• How to Become a Gastronomy City?
  • How to Become a Gastronomy City?
  • How to Become a Gastronomy City?
  • How to Become a Gastronomy City?
  • How to Become a Gastronomy City?
  • How to Become a Gastronomy City?
  • How to Become a Gastronomy City?
  • How to Become a Gastronomy City?
  • How to Become a Gastronomy City?

The French Revolution was also influential in the development of gastronomy, especially in Europe. Before 1789, the method and principle of eating and drinking were made in a hierarchical order. Cooking masters worked under the invisible yoke of noble and wealthy people, and a large..

How to Become a Gastronomy City?
Bilal YALÇIN, Assist. Assoc. Dr.
Gastronomy, together with the diversity it contains, can be considered as a common way of expressing itself in the cultural sense of human beings. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization determines gastronomy cities around the world based on certain criteria with the aim of keeping common cultural values ​​alive.
Until now, only five cities have been given the title of world gastronomy city by UNESCO. Cities with the title are Popayán, Chengdu, Östersund, Jeonju and Zahle. The features of these cities and the selection parameters are the main subjects of the study. A descriptive analysis was made on the documents and interviews made with the officials who carried out the application process. As a result; organizational ability, fertile lands, gastronomic activities, ecological agriculture were effective in the selection. Keywords: gastronomy, gastronomy city, UNESCO, local development
1. Introduction
UNESCO Creative Cities Network, established by UNESCO in 2004, is an initiative that brings together cities from various regions with different income levels, capacities and populations to work in the fields of the creative industry (unesco.org.tr). Cities are seen as places that have the power to produce and discover new dimensions of creativity with their dynamic structures that combine historical and cultural backgrounds and various cultural actors. The goals of the network were determined as follows:
* Strengthening the creation, production, distribution and use of cultural goods and services at the local level
* Promoting creativity and creative expression, especially among vulnerable groups, including women and youth
* Ensuring access and participation in cultural life, promoting the use of cultural goods
* Inclusion of cultural and creative industries in local development plans
The program aims to develop the creative, economic and social potential of cultural industries run by local actors and therefore supports UNESCO's vision for cultural diversity. The Creative Cities Network is shaped around seven themes that can be chosen by cities according to their creative industry sector preferences, where they will direct their talents and energies. These themes were determined as literature, film, music, craft and folk arts, design, gastronomy and Gastronomy Tourism media arts. As of 2014, the Creative Cities Network has 69 members.
2. Literature Review
Gastronomy emerged with the rise of a culinary discourse in the first half of the 19th century, as a result of the dining halls as a workspace – a contemporary culinary tradition that defies the negative judgments of gastronomic taste – and the technical culinary knowledge of journalists and food masters writing on gastronomy. Monin and Dyrand, 2003, pp. 798-799). This emerging culinary knowledge has shaped the cuisines of countries over time. Later, with its development in the 20th century, a body of knowledge was formed, and it developed as a professional project with the organization of professional organizations in this field and the cooperation of a professional elite in this field. 
The French Revolution was also influential in the development of gastronomy, especially in Europe. Before 1789, the method and principle of eating and drinking were made in a hierarchical order. Cooking masters worked under the invisible yoke of noble and wealthy people, and a large part of the people could not benefit from this kitchen existence. After this date, food masters started to serve the public by leaving the glass mansions and establishing eating and drinking places. It was gradually discovered that gastronomy is a science that includes many human activities (unesco.org, p.221).
Gastronomic tourism in the international context; Visiting cooking schools, visiting local restaurants, visiting food markets and local producers in well-known destinations such as Provence (France), Piedmont, Sicily, Tuscany, Venice (Italy) or Malaga (Spain). However, tasting cheese in countries such as France and Italy, tasting chocolate in Belgium and Switzerland, tasting tea in Sri Lanka and Japan, and tasting coffee in Costa Rica, Brazil, Panama and Ethiopia (Chiru, Ciuchete and Moraru, 2001, p. pp.177-178). Finkelstein classified the eating experience into three categories (Au and Law, 2002, p.819-820). 
Experiential (experiential), empirical (experimental), and existential (existential). Experiential eating is a category in which the person is very little active. The eater tastes some unknown food and then decides not to eat them. In experimental eating, unknown foods are tasted by trial and error method to satisfy expectations. In existential eating, the eater is most active. The eater is committed to different restaurants, foods and gastronomic trends.
Destinations are considered as the combination of touristic products that offer an integrated experience to consumers (Buhalis, 2000, p.97-114). Tourists perceive the destination as a brand that includes suppliers and service providers. Before traveling, they develop an image of destinations based on previous experience, word of mouth, press reports, advertising, and shared beliefs. Along with the global competition on the consumer side, new, experienced, demanding and intellectual tourists have had a compelling effect on the repositioning of destinations. Increasingly, tourists are pursuing recreational and educational experiences with special interests related to their travel. Therefore, destination themes and their revitalization have become more important.
Method 3
A descriptive approach was preferred as the method of the study. Cities that have been given the title of gastronomy by UNESCO have been determined. A document review was conducted regarding the specified cities and the conditions demanded for the title. The current situation was handled with a descriptive approach, and a descriptive analysis was made in the light of limited data such as interviews with the managers of the cities that are members of the network.
The aim of the study; To explain and evaluate the cities that have identified innovation and creativity as a strategic element of sustainable development in the context of gastronomy, international collaborations between cities, within the framework of partnerships involving the public and private sectors, professional organizations, communities, non-governmental and cultural institutions.
Importance of the Study; Competition between tourism destinations is increasing day by day. Cities that want to stand out from the competition want to develop local items and present them to consumers as a value that they will want to buy. In order for these values ​​to be accepted and subject to change, they must be registered, labeled and branded. With the effect of globalization, the relationship between gastronomy and tourism has become more evident. It is important how cities reveal and strengthen their gastronomic assets (make them competitive). Many cities in Turkey that want to stand out with the theme of gastronomy can find the opportunity to compare good practice examples and collaborations with their own processes.
Data Collection Method; Written sources such as UNESCO data, reports, web pages of cities, tourism pages and secondary data sources such as interviews with managers were used. However, the tourism statistics of Popayán, which was the first city to receive the title, could not be reached. Due to the fact that other cities have had the title for a short time, mainly qualitative data obtained from interviews and written sources are included.
4. Findings and Discussion
Gastronomy; Located in the UNESCO cities network; It is one of the seven identified creative industries along with literature, film, music, craft and folk arts, design, and media arts. Members; Cities as local government systems and their many public/private sectors, professional organizations, civil societies, cultural organizations, etc. common communities made up of institutions. UNESCO has determined the criteria and desired features that will guide the cities that want to join this network as a gastronomy city as follows:
* Well-developed culinary culture showing the characteristics of the city and the region
* A vibrant gastronomic community with numerous traditional restaurants and food masters
* Using region-specific ingredients in traditional food preparation
* Local knowledge and skills, traditional culinary practices and methods freed from industrial / technological progress
* Traditional food markets and traditional food industry
* Traditional gastronomic festivals, incentive awards, hosting of gastronomy competitions and use of other wide-ranging promotional tools
* Gaining the appreciation of the public, carrying out promotional activities with the theme of nutrition in educational institutions, inclusion of biodiversity protection programs in the curricula of gastronomy and culinary arts schools
The rules regarding the operation of the membership of the cities to the gastronomic network have been determined.
Cities can join the network indefinitely. They can also leave the network at any time by informing UNESCO. Selected cities can use the name and logo of UNESCO within the specified conditions. Cities are obliged to inform UNESCO annually in the implementation of policies and activities, both locally and internationally, and in their relations with other cities. After two written reminders, if the city does not inform and it is seen that it does not fulfill its commitments, UNESCO can ask the city to leave the network. After cities leave the network, they cannot use the UNESCO name and logo and expressions related to the city's membership in communication tools. In this context, the main cities that received the title of gastronomy are (unesco.org):
Popayán (Colombia): It is a city with a population of 260 thousand, which received the title of the first gastronomic city on August 11, 2005. It is the capital of the state of Cauca, and gastronomy events and talks are held in the city. It was established in a valley at an altitude of 1737 and has an equatorial climate. Since 2003, a gastronomy congress is held every year and a guest country is invited. Apart from this, the holy week ceremonies (Holy Week processes in Popayán), which is a religious event, were selected to the list of intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in 2009. The honorary president and also the governor of Popayan Gastronomy Union explained the activities of the city as follows (thecitypaperbogota.com, 2013):
“The gastronomy congress, which is organized every year, has become a nationwide reference point. With its academic seriousness, quality of conferences and workshops, and notable speakers and participants, it has become the best event in the country in its field.”
Guillermo Alberto González – Governor of the province of Cauca
Tourist arrivals in Colombia increased continuously between 2006 and 2011 (colombiareports.co, 2012). The number of arrivals, which was 1 million in 2006, reached 1.5 million in 2012. 
Popayán is not among Colombia's major cities in statistics. For this reason, it is thought that the number of tourists has increased and no definite data can be presented.
Chengdu (China): It is the second city with a population of 11 million that joined the UNESCO gastronomy network on February 10, 2010. It is the capital of Sichuan province and is the first gastronomic city of the Asian continent. There are over 60 thousand restaurants in the city. It was accepted as the starting city of the Silk Road at the time. Panda is one of the symbols of the city and there is a Panda Breeding and Research Center in the city. The project official explained how the label adds value and contribution to the city after it was selected (unesco interviews, 2013):
“Membership of the city of gastronomy is something that makes Chengdu cuisine very valuable in China and around the world. The people of Chengdu are very proud of their local cuisine. Also, people in other cities are very interested in Sichuan culinary culture and its fascination.
Jiao Hui – Deputy Head of Food & Beverage Industry Division – Chengdu Municipal Trade Bureau
Östersund (Sweden): It is the third city to join UNESCO gastronomy network on 20 July 2010. It has a population of 60 thousand and was established by Lake Storsjön. It is the capital of the state of Jämtland. It is known for its sandwich-like cake called Smörgastarta. The Great Lake festival is held in July. A gastronomic culture has emerged in the city that supports sustainable local food management. It has a national central agency that provides training, mentoring and product development support to small entrepreneurs and farmers. The project official explained the city's election as a member and the lesson they learned in this process as follows (unesco interviews, 2013):
“Östersund is the most sparsely populated city in the Jamtland Region. The cuisine of the city is part of the Nordic gastronomic tradition, which has its roots in Sami (the people whose main occupation is reindeer husbandry in northern Europe, the Nordic countries and Russia, a.k.a. Lapp.), reindeer husbandry and small-scale farming. One of the reasons for choosing the city is that it supports gastronomic entrepreneurs and farmers in close connection with the region and the nature surrounding the city. The most important result of membership has been to unite various organizations of the city and the region in a common vision.”
Dag Hartman – Project Manager – Jämtland District Council
Jeonju (South Korea): It is a city with a population of 650 thousand, which received the title of the fourth gastronomy city in May 2012. Its local food called Bibimbap and traditional Korean houses called Hanok are internationally renowned. It is a city that stands out with its environmental protection and sustainable development, environmentally friendly local food production and support, and food waste policies. The project official explained what kind of lessons they learned from this after the gastronomy city was chosen (unesco interviews, 2013):
“After being selected as a creative gastronomy city by UNESCO, many local and foreign television, newspaper, radio and other media organizations offered interviews and interviews. This intense interest provided an experience to increase the brand value and awareness of the city. Based on this experience, it is expected that the mobility will spread and have a ripple effect in tourism, economy and other areas.”
Rak-ki Choi – Jeonju City Traditional Culture Section Chief
Zahle (Lebanon): It is a multicultural settlement with a population of 150 thousand, which received the title of gastronomy city in 2013. It is located in the middle of Lebanon within the fertile Bekaa Valley. It has a rich cuisine in terms of alcoholic beverages such as wine and arak produced from grapes and foods known as meze. A vintage festival is held every year in September. Food varieties called appetizers are common. It is said that there are over 85 types of appetizers, including hot, cold, bitter, raw and cooked. After receiving the title of gastronomy city, the project representative explained his thoughts as follows (dailystar.com.lb, 2013):
“We are now in the global map of UNESCO. We can share knowledge, ideas and experiences with other creative cities. Zahle is the only city in the Arab world to be chosen as a gastronomic city. This is a source of pride and also brings a responsibility in terms of the continuation of creativity and activities. The way to reach people is through the stomach. We are considering planning more activities in the winter season, which is the low season for tourism.”
Elise Tamer – Member of Zahle City Council
Applications from Şanlıurfa, Hatay and Gaziantep from Turkey have been accepted and the candidacy evaluation process continues. In addition, 3 more cities were added to the gastronomy field in the creative cities network in 2014.
Florianopolis (Brazil): It is a coastal city of 1.1 million people located in the south of Brazil. It is a prominent place with tourism and there are over 2,000 bars and restaurants in the city. It has combined the regional cuisine culture with modern culinary practices (floripamanha.org).
Shunde (China): A city of 1 million inhabitants located in the fertile Pearl River Delta between Guangzhou and Hong Kong. It has a very rich vegetation. It offers a wide range from fish and fruit production to flower production to silkworm breeding (newsgd.com).
Tsuruoka (Japan): It is a city with a population of 134 thousand on the coast of the Sea of ​​​​Japan. More than 50 local products are planted and harvested. Due to its location, the plain on the one hand, the mountain on the other, and sea food are offered to those who come in different seasons. It is where rice is most intensively produced in Japan (creative-tsuruoka.jp).
Application Process: Applications are opened on January 20. Cities must submit their applications by March 20. One application is accepted each year. Results are announced on 30 November. Under the leadership of the mayor of the candidate cities, the officials can fill the creative cities application form on the site and send it to UNESCO via e-mail. At the next stage, the application should include:
* Official letter approved by the UNESCO National Commission in the country where the city is located
* Supporting documents signed by the mayor or other official representative of the city
* Letter showing the support of 5 member cities, provided that 3 of them are from different geographical regions
* Support letter from the national professional associations of the relevant country in the relevant field
An organization named World Food Travel Association has been determined as the external evaluator in the field of gastronomy (worldfoodtravel.org). Apart from this union, there are independent evaluator lecturers.
5. Conclusion and Recommendations
Gastronomy, which we refer to as intangible assets in the context of spiritual, cultural and familial traditions, is considered important in the creation of agricultural policies, health and nutrition policies in social and individual living spaces. In addition, this large sector, which includes economic production and services and tourism, needs to be evaluated in a wide range. 
From this point of view, it is a necessity to create a state policy that protects traditional cuisine and dishes.
The common features of the selected cities are as follows:
* Positioning on or near a fertile piece of land
* Adopting a traditional lifestyle
* Supporting small producers and entrepreneurs (training and incentives)
* Organization of scientific, cultural and social gastronomy events
* To be able to unite public institutions, private institutions and non-governmental organizations around a gastronomic purpose
* Presenting traditional cuisines by adding innovation without spoiling their essence
* Behaving responsibly towards the environment and people in agricultural and animal production
* Their passion for interaction, innovation and learning 
Popayán city with its gastronomy activities, Chengdu city with its product variety and high number of eateries, Östersund city with its organization and coordination of the organizations in the region around gastronomy and supporting small-scale institutions, Jeonju city with its environmentally friendly local food production and food waste policy. and the city of Zahle, which drew attention with its location in a fertile valley and hosting various civilizations such as the Ottoman Empire, came to the fore with food and beverage varieties such as appetizers and arak.
When we look at the globalization dimension, the formation of similar people, settlements and styles has begun to bring the importance of local characteristics to the fore. In this process, it is important for the local people to participate in the innovation, branding and labeling process. Developing a sustainable development model depends on the extent of participation. The products that gain value cause an increase in income and welfare, especially in rural areas. 
The tangible effects of UNESCO's gastronomic city label will emerge in the future (5-10 years). At that stage, statistical data can be compared more accurately. Future studies can focus on cities and innovation processes that create innovation in fields such as literature, film, music, handicrafts and folk art, design, and media arts.
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gastronomy.ashx (13.02.2015)
As the head chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR, I see the source:
Mr. I sincerely thank " Assistant Prof. Dr. Bilal YALÇIN " for his academic studies titled "How to Become a Gastronomy City" and wish him success in his professional life . It will definitely be considered as an example by those who need it in the field of gastronomy. 
*** You can contact me through my contact information for more information on the subjects specified by labeling, taking into account my professional background in the above article, and to get support for Restaurant ConsultingKitchen Consulting  in the titles within my Service Areas. ***
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The original text, which is accepted as a source, is as follows. Google translation was used for the necessary language change.