficiency, 
30.  Development of on-site and timely decision-making mechanism (Halis, 2008: 243-249). 
Now let's try to see what Total Quality Management (TQM) principles can provide to the menu in gastronomy. 
1.3. Total Quality Management and Menu 
The intangibility that arises in gastronomy services, which is predominantly service (labor-intensive factor), makes it very difficult to provide quality, which is considered indispensable today. All personnel from the lowest level worker to the managers working in the enterprise; Acting with the same understanding in order to ensure the continuity of quality in the operations that are set out from the business objectives is now their most basic task. The fact that enterprises frequently resort to "total quality management" (TQM) in their efforts to achieve quality is also leading among important developments in this regard. This logic has started to dominate in today's service businesses, and in this way, gastronomy, which has a very difficult and complicated structure; The effects, benefits and results of total quality management have been tried to be obtained.  
In the tourism sector, especially in the last 15-20 years, we come across as one of the most important consumer criteria; "quality" has started to emerge. 
The main reason why competitiveness and the concept of competition gain importance in businesses, national or international markets; It creates changing understandings about the production of quality products and services. So much so that sometimes the quality of service can outweigh the price. On the other hand, based on the fact that quality and productivity lie on the basis of the factors that determine competitive power, it is also possible to use existing production factors more effectively in order to achieve the quality-productivity target. Efficiency is not only a simple input-output relationship, but also the efficient and beneficial use of resources in creating products and services. In other words, efficiency and effectiveness are to achieve the targets aimed in the enterprise, or rather to reach the targeted output with the lowest possible resource expenditure in terms of quantity and quality.  
Based on this aspect, we can list the quality objectives in the menu as follows;  
1.  To meet the guest's goals and requests in the best way, 
2.  To use the available resources in the best way, 
3.  To gain confidence by capturing the positive in the business image, 
4.  To increase market share and profit, 
5.  To make the service quality permanent.  
The biggest difficulty in improving the quality of the service is that it is very difficult to maintain the standard and continuity due to the intangibility in this matter, as we mentioned above. Standard operation means that the personnel follow the same procedure over and over again without allowing the slightest deviation in all kinds of operations. Today, we see the fact that quality cannot be left to chance and we can see successful businesses that have established detailed quality standards. Some chains (Mc Donald's, Pizza Hut, etc.) that sit at the top in the gastronomy sector are concrete examples in this regard. Quantitative and qualitative standards that can be established in gastronomy businesses will make it possible to measure and monitor service quality. 
Quality control, which is the most sensitive subject of Gastronomy Businesses, is to ensure that the expectations of the guests are satisfied in the best way possible; First of all, it is the process of inspection at every stage of production. Quality control scope; It expresses the process from demand forecasting production to sales-marketing and service, on the other hand, a chain extending from the cook to the service personnel, from purchasing to the food and beverage manager and the general manager. Here, if the work done to create quality first and then to control it covers all of the gastronomic activities; we can call it Quality Management in Gastronomy.  
The total quality approach aims to increase not only the products and services produced, but also the quality and efficiency of the management as a whole. Total quality management, unlike the usual management styles, has an approach of "quality-efficiency-cost-profit". The aim is to increase efficiency and reduce costs by giving priority to quality. In this way, high quality products will be brought to the market at lower prices and sold in large quantities, thus increasing the market share and profit of the enterprise.  
A total quality management to be established in gastronomy services will benefit the business in the following ways; 
1.  Since the entire production process (product production stages) is under control with total quality management; decrease in the number of wrong and spoiled foods with the increase in quality, 
2.  With the decrease in the number of faulty and spoiled food, the waste of resources decreases and the costs decrease, 
3.  Increase in guest confidence and satisfaction; reduction in complaints, 
4. As the  Quality Control System creates a reliable environment; acquiring new guests 
5.  It is possible to deal with guest complaints very quickly, preventing them from occurring again, 
6. Making food menu planning and production possible to   serve more guests in a short time ,
7.  Reducing the expensive research and testing costs involved in the control mechanism, 
8.  The relationship and information flow between organizational units and personnel become more regular, 
9.  Healthier work on guest analysis, 
10.  Providing flexibility in meeting guest demands, 
11.  Clarifying the qualifications of qualified personnel that the business needs, 
12.  Ensuring efficiency in manager and personnel relations. 
By adopting total quality management in enterprises; both quality and cost advantage that supports this can be achieved. Thanks to the new techniques created by including the personnel in the system and taking their suggestions, important steps are taken to increase the competitiveness. 
In order to ensure continuity in the gastronomy business, the Quality and Cost Relationship of the services should be carefully considered and the costs should be kept at reasonable levels. 
Quality is not a result that emerges in the only link of the production chain. Production activities that are interconnected as a whole chain; It is equally important in creating the quality of the product or service. Just as one of the links of a chain is weak, it breaks and breaks the integrity, this sensitivity is valid in every step of production activities.  
In terms of cost, every stage of the production process has an important role. From every step to the process, from every person to management; responsible for service delivery. While quality constitutes an important link in the strong chain that is now established in the business as an image, cost will contribute to this process by ensuring that production resources are used in the most effective and efficient way. Therefore, it is possible to obtain effective results by using similar methods for quality improvement and control in cost reduction and application areas.  
On the other hand, it should not be confused with reducing costs in gastronomy businesses and controlling costs. Cost control refers to the efforts to decide the level of production costs based on a measurement and to achieve these goals. Cost reduction, on the other hand, is the investigation of which of the items that make up the costs can be reduced to what extent by using the resources of the enterprise in the most efficient way without increasing the quality of production or interfering with its quality. After all, reducing and controlling costs are two parts that complement each other. 
Achieving the targets set for cost reduction is only possible with cost control. Studies on reducing food costs in Gastronomy Businesses start with the top management's research on how to use existing resources efficiently and reduce the elements that make up the cost structure. The adoption of such an approach by the top management in the management process constitutes an important step in today's modern management approach. 
We can list the objectives of cost reduction studies in Gastronomy Businesses as follows;  
1.  Reducing the cost of operations in every process of production, 
2.  To eliminate all unnecessary or non-purpose activities, 
3.  To increase the effectiveness of all kinds of support activities necessary for production, 
4.  To prevent the repetition of the works in the production process, 
5.  To make production in a safer and less tiring way, 
6.  To prevent unnecessary spending of production factors, 
7.  Maximizing profit by increasing operational efficiency, 
8.  To provide an environment that will adapt to changes, 
9.  To raise awareness of the organization about problem solving, 
10. By preventing elements such as fire, waste and spoiled food; reduce cost by increasing quality 
(http://www.turizmgazetesi.com/articles/article, (online), 26 April 2009). 
In order to put into practice what has been explained so far in Gastronomy Management, senior management needs a fundamental tool. This tool covers all areas of gastronomy; It should cover in line with the principles of total quality management and at the end of the process, the business should be able to reach its goals. At this point, we come across the menu, which can be used as a fundamental management tool in gastronomy management. In the process in question, the desired Total Quality Menu is; It will be reached by managing the menu with Total Quality Management principles. 
We will try to see what these are from the second part.  
Second part 
2.1. Description and History of the Menu 
The menu is derived from the Latin word “Minutus” meaning “little-few” and passed into French. The word was used for a long time in its own meaning in France, and later on, with the development of the food industry, it was adopted as the definition of "meals served in a row, in harmony with each other" (Aktaş, 2001: 51), and in our language "Menu" and It began to be pronounced as "menu". However, in this respect, the menus of the first period were generally in the form of a list of dishes to be served at evening parties and banquets, neglecting the preferences of the guests. However, over time, different service types have been developed and it has been tried to provide a freedom for the guests' food and beverage choices (Rızaoğlu et al., 2005: 8-9).  
 On the other hand, the word menu also refers to the lists and cards containing all the food and beverages served, prepared by today's restaurants to give to their guests (Gürel et al., 1986: 165).  
The first examples of the menus were in the Babylonian Kingdom banquets in 3000 BC; We see meat, dates, apples, pears and figs placed in front of the guests accompanied by wine. Exaggerated menus that people other than nobles can only consume at festivals; In the Roman Empire, it evolved into simpler menus with the developments in food. In a menu belonging to the year AD100; as input; lettuce, onions, fish and eggs; Secondly; cereals, cauliflower, beans; in the final; pears, chestnuts, olives, peas and green beans were found (Türksoy, 2002: 82).    
Looking at the historical development of the menu; It is seen that efforts are made on many subjects from grouping the meals to the order of service, from the choice of meals to the freedom of the guests. In this respect, accepted principles are incontestable and almost inviolable. This process has developed and changed from the period called Classical Menu to the present day and has reached its final form as Today's Menu.  
It is seen that the Classic Menu was born from the French Gastronomy and became famous and spread all over the world from there. Indeed, King of France XV. In the time of Ludwig (1710-1774), menus were also a source for the development of elegant tableware. The service order of the meals was taken into consideration and their follow-up was provided with menu cards. On the other hand, it is seen that Russian table traditions are also effective in the order of meals. For example, giving appetizing small meals before the meal (Aktaş, 2001: 51). French cuisine also played a role in the ordering of the dishes. Cheese before fruit on the French menu; In the German menu, cheese is bought after fruit, another noteworthy detail (Sökmen, 2005: 127). 
2.2. Structure in the menu 
In order to examine the structure in the menu, first of all, it is necessary to see its historical process. We see that the menus, which were randomly ordered at first, without a certain order, turned into a regular shape when the 19th century entered. In this sense, the oldest known regular menu is the following classification made by Ranhofer, which consists of nine sections (see Table: 3).  
Table 3: Ranhofer Classification in the Menu 
1.   Oysters and scallops 
2.   Two kinds of soup, one thin and one porridge 
3.   Cookies and condiments 
4.   Fishes 
5.   Lightweights and cuts of meat 
6.   Roasts of poultry and game 
7.   Cold food, vegetable stew, cold meat and seafood 
8.   Snacks, puddings, omelettes, pastries, hot dessert, cakes 
9.   Dessert, cheese, coffee and liqueurs. 
Source:  Alptekin  SÖKMEN,  Food and Beverage  Services  Management and Management, Ankara 2005, p126.         
2.2.1. Classic Menu 
As we mentioned above, the Classic Menu, which emerged in France and spread to the world, was served in mass celebrations and within the framework of the competing understandings of the wealthy class, with a variety of 14 products.  
The dishes and their order of service in the said Classical Menu are as follows:  
1. Cold  Hors d'oeuvres (Hors-d'oeuvre froid)  
2. Soups (Potages)    
3. Hot  Hors d'oeuvre (Hors-d'oeuvre chaud) 
4. Fish (Poisson)    
5. Meat Dishes   (Grosse piece) 
6. Hot Entrees  (Entrée Chaude) 
7.  Entrée Froide  
8. Sorbets    
9. Fries (Rôti)     
10. Salads (Salade)    
11. Vegetables (Légume)     
12. Desserts (Entrement)    
13. Cheeses (Savoury)    
14. Compotes   (Dessert) 
(Gürel et al., 1986: 165-166). 
2.2.2. Changes from Classical to Present 
      In the classic menus spread from France to the whole world, the XVIII. Changes have begun to occur since the twentieth century. Due to the increase in people's knowledge about nutrition, economic developments, time factor, and material shortages in some food and menu types ; Some dishes in the classic menu are now disappearing. In this change, the works written by some French writers on Gastronomy and the new dishes brought to the kitchens by famous chefs were influential, and the Classic Menu has evolved in terms of its content and order.  
Let's try to illustrate this based on the figure in the Classic Menu (see Figure: 1); 
Figure 1: Changes in the Menu from Classical to Present 
            Classic Menu Today's Menu 
1.  Cold Hors d'oeuvres  1. Cold Hors d'oeuvres      
2.  Soups 2. Soups                  
3.  Hot Hors d'oeuvres 3. Hot Hors d'oeuvres                
4.  Pisces 4. Pisces                  
5.5. Meat Dishes Meat Dishes 
6.6. Hot Entrees   
7.7. SoCold Entrees uk Entrees        
8. Sherbets (canceled completely!)   5. Main Meal (with Vegetables and Salad) 
9.9. Kroasts dice   
10.  Salads 
11.  Vegetables 
12.  Sweets 
13.  Cheeses 
6. Dessert and Fruits 
14.  Compotes 
Source: Mehmet GÜREL-Gülol GÜREL, Service and Bar, Istanbul 1986, p167-168. 
2.2.3. Today's Menu 
It is seen that sherbets are no longer included in the menus that have changed from the classical menu above and reached today's shape. 1.2.3. and the 4th row dishes remain in place; meat dishes, hot and cold entrees, frying, salads and vegetables are combined; It has been adopted as a Main Meal with its salad and side vegetables. On the other hand, we see that desserts, cheese and compotes are now served in the form of Desserts and Fruits.  
If we try to explain this result over today's meals (meal time); 
1.  Today's Lunch Menu Skeleton: 
      Sort      Example 
   - Soup - Ezo Gelin    
   - Main Meal  - Fried Sea Bass 
   - Dessert/Fruit  - Dessert or Fruit 
 Note that since the meal falls in the middle of the working day, the starter was made with soup and the main meal was kept light. 
2.  Today's Dinner Menu Skeleton: 
      Sort      Example 
-  Cold Hors d'oeuvres - Cold Appetizer Plate 
-  Main  Course - Lamb Chops 
-  Dessert/Fruit  - Dessert or Fruit 
In the example above, we see that dinner begins with appetizers. Here, the main course may be heavier than the lunch due to the roughness of the time. When our menu is desired to be enriched, a soup can be served before the cold hors d'oeuvre, and then a hot appetizer (Gürel et al., 1986: 168170). 
When we examine the Classic and Today's Menu examples above, we reach the following results; 
1.  Today's menu consists of at least three and at most six lines. 
2. In the  classic menu, while the portions are served in large scoops and haphazardly; In today's menu, the portions are less, but the service is much more elegant. 
3. While the  classical menu only appealed to the nobility; today's menu can appeal to a wider audience. 
4.  While nutritional principles were ignored in the classical menu, more attention has been paid to these rules in today's menu (Denizer, 2005: 48). 
It is possible to see the content and service order of the meals in the banquets, where we see the richness of the menu in various aspects, from the table on the back page (see Table: 4). 
Table 4: Content and Service Order of the Meals at the Banquets 
Meal  Content  In Service Order 
Cold Hors d'oeuvres  , Olive Oils, Salads, Cold Meat,  Fish  
Soup  Soup and Konseme varieties  first or second 
Hot Hors  d'oeuvres, Shrimp, Mussels etc.  first or second or third 
Main Course  Red-White, Game, Seafood  second or third or fourth or fifth 
Dessert / Fruit  Sweet and Seasonal Fruit  third or fourth or fifth 
Source: Dundar DENIZER, Food and Beverage Management in Hospitality Businesses, Ankara 2005, p51. 
2.3. Content in the Menu 
The role of this study, which is also expressed as the scope of the menu, in Gastronomy Policy is quite large. Therefore, while creating the menus, it is a must to pay attention to the following issues for the expected benefits. 
2.3.1. Truth 
The menu should provide the guest with the desired quality of food and drink at a reasonable price. On the other hand; Due attention is paid to digestion, being nutritious, taste, colour, structure and consistency. A menu composition that will satisfy consumers includes the features listed below. These; 
1.  Two dishes made of the same material cannot be included in a menu, 
2.  Serving two white meats or two red meats does not follow each other, 
3.  A meal that is easy to digest; the heavy one follows, 
4.  Colorful food; combined with less colored or colorless foods, 
5.  Soft foods go together with crunchy foods, 
6.  Tasty foods are combined with less palatable ones, 
7.  Attention is also paid to the harmony of colors throughout the menu. 
2.3.2. Price 
Setting a decent price on food and drink will bring with it an increase in guest numbers and increased profits. In a successful menu, the control is done continuously and effectively in order to know the cost per person and its place in the budget. In this sense, issues from purchasing to sales, from labor costs to the evaluation of residuals are carefully followed.  
2.3.3. Guest Requests 
The identity of the establishment (e.g. luxury or luxury) is a criterion in the characteristics of the meals to be served to the guests. In return, the details about the nutrients that people should take daily are also clear. In addition, details such as an unpleasant memory about the food and religious beliefs (Muslims and pork issue) can also be effective in guest requests. In order to recover this situation, attention is paid to guest requests. The food and drinks on the menu should be products that the guest really desires (Sökmen, 2005: 124-125). 
2.4. Function in Menu 
In a Gastronomy Business, basically everything starts with the menu. The menu is a guide on how to manage the business, how to achieve its goals, and even how to build it. A finalized menu; 
1.  Details of personnel needs and training in kitchen, service and related services, 
2.  Kitchen and service; personnel, equipment and material needs, 
3.  Cost and sales control transactions, 
4.  Which food and beverage should be produced and sold in terms of profitability, 
5.  To be a guide in the marketing plan of the enterprise,  
6. The content of the food served, 
7.  Preliminary preparations of the kitchen and service (works carried out in an à la carte or fast-food establishment, but may differ from each other), 
8.  The establishment location of the business (such as an à la carte business operating in an elite neighborhood and a fast-food business opposite a school), 
9.  Revealing the decoration of the business (such as the classic furnishing of an à la carte business and more modern furnishing of a fast-food business), 
10.  It determines which type of service method (such as taking an order in an à la carte business and working self-service in a fast food business) will be used (Ninemeier, 1990: 107-112). 
2.5. Process in Menu 
Gastronomy businesses should start their structuring by first creating menus that take into account the preferences of the guests. The menus, in the process starting from the feasibility studies to the days when the business was opened and working; They are formed by the owner or responsible of the business. Mentioned menus express the basic elements in gastronomy businesses. Considering the fact that a well-prepared menu can also be an essential marketing tool; This work must be approached very sensitively. Such a study will express a process with its details, and at the end of the activity; The desired contribution will be made to the target of the enterprise by making a profit with a quality, hygienic and low-cost production (Baysal et al., 2007: 34-35).  
The following table shows the flow of this process (see Table: 5). 
Table 5: Determining Process Goals in the Menu 
Market Due Diligence 
Menu For Which Meal 
What Kind of Menu 
Variety of the Menu 
Dishes to be Included in the Menu 
 Printing the Menu Card 
Source:  Ahmet  AKTAŞ-Bahattin  ÖZDEMİR, Kitchen Management  in Hotel Businesses , Ankara 2005, p129. 
Now let's try to see this process consisting of 7 steps; 
1.  Determination of Objectives: With a general assessment, we can say that Gastronomy Businesses must maintain their existence by making profit and fulfill their responsibilities towards the society in this way. In order to fulfill this responsibility, the menu to be prepared should also contribute to the established business objectives. In the preparation of such a menu, in order to achieve the profit, which is the business target, first of all, it is necessary to determine who the target market will be.  
2.  Market Due Diligence: After the guests, who are the target market of the business, have been clarified, it is time for a due diligence regarding them. In this determination, factors such as income levels, gender and age, nutritional needs and desires of the guests, which are kind of demographic characteristics, are determined. 
3.  The Menu for Which Meal: After determining the objectives and determining the situation, it is decided for which meals the menu will be planned. In a star hotel operation; While considering various buffets for breakfast, lunch and dinner, depending on the nature and intensity of the work; For an independent restaurant management , only lunch and/or dinner may be on the agenda.  
4.  What Kind of Menu: After clarifying the meals, the type of menu will be decided. In other words, with the effect of the meal, the menu to be served; Table d'hote, a la carte, open buffet or fixed/revolving status are checked.  
5.  The Diversity of the Menu: After the decision about which type of menu will be made, it is time to determine how the content/richness of the menu will be. Here, considering the possibilities of the business and the situation of the guests; or luxury by choosing an expensive route based on a wide range of purchasing, storage and production realities; or vice versa, it goes to a limited menu operation. On the other hand, as a result of the researches, it has been seen that 75% of the meals sold consist of seven kinds of food, so it is another detail to pay attention to the fact that the products in the groups in the menu are not less than seven kinds. The aim of this study is to bring together the most profitable products for the business in the menu.  
6.  Dishes to Be Included in the Menu: After deciding what the menu variety will be, it's time to first choose what the main dish will be. An example of embroidery to be embroidered on the basis of the middle; The menu is now formed from the main dish, with other dishes that can accompany it with its appropriate and complementary qualities.    
7.  Printing the Menu Card: Now, at this last stage, the work done is to be presented to the guest, to the cards that are also accepted as the business card of the business; It is published by paying attention to design issues from the language used to foreign languages, dimensions, design to illustration, name and description (Aktaş et al., 2005: 129-135). 
2.6. Material on the menu  
After completing the above preparation process, it is time to proceed to menu production; It has come to the supply, receipt and storage and distribution of the needed materials. Now, let's try to see these activities, which appear as a process, in three steps.  
2.6.1. Buy  
Purchasing begins with deciding which materials will be purchased based on which standards in order to produce the products (food and beverage varieties) in the menu. If the materials needed by the production personnel are available in the warehouses of the enterprise, they will be procured from here, if not, they will be procured from outside. Now let's try to open our topic. Definition, Importance and Purpose 
Definition: It is the research and selection of the materials that are most suitable for the economic rules, within the framework of the standards determined by the enterprise, taking into account the storage possibilities, and paying the price on the agreed terms. 
Importance: Purchasing is almost more sensitive than our other subjects. Here, there is a situation that will make us gain or lose when purchasing (“you must win while buying the goods” Öz, 1966: 68), and therefore directly affect the profit of the enterprise. This aspect also expresses the basis of what is known as Cost Control in Gastronomy.  
It is possible to rank the importance here through the following 5 items. 
1.  Expenditure of working capital,  
2.  The need for space for stocks or the decrease in used space,  
3.  Supply of necessities,  
4. Whether the  business image is protected or not,  
5.  The resulting profit or loss of the business. 
Purpose: An efficient result in purchasing is achieved by paying attention to the following. 
1.  To buy the kinds of ingredients that the menu really needs (orienting to ready-made foods when necessary), 
2.  Receiving the materials in appropriate quantities (paying attention to the stock security levels), 
3.  To get the best price (negotiating with the seller, the advantage of paying cash and removing the middleman when necessary), 
4.  Obtaining from the most suitable seller (financial soundness, after-sales service and paying attention to its continuity) (Aktaş et al., 2005: 142), 5. Consistency of the quality of the material to be purchased with the quality of the product to be produced (for example, the distinction between stuffed rice and rice) (Aktaş et al., 2005: 142) Denizer, 2005: 92). Material Purchase Process and Records  
In order for the purchasing unit to be successful, the purchasing system must be set up and operated in a healthy way. For this, attention is paid to the relationships in the steps starting with the purchase and consisting of receiving, storage and distribution. In this sense, a healthy purchasing process consists of the following stages; 
1. First of all, material request forms, details of which are given on the back page, regarding the materials requested in the enterprise; It is filled by the storage unit or departments and sent to the purchasing officer (see Table: 6).  
Material request form consisting of three copies, after the signatures are completed;  
First Copy: filed by the purchasing unit, 
The second “ : is sent to the receiving (consignment) department, 
The third “ : is given to the department requesting the material to follow the material (Aktaş, 2001: 158).
As the head chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR, I see the source:
Mr. Hüseyin ALTINEL, Assist. Assoc. Dr. Şehnaz DEMİRKOL, Assist. Assoc. Dr. I sincerely thank Şehnaz DEMİRKOL for his academic studies on "Menu Management in Gastronomy" and wish him success in his professional life. It will definitely be considered as an example by those who need it in professional kitchens and the gastronomy and culinary community.
** Note:
The original text, which is accepted as a source, is as follows. Google translation was used for the necessary language change.
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