• The Effect of Islam in Turkish Culinary Culture
  • The Effect of Islam in Turkish Culinary Culture
  • The Effect of Islam in Turkish Culinary Culture
  • The Effect of Islam in Turkish Culinary Culture
  • The Effect of Islam in Turkish Culinary Culture
  • The Effect of Islam in Turkish Culinary Culture

In addition to the livelihoods offered by the geography of the societies, the differences in their belief systems have brought about the differences in the rules of food and beverage. Because the principles brought by religions regarding food and drink are often important..

The Effect of Islam in Turkish Culinary Culture
Ramazan AKCA
The phenomenon of food has always existed since the first existence of man. What people eat varies according to their culture, climate and geography. However, the effect of religion on the cuisine has mostly been above the geography and climate conditions and even the culture. Turkish cuisine has been influenced by many world cuisines such as Chinese, Arab, Iranian and European. Despite this, Islamic features have always preserved their place in the kitchen. 
The aim of this study is to reveal the place of Islam in Turkish culinary culture . Although Turkish cuisine is discussed in many aspects, it is aimed to contribute to this field by considering that the main element that directs Turkish cuisine culture is Islam and this issue has not been adequately addressed. In conclusion: It is seen that Islam has an effect on Turkish cuisine. 
1. Introduction
What people eat is shaped by their culture and belief, along with geographical and climatic conditions (Közleme, 2012, p.12). Culture is the whole of the material and spiritual values ​​and lifestyle of a society; it is a whole formed by inventions and traditions (Şanlıer, Cömert and Durlu-Özkaya, 2008, p.1123). One of the most defining elements of a country, region or culture is the cuisine (Constantin, 2012, p.54). 
In addition to the livelihoods offered by the geography of the societies, the differences in their belief systems have brought about the differences in the rules of food and beverage. Because the principles brought by religions regarding food and drink are often important details that separate religions from each other. Any food or drink that is prohibited in one religion can be a means of worship or a recommended food in another religion.  
For example; While wine is among the prohibitions in Islam, it is a religious object in Christianity. In addition, the rules of a religion regarding food and beverages may cause the religion to be accepted or not accepted by the society, depending on the livelihoods of the societies in some cases (Kılıç, 2012, p.1).
From past to present, depending on the socio-economic life maintained, meat from animal foods, especially beef and sheep meat, has an important place in Turks. In many celebrations and commemoration ceremonies, the most important meal on the table is those made from meat products. 
In Turkish folk beliefs, symbolic meanings have been attributed to some fruits and they have been used for various purposes. Wheat and bread made from cereal-type foods are among the foods respected by the Turkish society. Likewise, it is noteworthy that sweet-type foods take place in every stage of folk beliefs. Among the beverages, those that have an important place in folk beliefs are water and milk (Kılıç, 2012, p.12).
Most of the foods that are the basis of human nutrition were grown in Central Asia, the homeland of the Turks, and in Anatolia, where they migrated, and moved to other parts of the world. They benefited from the animals and plants found in the regions where they migrated, they raised the ones suitable for the local conditions, and they used the ones they grew by processing with simple techniques (Ertaş and Karadağ, 2013, p.119).
In this study, the eating and drinking habits that have changed with the effect of Islam in Turkish cuisine have been examined under two main headings, namely pre-Islamic and post-Islamic.
Turkish Cuisine Chefs, Turkish Chef, Restaurant Consultancy, Kitchen Consultancy.2. Turkish Cuisine Before Islam
Culinary culture is as old as human history. Hz. Adam and Hz. The fact that Eve's first tests were with food and therefore she was sent to the world is an example that shows the influence of religion in the formation of their diet. It is seen that horses and sheep are the most prominent animals among the animals raised and eaten by the Turks since the Huns. In Chinese sources, it is stated that the Turks who went to war took horses and sheep as war supplies. Pastrami and sausage are among the war supplies of the Turks (Közleme, 2012, p.156).
Marco Polo writes that the soldiers who went to war in the regions of Central Asia close to Mongolia did not carry provisions with them, but only herds of horses accompanied the army at the account of 18 horses for each rider. He stated that on the way, they drew about a quarter liter of blood from the horse's vein at each meal, from a separate horse, and drank this blood raw or by adding it to milk. Apart from these, he tells that they grilled on fire waiting for the blood to clot. It is also among the information he gives that the blood drawn from the body of each horse is completed in ten days (Gürsoy, 2013, 78).
In the sources, it is stated that the Oghuzs slaughtered one hundred and two hundred horses for the dead vaccine, while the Yakuts ate an oily meal when the child was born and cooked the animal sacrificed without breaking its head. In addition, the ancient Turks, in accordance with their understanding of life after death, would leave various foods in the graves that they believed their dead would eat and drink. In this sense, a vessel full of meat and a cup full of mare's milk were usually placed in front of the grave during the burial ceremony (Kılıç, 2012, p.8).
In ancient Turks, the horse was offered as a sacrifice. The meat and milk of these horses were not used and these horses were not used for carrying loads. While such sacrificial animals are called iduk, they are called "Allah" in Gagauz. Godliness in the Gagauz is to choose the best among animals and leave them to the countryside. This animal was not grazed with the herd, it was fed separately. In Turkish Folk Beliefs, even if these animals damage the crop in the field, it is considered a sin to beat, batter and steal them (Ünver and Güngör, 2003, p.215-216).
Milk and dairy products, butter, yogurt, etc. In Turkish mythology, it is accepted that the first soul was given to people with a drop of milk taken from the Süt Lake (Ak Göl). In the Yakuts, it is believed that Ayzıt went to the mother's house with field, flower and berry fairies near the birth of a child and gave him his soul by dripping a drop of milk from the Milk Lake into the child's mouth. 
A motif similar to the Milk Lake in the Yakuts is mentioned as the sacred milk sea in the Uyghurs Legend of Descent. In the Altai community, Ülgen orders Yayık to go to the Milk Lake and pour a drop of milk into the mouth of the newborn child. Also, stories about the cams are told that the cam treated the sick with cooked milk. On the other hand, northern and eastern Turks call milk and every food made from milk white, and they do not want even a drop of it to fall to the ground, as they consider it a great sin (Kılıç, 2012, p.11).
In ancient Turks, kumis has an important place. It dates back to the Hun Turks. It is known that the Kipchaks offered kumiss to the Russian ambassadors who came as guests. Kumis was made jointly as a oba, produced in May and consumed during the summer. It is formed from mare's milk by souring it with a unique yeast. There are two types as white and black kumis. When our first white kumis is kept for a few months, it takes the form of black kumis. It is frequently encountered in religious rituals and ceremonies (www.academia.edu).
In the steppes of Central Asia, agricultural activities are carried out in certain areas, and it has been seen that they grow wheat, rye, rice, barley and millet. Although the vegetable was not known until the 11th century, it should be noted that onions, garlic and leeks originated in Central Asia. Plum, apricot, peach, apple, watermelon, melon, buckwheat, mulberry, peanut, hazelnut, walnut, chervil etc. In the works of Kaşgarlı Mahmud, in which fruits are produced, are included. Molasses, vinegar, wine were produced and consumed from grapes. They consumed some fruits as fresh and some as dry (Közleme, 2012, p.157).
Some of the vegetables and fruits mentioned in the Turks had both an important nutrient and a symbolic meaning. Apple, especially the red apple, shows itself in Turkish proverbs, fairy tales, epics and folk tales. In this respect, apple has an important feature that should be emphasized. In Turks, apple and tree are related to fertility event. There is a widespread belief among Turks that the role of the man is not sufficient for a woman to become pregnant, and that a spirit must enter the woman's body. For this reason, Kazakh Turks believe that infertile women should roll under an apple tree in order to become pregnant. 
In addition, those who have no children in Turkish culture became pregnant with an apple given by a pir or dervish. Many heroes who will achieve great things were born this way. The apple affected not only humans but also horses that ate its skin, making them different from the others. On the other hand, young girls of marriageable age expressed their acceptance by giving apples to their suitors. Apple is considered as an important tool in love and love relationships and in marriage requests. The apple, which is considered as the harbinger of love and affection and as a productive power, was also associated with death (Albayrak and Kılıç, 2012, p.713).
Among the legumes that the Turks called vetch and called cowpea during their migration to the west, there were broad beans, peas, lentils, beans and chickpeas. In addition to metal objects such as selçi bik (cook's knife), etlik (meat hook), iwrik (ibrik), tewsi (tray), bucket, hair, skewer, soku (mortar), as well as cubes, bowls, pots, spoons, cisterns, water bag, salt shaker and tuluk are among the kitchen utensils they use (Közleme, 2012, p.160). The emergence of inns in the west and caravanserais in the east in the 12th century marked the beginning of hotels and food and beverage businesses (Yılmaz, 2012, p.8).
Turkish Cuisine Chefs, Turkish Chef, Restaurant Consultancy, Kitchen Consultancy.3. Turkish Cuisine Under the Influence of Islam
Turkish cuisine took its current form with the migrations that started in the 10th century and with Islam. The influence of religion on cuisine is often more important than climate and geography. 
In today's Turkish cuisine, pork and the meat of equine animals (donkey, mule, etc.) and the meat of animals such as reptiles, frogs, foxes are not included. Along with the religion of Islam, the influence of Arab nutrition culture has been observed, especially in Southeastern dishes. The use of large amounts of spices and especially bitter is an example of this effect (Ertaş and Karadağ, p.119, 2013).
After the adoption of Islam, Turkish culture became closer to Arab culture, and this situation was also reflected in the cuisine culture. With the advent of Islam, under-table mats were used to prevent the bread and food crumbs from spilling on the floor. As a result of the acceptance of Islam, some foods and beverages were rendered haram and makruh (www.tarihtarih.com). In Islamic countries, feasts given at homes were held on Friday, as it was a holiday, and leftover meals were eaten on Saturday. Garlic and onions were not included in banquet dishes because of their bad smell. 
However, cooks used abundantly the fragrant spices called camphor. Chestnuts, figs and raisins called “goat dung” were not considered suitable for such dishes, and offal was never offered to the elite. During the Middle Ages, two meals were eaten in Islamic countries. It was known as the main meal eaten just before and after the mid-morning and evening prayers. Snacks were made between two meals (Gürsoy, 2013, p.65). 
Meat dishes, fish dishes, dishes using dairy products, dishes made from wheat and wheat flour, pastries, tutch, rice dishes, vegetable dishes, millet dishes are among the dishes cooked in the Karakhanid period. Grape, apple, pear, peach apricot etc. In addition to fruits, horse meat is eaten, but horse blood is not drunk due to the prohibition of blood in Islam. Boza, the wine kumis still holds its place. 
During the Seljuk period, horse meat started to come out of Turkish cuisine. It is also known that there is a kitchen part called ashlık in Turkish cuisine in houses or tents. During the Seljuk period, plants began to appear, and vegetables such as spinach, chicory, lettuce and chard took their place in the kitchen. An Islamization process was experienced in the kitchen, which continued as Karakhanids, Seljuks, Mamluks and Ottomans (Közleme, 2012, p.166).
Islam has forbidden horse meat. It is halal to eat poultry such as domestic pigeons, chickens, turkeys, geese and ducks. The main thing in the halalness of these animals is that they do not have claws. In order for wild animals to be eaten, the condition that they do not have molars and claws is required so that they are herbivores, that is, not carnivores. In this sense, grass-fed deer, wild cattle, domesticated camels and cattle, gazelle, wild goat and sheep, domestic goat and sheep are determined as edible animals. Animals that are slaughtered or hunted under normal conditions are halal to eat, animals that die of their own accord, are strangled or killed by beating with a stone are prohibited. Alcoholic beverages are also prohibited because the harm outweighs the benefit. Kumis has left its place to sherbets and compotes (Kılıç, 2011, p.177).
The most important period affecting Turkish Cuisine was the Ottoman Empire Period. In the 16th century, Turkish cuisine experienced its most glorious period in parallel with the growth of the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman Palace Cuisine contributed greatly to the development of Turkish Cuisine with its dishes adopted by the public over time. In the Ottoman Empire, the kitchen is an important part of the palace life. 
The Sultan and his entourage saw gathering around a table as a means of socialization, so the Palace Cuisine has always been a place that seeks innovations and creates delicious and rich dishes. Cooks competed with each other in order to produce the dishes that the Sultan and his entourage liked, and to make the feasts more spectacular (Ciğerim, 2001, p.56). 
The development of the palace kitchen started when Fatih Sultan Mehmet built large kitchens in the Topkapı Palace in the second half of the 15th century. Here, the sultan's meals were prepared in Kuşhane by the bird chefs who cooked only the sultan's meals. The meals of the Valide Sultan, the princes and the notables of the harem were prepared in the special kitchen (Aktaş and Özdemir, 2012, p.24). 
The Agdiye Rissalis, the cookbook known to be the first manuscript about historical Ottoman cuisine and " Ottoman Food Culture ", was written in the 18th century. The first printed cookbook of Ottoman cuisine is Melce'üt Tabbahin (Cooks' Shelter). During the Ottoman period, Ahmet Şevket Efendi's book, Cooking School, was published to be taught in girls' schools (Gökdemir, 2009, p.4). 
The most important aspect of Turkish cuisine is that it is nutritious. He argues that Turkish food has some advantages in terms of nutrition and health, and this is due to the fact that Turkish dishes are not one-sided. Turkish dishes allow adequate intake of different food groups to ensure a balanced diet. However, the author specifically states that practices such as the fact that some dishes contain more oil than necessary, and that some dishes are cooked in direct contact with fire or at high temperatures affect Turkish cuisine negatively in terms of health (Kılıç, 2010, p.19).
The main features of Turkish cuisine, which is among the richest cuisines in the world, are listed as follows;
The main food of Turkish cuisine is bread, which is plentiful and consumed a lot.
There are many types of vegetables. It is common to cook vegetables with meat, onions, tomato paste and tomatoes. 
There is a wide variety of dishes in Turkish cuisine. Pastries predominate.  
Self-growing herbs, mushrooms and roots are widely used, especially in rural areas.  
Oil is very important in Turkish cuisine. Fats obtained from milk, tallow or tail fat are used in almost every region. Especially in the Western Anatolia region, olive oil is used a lot. 
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It is common to use a wide variety of spices in food. Onions, minced meat, tomato paste and even vegetables, which are generally used in meals, are fried in oil before being added to water.  
In general, the use of salt in food is high.
Yogurt and ayran have an important place in Turkish cuisine. 
In addition to these features, he stated that Turkish cuisine attaches importance to the taste of the food rather than its appearance, and that desserts also have an important place. states that products such as these are among the important varieties of Turkish cuisine (Çalışkan and Seyitoğlu, 2014, p.26).
4. Conclusion and Recommendations
The rules determined by the human being, who is obliged to continue his life due to creation, regarding food and drink are shaped according to his own religion, culture and climate. The most limiting element in nutrition is the religious belief of the person. Because each religion has foods and drinks that it considers sacred, forbids or not. For example, while wine is considered sacred in the Christian religion, it is a prohibited drink in the Islamic religion. Again, while horse meat was consumed in the old Turks, the Turks who later converted to Islam were forbidden to consume horse meat due to the influence of religion. Therefore, the influence of religion in culinary culture has a great place.
Turkish cuisine is among the largest cuisines in the world. It has been concluded that religion has an effect that cannot be changed in the kitchen. In Turks, there is a sacrifice to God before and after Islam. However, the type and form of sacrifice offered to God has changed. 
The most consumed food by the Turks before Islam was horse meat, and the drink was kumiss. In the process after accepting Islam, the most known and loved foods were replaced by horse meat, sheep, goat, etc. over time. meat and kumiss for sherbet, compote, ayran and fruit juice. In the period after Islam, plant (vegetable) consumption increased with the effect of settled life. The banquet tradition is established. When it comes to the Ottoman Period, food and beverage varieties entered the richest period. Today, there are more than 3000 types of food in (Turkish Cuisine History) Turkish culinary culture.
As stated in the research, Turkish culinary culture is among the richest cuisines of the world. The influence of Islam on this cuisine is clearly visible. It should be noted that the rules determined by the religion of Islam are positive for people and prohibit food and drink that are harmful to the human body and mind. People can have a healthier lifestyle by not consuming these harmful foods and beverages.  
One of the conditions of a healthy life, which is trending today, is a healthy diet. It is known that Turkish food has some advantages in terms of nutrition and health. Turkish cuisine, foods consumed together with the effect of religion are generally suitable for a healthy life. Therefore, awareness of healthy life and Turkish cuisine should be placed among world cuisines. 
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As the head chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR, I see the source:
Sec. İpek ÜNAL,  I sincerely thank Ramazan AKÇA for  his academic studies titled "The  Influence of Islam in Turkish Culinary Culture " and wish him success  in his professional life . It will definitely be considered as an example by those who need it in professional kitchens, related research and in the world of gastronomy.