• What are the Menu Types?
  • What are the Menu Types?
  • What are the Menu Types?
  • What are the Menu Types?
  • What are the Menu Types?
  • What are the Menu Types?

Breakfast Menus, Lunch Menus, Dinner Menus, Menus for Kids, For private reasons, 24 hour or California Menus, Club Menus, Feast - Banquet Menus, Corporate Menus, Room Service Menus, Ethnic Menus, Special Menus, Standard Menus...

What are the Menu Types in Food and Beverage Businesses?
Various menus are applied in terms of meals and events, depending on the type of accommodation or catering establishments. Therefore, it is not possible to put the menus in a single category. The local food service characteristics of the menu should be analyzed. The food service features of the menu are divided into seven. These; menu, availability (capacity), ingredients, cost level, atmosphere (air, environment), adequacy, Guest compensation and service type. These elements can be referenced in any menu. For example; like a breakfast or ethnic menu. 
Different menus define different food service features. Understanding, understanding and realizing these differences is vital in menu planning in the food industry and determining what foods to include on the menu. There are people who specialize in this. Food service features of a menu directly affect the determination of the type of menu.
Breakfast, Soup, Tea,
Luncheon, Partile, Hors d'oevres (horseradish),
Lunch, Kids, Drinks
Dinner, Catering, Desserts 
These special menu types have a wide range of uses. Such menus are used in the services of many large hotel businesses.
According to another classification; 13 menu types, taking into account food service characteristics (typical features) 
1. Breakfast Menus
2. Lunch Menus
3. Dinner Menus
4. Menus for Kids
5. For private reasons
6. 24 hour or California Menus 
7. Club Menus
8. Feast - Banquet Menus
9. Corporate Menus 
10. Room Service Menus
11. Ethnic Menus
12. Special Menus
13. Standard Menus
While classifying the menus, first of all, price, time and some other criteria should be taken into consideration.
Considering these criteria, it is possible to classify the menus in these three groups according to their prices, time and special menu types.
The existence of many food and beverage businesses in different classes and quality has brought the use of different menus to the agenda as much as the number of companies. In general, two types of menus are commonly used. First; “Table d'IIotel” menu showing all meals and a few fixed price meals. The second is; It is the “A'la Carte” menu, which includes more meals and drinks than Table d'Hotelle and is priced separately.
Table d'Hotel
Table d'Hotel service is the service made to guests at certain times of the day. Table d'flotel'i literally means the table of the owner. Table d'Hotel is the serving of the same predetermined menu to a certain group or guests at certain times, at the same prices, at the same or separate tables.
Menu; The dishes to be presented by the business are arranged in the order they are called. There may be more or less food on the menu.
In the past, guests who wanted to eat in hotels would gather in front of the hotel's dining hall before the meal time and wait for the meal time. When the hour came, the hall would open and the owner of the hotel would sit around the table and eat from the uniform menu of that day.
This service is still used today. Meals to be served are predetermined and priced. 
This is called the Table d'Hotel menu. The defining features of the fable d'Hotel menu are:
Limited number of meals are served. In general, a Table d'Hotel menu consists of 3 or 4 dishes.
Guests' food selection is limited.
The business charges a fixed price. Like fixed meal, fixed price.
Pre-prepared meals are served at designated meal times.
The Table d'Hotel menu is a collection of dishes served to a group of guests at certain times of the day. The Table d'Hotel menu usually consists of easy-to-control and well-known dishes. The guest has to pay the single price determined for all the dishes on the menu. Most food and beverage businesses apply both Table d'Hotel and A'la Jarte menus at the same time to increase their sales volume. Table d'Hotel menu can be applied for every meal of the day.
The Table d'Hotel menu is applied in banquets, buffet service or in situations where limited choice meals are required in accommodation or catering establishments.
Table d'Hotel menu application provides the following benefits to businesses:
It saves time.
It saves on kitchen and service personnel. 
It saves on service and kitchen sets.
It provides convenience in purchasing materials.
It provides convenience in storage. 
A'Ia Carte Menu 
A'la Carte Menu is a form of service that has entered the world service literature from French. By card  means by card. A'Ia Carte Menu also means ordering food by choosing from the card according to the card. In the menu, food and beverages are prepared and served after being selected by the Guest from the list.
It is the way of serving the dishes that you choose from the card and order by the table waiter according to the wishes of the guests, after the guests are greeted by the saloon chef and placed on the tables in the food and beverage establishments that implement the A' la Carte Menu. In other words, A'la Carte Menu is an order-based service. 
The guest chooses his food and drink from the menu card and gives it to the waiter. The waiter writes the orders on the order slip. 
The order final transmits it to the kitchen. If the guest has special requests, they are prepared in the kitchen, taking into account these requests.
In the A' la Carte Menu application, it is difficult to predict in advance which dishes the guests will eat and which beverages they will drink.
A'la Carte Menu features:
Too many meals
Meals are prepared after order 
Each plate has a separate price.
It is the menu with higher cost foods.
Food takes time to prepare.
All meals on the menu card can be prepared by the business.
More employees are needed in this form of service. The service knowledge of the personnel working in other services should be more than the ones working in other services.
More kitchen and service sets are needed.
The amount of waste in the material is higher.
Service is more difficult.
Since the A'la Carte Menu has an order-based feature, the chance of success increases as long as the sales amount can be predicted correctly. Control is power in the menu. However, A'la Carte Menu application is prestige for the business.
A'la Carte Menu should be arranged in such a way as to attract the attention of the guests, increase the order and increase the turnover of the business.
In addition to the benefits of A'la Carte Menun to the business, this application also has many disadvantages in terms of business. These;
Too many choices confuse the guest.
The selection time is long.
Service time is long.
The workload of the kitchen is high.
Meals are difficult to prepare and present.
More qualified personnel are needed.
It causes the formation of many products with no nutritional value.
The amount of food leftovers is more.
The cost of the business is higher.
Waste is a lot.
Cycle Menu (Cycle Menu) 
Table d'Hotel is a type of menu. The revolving menu is scheduled for the week, month or more. The menu is prepared and applied until the start of the handover. Then it's back to the beginning. It is important that these menus are set at the right time. 
If this period is kept long, the cost of purchasing, storing and producing the products increases. Recurring menu is applied in hospitals, schools, factories and industrial catering establishments. Revolving menu application can be optional or fixed. Practitioners need to be careful in revolving menu planning.   
When planning the menu, the following should be considered:
Market conditions and seasonal changes should be taken into account.
Production and service time should be well adjusted. 
The characteristics of the group to be served food should be taken into consideration.
Attention should be paid to the principles of calories and nutrition.
Portion sizes should be well adjusted.
Workload distribution should be considered in personnel planning.
The revolving menu is easy to implement once planned. It saves the time of the personnel, labor and purchasing.
The cost of the revolving menu is variable, not fixed. For this reason, cyclical menus should be reviewed periodically in terms of cost.
California Menu 
Some restaurants collect breakfast, lunch and dinner menu items in a single menu. These menu items can be ordered and eaten by guests at any time of the day. For example, a guest can eat fish for breakfast and an omelette for dinner.
Menu type: 
The California or 24-hour menu offers three meals throughout the day. Breakfast, lunch or dinner can be purchased at any time. The menu can be "a'la carte" or "semi a'la carte". Many 24-hour menus consist of breakfast, snacks, soups, salads, hot and cold sandwiches, desserts and beverages. The 24-hour menu may be covered with laminate or similar material. The laminated (thin leaf) menu is expensive to produce, and the menu with subsequent additions can confuse the guest.
Food availability: 
He knows all your needs can be obtained from local vendors. Having enough food on hand is important during high demand hikes.
Extensive equipment is required. Equipment may be limited in some restaurants. For example; Restaurants that only serve meat and sandwiches need a grill toaster and a steam machine.
Spending level: Prices range from low to medium.
Atmosphere: The decor in 24-hour establishments should be simple and serviceable. The menu card should also be chosen to complement this.
Qualification: Working in 24-hour businesses requires great culinary skill and experience. As with the breakfast menu, kitchen staff must be quick and well organized. Service personnel need experience because of the sales rate.
Guest structure: Guests are often working people, young, older or retired couples and university students
Type of service: People who go to their 24 hour restaurant expect fast service and good food. Placemat service is applied in this menu type.
Cart du Jour (Dinner of the Day)
It means the card of the day. It includes the options offered only for that meal. Chef's specialties or  the dish of the day can be found in the a'la carte menu or the table d'hotel menu. Sold at one price. This portion usually consists of an instant or two main course. It is a kind of daily table d'hotel menu. 
There are three basic meals that are usually practiced. These meals are breakfast, lunch and dinner. Apart from these meals, there are also brunch and sapper menus. 
Breakfast Menu 
Breakfast is very important as it is the first meal of the day. A good breakfast helps people start the day well. Starting the day with a good breakfast, the guest will spend the day well and be more satisfied.
Food adequacy: Most of the food to be served for breakfast should be made up of local food. Food for breakfast can be  bought from local vendors. If they are not suitable or cannot be sold, these items should be removed from the menu.
Equipment (equipment): While planning a breakfast menu, it is necessary to pay attention to the purchase and placement of equipment.
Generally, equipment consists of tools and equipment such as steam machine, grill, toaster, microwave oven, tea and coffee makers. Tools should be placed in a logical and decorative way that will help the employees to work easily and the cooking methods of the food and the service applied by the business. 
The most common complaint of the Breakfast Guests is the cold or lukewarm service of the food.  Foods that should be served hot at breakfast should be served hot  .
Stove for scrambled eggs and hot cereals ; Requires cooler for dairy products and juices. An oven or steam table is used to keep food warm. Grill for eggs, pancakes and vegetables with pickled beef; waffle layer is required for waffles. Sausages, bacon, potatoes and toast are grilled and kept warm in the oven. A grill is used for steaks and an oven hob is used for dishes to be baked.
Expenditure level: Prices for breakfast foods can range from low to moderate. Most people don't expect to pay a lot for breakfast. Even so, large hotels may charge slightly more for this meal than other food services.
Atmosphere (weather/environment): A breakfast menu should reflect the décor of the establishment. For example; such as tablecloth, carpets, napkins, flowers on the table. The colors of the breakfast tablecloths should be chosen more pastel.
This menu reflects an elegant decor that comes from its simplicity. Importance is given to the four colors that relax the eye. These; gray, pink, green and beige. The reflection of this policy of the company is also seen on the menu cards. It would be more appropriate to print titles and side titles such as main and snacks, fruits, juices, breakfast specialties and so on in light colors.
Competence/Skillness: All breakfast items must be cooked regularly. It should be quick and well organized. There is no need for an expert chef in this regard. Service personnel must be able to act quickly and be efficient. Because the guest turnover rate is high in breakfast service.
Waiters and cooks should be competent and regular in fast and hot breakfast service. For example ; cooks should know cooking techniques such as grilling and sautéing. Waiters have to know how certain foods such as eggs are prepared.
Guest Request/Condition: Guests who have breakfast are often in a hurry. Therefore, the service should be fast. Guests can be locals or tourists.
Type of service: Most breakfast services are placemats. Buffet breakfast is also common. The guest takes their food from the buffet and brings it to the table himself. The table is then cleared by the attendant.
Type of Menu: The menu can be a combination of a' la carte and semi-a' la carte or tabel d'hotel… The “club section” in semi-a la carte consists of continental and American breakfasts. Most of the menu is hot dishes such as omelets, pancakes, steaks, eggs and hot cereal.
Price Level: Factors such as business class, guest profile, service type, menu type affect the price. While the price to be applied in a big city hotel may be slightly higher, it can be kept more reasonable in a seasonal hotel. For example ; A hotel that charges 5 million for a toast can charge 20 million for the fixed menu price.
Guest Profile: It consists of business people, tourists and families. They are always in a hurry and want fast service. 
Lunch Menu
It is the second meal of the day. Since it is eaten in the middle of the day, it includes the time left from people's work or schedules. For this reason, the time allocated for lunch is less. This feature should be taken into account when planning for lunch.
Foods with short cooking and serving times should be chosen. Heavy meals should be avoided as the meal will be eaten during the workday or activity.
Type of menu: Lunch menu can be a la carte or semi a la carte. A la carte menu consists of appetizers, salads, cold and hot sandwiches, entrées, desserts and drinks. Semi a la carte; Includes salad, vegetables and potatoes with entry. Most lunch menus offer daily specials. 
Specials are presented in three ways;
1. Written on a board at the entrance of the restaurant, 
2. Inside the menu, fastened with thumbtacks or paper clips, etc.
3. Verbally transferred to the Guest by the Waiter.
Food availability 
(availability): Supply of any food for the lunch menu is easily available from local vendors. If a food item is difficult to obtain or cannot be sold, it should be removed from the menu. 
Gear: Steamed, baked, fried and roasted, items on the lunch menu require full gear. The specific equipment need will depend on the items on the menu.
Level of expense: Prices for the lunch menu depend on the food items on the menu and the location of the business. Prices range from low to high.
Atmosphere (weather/environment): A lunch menu reflects the establishment's decor. For example; In a seafood restaurant, the tablecloths can be light blue and the napkins white. The menu book can be completed with a picture of a dark blue anchor on a light blue background. A logo representing the restaurant may be suitable for the menu card. Of course, it should not be forgotten that the logo of every business is a part of that business.
Competence: Preparing and serving a lunch menu requires professional cooks and waiters. For example; such as snacks, soups, entrées, desserts. These foods cannot be served haphazardly. The personnel who will work in the preparation of these dishes must have culinary experience. 
Waiters, on the other hand, need to know the service style of the establishment and may even have to describe the specialties from time to time. Other detail requests of guests also require experience.
Guest structure: Guests can be tourists, working people, or locals.
Serving type: The serving type is most often placemat. Most people only have half an hour or an hour for lunch. Since their time is short, they expect fast service. But they do not compromise on quality service and good food. Business managers should not ignore this.
Type of menu: Is this a la carte, table d'hotel or half a la carte? Soups, meat dishes, wines a la carte, salads, croissants' dishes can be table d' hotel.
Provision of Food: Procured from local vendors. House specialties such as seafood are also prepared from readily available ingredients.
Ingredients: Pots or pans are required for soup and stew. It required automatic slicers for croissant sandwiches, electric or charcoal grills for cooking grills, a steam engine for cooking vegetables, and stoves for pasta.
Atmosphere: If the establishment serves seafood; can use decor materials to reflect this theme in their ATMs. On the menu, the menu cover consisting of blue and gray ship patterns or a graphic reflecting the sea atmosphere would be appropriate. Elements can be preferred to complement the decor.
Dinner Menu
 This meal is served as the main meal of the day in many countries of the world. It can be served at different times according to habits. When we look at the applications, it is seen that the service is usually done after 17.00. 
The food offered in the evening menu is more extensive than the breakfast and lunch meals. Therefore, the menu should offer more options.
Type of menu: The dinner menu is often a combination of “a la carte” and “a la carte”.
Equipment: The menu determines the equipment needed to produce food items effectively and efficiently. For example; A restaurant famous for its seafood and meat needs equipment such as frying pans, ovens, steam engine, heater and so on.
Cost level (price): Prices vary according to the restaurant and the food items in the menu. Evening meals are generally more expensive than lunches and breakfasts.
Atmosphere: The menu should be a reflection of the decor. For example ; In a French restaurant, an elegant atmosphere can be created with red carpets, golden yellow napkins and red tablecloths. Again, menu cards should be prepared in accordance with this atmosphere of the business. For this reason, menu cards can be more attractive with texts written on a light yellow background.
What are the Menu Types in Accommodation, Food and Beverage Businesses?
A relaxing and elegant atmosphere will suit this meal very well. The materials used must be of very high quality and valuable. For example; such as using silver candlesticks, silver or gold plated meninges.
Competence: The foods on the menu are determined according to the skill and experience level of the employees. For example; dinner menus can be served with sauces. The knowledge of the kitchen staff is important in the preparation of sauces and dishes. Waiters should know the methods of preparation of food as well as cooks. 
All those who work both in the foreground and in the background must be very well trained. Cooks and waiters must work as a team. Because the food begins to be cooked in the kitchen and is completed at the table. Guests are satisfied with the presentation of well-cooked dishes on the table. Table preparation is also part of the service. Chefs should know all cooking techniques well, and they should also time the dishes very well when using French service.
Guest structure: Guests can be couples and working people, tourists or locals who have come to enjoy an enjoyable dinner. 
Service type: It can be American, British, Russian or French service.
Sapper Menu 
Apart from the main meals listed above, there are also time-based menus. One of them is the sapper menu. It means a late night meal. For example; It's like going to a tripe shop after midnight in Turkey and drinking tripe soup.
Easily digestible food is served at this meal. Such as pan varieties, lean fries or soups.
What are the Menu Types in Accommodation, Food and Beverage Businesses?
Branch Menu 
Branch menu is widely practiced today. It is the type of menu that people prefer on weekends.
The word branch is derived by combining the words breakfast and lanch. Buffet form application 
is common. 
It is generally applied in hotel businesses. Instead of breakfast and lunch, it is served as a single meal between 10:00 and 14:00. Both breakfast type foods and main course type foods and desserts are offered. Meal time is quite long.
Christmas or New Year's Menus
There are also Christmas and New Year's menus that can be associated with time. It is also possible to examine this menu type in the special menu.
Menu Type: Special invitation menu should be “table d'hote” menu. Since alcoholic beverages will be drunk frequently, the meals on the menu should be meals taken with alcohol. Meals and side dishes served with these dishes should be typical foods of this special day.
They are children's menus, government or institution menus, cocktail menus, room service and ethnic menus.
Has Chef Ahmet Ozemir NOTE:
Mr. I would like to thank Halide MERAKLI for her work and wish her success in her work. It will be accepted as a resource by the relevant businesses and employees in gastronomy and tourism and will definitely be considered as a useful work.
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