• New Food Trends
  • New Food Trends
  • New Food Trends
  • New Food Trends
  • New Food Trends
  • New Food Trends

Gastronomy has recently become a rising value. Eating and drinking, which has been a sociological phenomenon since ancient times, has paved the way for the phenomenon of eating out to turn into a socio-cultural activity due to the increasing business travels, the shortening..

A Look at Trends in Gastronomy 
Mohammed Yildiz  
Meral Yilmaz  
The field of gastronomy, which has been in a constant change from the past to the present, has brought various trends as a result of these changes. These trends have effects such as protecting and improving human health, preserving cultural values, improving the dining experience, and revealing alternative ways of nutrition. Although some of these trends such as "edible insects" and "cellular agriculture" have emerged to seek solutions to the nutritional problem of the increasing population with decreasing world resources, trends such as "neurogastronomy" and "molecular cuisine" seem to have emerged to increase people's pleasure from food and beverage. 
Emerging trends have the potential to increase demand and profits for businesses that offer food and beverage services, as well as various advantages. In this context, in this study, it is aimed to contribute to the literature in this direction by evaluating the trends in the field of gastronomy and food and beverage together.  
Keywords: Gastronomy, Trends, Trends, Trends 
Gastronomy has recently become a rising value. Eating and drinking, which has been a sociological phenomenon since ancient times, has paved the way for the phenomenon of eating out to turn into a socio-cultural activity due to the increasing business travels, the shortening of the time devoted to cooking, the need for mass and leisure time. With these changes, the concept of gastronomy, which includes healthy, delicious and cultural values, has gained importance and the culture of eating has become an aesthetic and artistic product (Yılmaz and Şenel, 2016: 43). In this context, rapidly developing gastronomy has been considered as the main source of cultural attraction in recent years. Therefore, the importance and interest in food and beverage culture has increased in the world (Gökdeniz et al., 2015: 16). 
With the beginning of gastronomy gaining importance, there have been changes in the food and beverage industry in the 20th century (Karamustafa et al., 2016: 33). Changes in the gastronomy system have brought along various trends. Emerging trends (approaches) have generally been aimed at finding solutions to the world's food problems. At the same time, trends can offer strong and sustainable alternatives in solving problems such as increase in population, insufficiency of animal foods and agricultural lands, decrease in productivity, water problem, transportation costs and pollution (Kurgun, 2017: 24). On the other hand, some trends have emerged to increase the pleasure of food and beverage and to improve the dining experience. 
The first of these trends is the fast-food trend that emerged with the emergence of hot-dog carts, known as American street food, in the 1920s. During these years, drive-in restaurants emerged with the increase in the number of cars in the United States, and in 1948, the world's first drive-in fast-food restaurant was established in San Bernardino, California by Richard and Maurice McDonald. In the 1960s, drive-thru restaurants turned into quick-service restaurants where customers could dine outside (Özdoğan et al., 2016: 1-3). The changes brought by the fast food movement have paved the way for the emergence of many different trends such as slow food, molecular gastronomy, fusion cuisine.  
The aim of this study is to investigate the trends in gastronomy and food and beverage by using the document review method and to contribute to the literature about bringing together the findings. As a result of the research conducted for this purpose, the trends in the field of gastronomy were evaluated under two groups as alternative nutrition-oriented trends and food experience-oriented trends.  
Alternative Nutrition Trends Fast Food 
Fast food is a production system in which food is prepared to be eaten quickly and promptly. With the decrease in the time brought at home in busy daily life and work tempo, fast food foods have emerged as a fast, easy and practical alternative where people can meet their food needs (Akçadağ and Bozkurt, 2019). Many fast food businesses have emerged around the world, and most of them operate as chain businesses. Although the emergence of this system dates back to the 1920s, the first company that enabled its development and spread was McDonald's in the 1950s. 
Afterwards, it gained the quality of a chain business; In the following years, businesses such as Burger King and Kentucky Fried Chicken began to emerge. In this meal system, the most consumed product is the menu consisting of hamburger-french fries-cola, but products such as pizza, doner kebab, pita bread, and lahmacun are also consumed (Özdoğan et al., 2016; Özçelik and Driveroğlu, 1998). Today, fast food restaurants serve widely. The basis of these restaurants is low cost, fast prepared and fast consumed products.  
Slow Food 
The slow food movement was born in the 1980s as a reaction to McDonald's wanting to open a restaurant in Rome's historic Piazza de Spagna area. In the continuation of this reaction, an international organization named "Slow Food International" was established in 1989, aiming to preserve the unique tastes, local dishes, quality food and wines of the world. The scope of slow eating is not only to react to the fast food movement, but also to protect and spread local dishes and traditions (Pietrykowski, 2004). 
Slow food was introduced by Carlo Petrini mainly in opposition to fast-food and fast lifestyle, to prevent the extinction of local traditions, to prevent people from losing interest in what they eat, where the food they eat comes from, how it tastes, and how the food choices made affect the rest of the world. It is a move that has been taken (Bucak, 2014: 19).
Among the aims of the slow food movement is to support traditional table pleasure and gastronomic culture. After this movement, it also laid the groundwork for movements such as slow city (cittaslow) and slow travel (Guven, 2011). Today, restaurants that adopt the slow food trend ensure that the gastronomic culture of the region is preserved and the local gastronomy is introduced to the visitors visiting that region.  
Organic farming 
Technological developments that emerged after the Second World War also changed the practices in the field of agriculture; In the 1960s, new techniques were introduced to agriculture under the name of "Green Revolution", resulting in an increase in product yield. As a matter of fact, in addition to the increase in productivity, various disadvantages have also come with it. The ecosystem started to deteriorate rapidly and agricultural activities were dragged towards an unsustainable situation. The pesticides used, chemical fertilizers, hormones, antibiotics and various drugs used in animals not only polluted the soil, air and water, but also adversely affected the health of people consuming these products. 
In order to eliminate these negativities, the concept of "Organic Agriculture" emerged in the 1970s. organic agriculture, protecting the balance of nature, living creatures in nature and natural resources; It is an agricultural production system that provides soil fertility and is sustainable in human, environmental and economic terms (Ak, 2004; Bayram, Yolcu, & Aksakal, 2007). The use of organic agricultural products can be increased in order to prevent the damage caused by the industry to the soil and human health as a result of the agricultural practices that emerged as a result of the green revolution. The use of organic products, especially by restaurants, will be effective both in terms of contributing to local agricultural activities, protecting the soil, the environment and economically, as well as attracting demand from people who are sensitive to this issue.  
Vegetarian Nutrition 
Vegetarian nutrition is a diet in which mostly plant-based foods are consumed; It is a dietary trend in which foods of animal origin are consumed limited or not consumed at all. The tendency of vegetarian nutrition has emerged mainly due to economic concerns. The main one of these concerns is that it is cheaper and takes a shorter time to grow crops per unit of land than to raise animals. In addition to economic concerns, the reasons for preferring a vegetarian diet include the fact that this type of diet is healthier, various religious beliefs, and the ethical dimension of consuming animal products (Karabudak, 2012). Vegetarian diet types are as follows: 
• Vegan: It is a completely plant-based diet where no animal products are consumed.  
• Raw Vegan: Only uncooked and unprocessed herbal products are consumed.  
• Fruitarian: Only fruits, grains and oilseeds are consumed.  
• Lacto Vegetarian: Only milk and dairy products are consumed from plant foods and animal foods.  
• Ovo Vegetarian: Along with plant foods, only eggs are consumed from animal foods.  
• Polo Vegetarian: Except for red meat and fish, all products of vegetable and animal origin are consumed.  
• Pesko Vegetarian: Except for red meat and poultry, all products of vegetable and animal origin are consumed.  
• Semi-Vegetarian: Not only red meat is consumed, but all other plant and animal products are consumed.  
• Flexitarian: Mostly vegetarian diet is adopted, however, animal products are also consumed from time to time (Karabudak, 2012; Dilek, 2018).  
When the historical foundations of vegetarianism are examined, it is seen that the first vegetarian association was established in England in 1847, but vegetarian associations began to be established in America in 1860 and in Germany in 1867. In Turkey, the Turkish Vegetarian Association was established in 2012. In addition, 1 November is celebrated as the world vegetarian day every year (Dilek, 2018; Son and Bulut, 2016). Today, the number of people who prefer a vegetarian diet for economic, religious, ethical reasons or for a healthy life is increasing. Although the number of vegetarian-oriented restaurants is not few, many restaurants also offer vegetarian options.  
Raw Food 
Raw food, which is preferred for a healthy life today, is expressed as consuming organically grown vegetables and fruits raw or "heated" at low temperatures. It is claimed that nutrients such as minerals, vitamins, and enzymes in the food are not lost in chih nutrition, so the food does not lose its nutritiveness (Kralj et al., 2017; Sevinç and Çakmak, 2017). In terms of restaurants, it is seen that the number of businesses focused on raw food is quite low, and raw food emerges as a preferred diet in personal diets aimed at promoting seal health.  
Green Restaurants 
As a result of factors such as the deterioration of the ecological balance and the increase in global warming, the use of environmentally friendly and sustainable products by consumers has begun to increase. In this context, “Green Restaurant” has emerged as an environmentally friendly trend in the food and beverage industry. Green restaurants are defined as structures that are designed, built, operated and demolished to be both environmentally friendly and energy efficient (Lorenzini, 1994; Kurgun, 2017). 
Green restaurants are based on principles such as “reduce, reuse, recycle” and “energy, efficient” (Namkung and Jang, 2013: 86). In green restaurants; Sustainable products are produced and offered by using local and organic raw materials, taking into account energy efficiency, and creating minimum waste (Teng & Wu, 2019). In addition, the Green Restaurant Association was established as a non-profit organization in the United States in 1990 to develop green restaurants (Green Restaurant Associations, 2017).  
Functional Foods 
Functional foods can be defined as food and beverage products derived from naturally occurring substances that are consumed as part of the daily diet and provide certain physiological benefits. The concept of functional food was first used in Japan in the 1980s to express enriched foods obtained by adding special ingredients with beneficial physiological effects (Hillian, 1995; Roberfroid, 2002: 134). Among the purposes of functional foods, improving the general condition of the body, reducing the risk of certain diseases, and treating various diseases can be counted (Kurgun: 2017: 154-155). Consumption of functional foods is seen in order to improve the seal daily diet rather than restaurant oriented. Foods prepared by fortifying probiotics, prebiotics, vitamins A, C, and E are examples of functional foods.  
Nutrition by Blood Type 
In order to improve health and reduce the risk of disease, people's nutrition in different ways according to their blood groups, by giving barns to certain food groups, forms the basis of nutrition according to blood group. This type of diet was first encountered in the book written by PJ D'Adamo in 1996. Accordingly, each individual's A, B, AB or O blood group differs in terms of the nutritional habits required for that individual's healthy life. O blood group should be fed with animal protein, A blood group should be mainly vegetable-fruit, B blood group should be predominantly milk and dairy products, and AB group should be fed with vegetable-fruit and animal protein. 
The reason for this difference in nutrition is that the red blood cells in each blood group differ between the groups in terms of antigen. The basis of this difference is genetic diversity (Wang et al. 2014; D?Adamo & Whitney, 1996). When we look at the nutrition types according to the blood group, it is seen that each or most of the products from these food groups are already included in the menu of many seal restaurants.  
Edible Insects 
Insects, which are a rich source of protein, vitamins, minerals and many nutrients, offer many advantages as food. Consuming insects as food has less negative impact on the environment. Therefore, consuming insects is advantageous compared to traditional livestock (Haboonsong et al., 2013). Edible insects also have benefits in terms of the environment (less harmful gas emissions, less land requirement), and economically (requires low technology, low capital investment) (Kurgun, 2017). Although insect consumption is more common in Asian countries today, it is thought that its consumption will increase globally with the decreasing world resources over time.  
Vertical Farming 
Vertical agriculture is expressed as a method of growing plants in vertically stacked compartments in a controlled building, usually without soil or natural light (Frazier, 2017). In high-rise buildings lining cities, plants with less risk of epidemics can be grown throughout the year, using less water, producing less waste, using less water, producing less waste, without the use of fossil fuel vehicles and without the need to transport crops from remote rural areas (Despommier, 2009: 80). 
The thinking behind vertical farming; It is the sprouting of skyscrapers where vegetable and fruit gardens are located on special grounds and producing plants throughout the year (The Economist Magazine, 2010). The Association for Vertical Farming, which was established for this purpose, carries out its studies focused on the sustainable growth and development of the vertical farming movement (Association for Vertical Farming, 2017). It is thought that vertical farming activities will become widespread as a result of decreasing agricultural lands with the developing world and increasing urbanization, and restaurants will supply products from these areas.  
Cellular Agriculture 
Cellular agriculture makes it possible to produce animal protein without the need to raise animals. Within the scope of developments in tissue engineering and synthetic biology, it is developed to obtain various animal products such as meat, eggs, dairy products, leather (Foussatand and Cateneur, 2016). The products produced are exactly the same as those derived from an animal or plant. The products are produced using yeast or bacteria without animals. In comparison with conventional agriculture, cellular agriculture products have less negative environmental impact, safer, pure and consistent source, as they are produced in safe, sterile and controlled conditions (New Harvest, 2017).  
Increasing demand for cheap animal products has negative effects on the environment, climate change, water use, antibiotic resistance and food safety. Cellular agriculture has the potential to offer the same animal-derived foods by eliminating these negativities. With cellular farming practices, a more ethical, sustainable, consistent and safe food system is enabled (Food Tech Connect, 2016). It is thought that cellular farming practices will increase as a result of developing technology and decreasing agricultural lands and world resources, and they will be used in food and beverage businesses.  
Maximum Transparency (Clean Supreme) 
The increasing complexity of the gastronomic system, the increasing importance of traceability, the factors that threaten food quality and human health, and the awareness of consumers have made high-level transparency a must in the marketing of products. Maximum transparency is an indication of less ingredient lists and increased awareness about reducing added sugar and similar products (Kurgun, 2017: 16). Today, consumers are more sensitive to the product they buy and eat than ever before. 
Clean supreme refers to cleaner formulations, more transparency and less processing technologies (Dowling, 2017). Many processes are applied to the products as a result of the aim of obtaining more products at a lower cost in terms of economy. These procedures can have both positive and negative effects. Therefore, processed products may cause concern for consumers. It is thought that it is important for consumers to notify all kinds of processes applied to the products and to follow the production process of the product. In addition, businesses that provide food and beverage services should also show transparency in this regard.  
Hyper Local Sourcing 
Hyper local restaurant studies; It includes practices such as growing plants, establishing micro-green gardens, farming on the roof, hydroponic (growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions without soil in water) and establishing gardens (Kurgun, 2017). The nutritional value of foodstuffs decreases from harvest to restaurants. Therefore, local production is an effective alternative for fresh and qualified products (Mandel, 2014). 
Restaurants that are locally sourced and grow their own food raw materials gain importance for consumers and the demand is increasing day by day. To meet the demand for fresher, more qualified and sustainable food, Hyper local restaurants use hydroponic farming, on-site farming and urban gardens practices (Sustainable Restaurant Association, 2013). It is thought that sustainability will increase as a result of using local resources in food and beverage businesses instead of cheap resources.  
Silicon Valley Food (Silicon Valley & Food) 
In recent years, investments have been made in the food field in Silicon Valley with approximately 8 billion dollars of venture funds; There are many talented scientists working to solve food system problems. Therefore, it is highly likely that the next green revolution in food production will take place in Silicon Valley (Seibel, 2016). Products such as meat produced from plant proteins, egg-free mayonnaise, meatless chicken are some of the gastronomic products developed in Silicon Valley (Kurgun, 2017). Food companies such as Impossible Foods, Beyond Meat, Hampton Creek and Soylent aim to produce healthier, cheaper and renewable foods by using different food development methods (Demiröz, 2017).  
3D Printed Dishes 
Technologies used in the food and beverage industry are often used to automate manual work in mass production. As a matter of fact, with the effect of developments in the field of technology today, it has become possible to produce ready-to-eat meals in 3D printers. 3D food writing applications aim to produce specially designed food items in 3D by writing layer by layer without using any tools or molds other than a printer, without human intervention. 
With this technology, it is thought that production costs will decrease by facilitating mass production, and it will also provide convenience in applications for new product development. 3D food writing process; measurement, mixing, pouring and cooking/cooling steps. Of these stages, only the pouring and cooking/cooling processes are done by the printers, and the measuring and mixing process is also done manually. On the other hand, in today's conditions, the products that can be written in 3D are limited to products such as cake batter, cheese, chocolate, mashed potatoes, which can come out of a syringe, but studies on the 3D writing of main foods such as meat, vegetables and rice are continuing (Sun et al. , 2015; Lipton, 2017). 
Trends to Enhance the Dining Experience Molecular Cuisine 
In the 1980s, the molecular kitchen movement, which is an important development in the field of cuisine, emerged. The term “Molecular Gastronomy” was first coined by Nicolas Kurti, a professor of physics at Oxford University in the 1980s, then they came together with Herve This and organized various workshops in the 1990s, and as a result, molecular gastronomy began to be applied (Pedersen et al., 2006). . Chefs have supported scientists in terms of seal smell, appearance and which flavors can be used in the next stage in molecular gastronomy (Yılmaz and Bilici, 2013: 21). 
While molecular cuisine is also known as "science-based cooking" or "experimental cuisine" and is seen as a new trend in the food and beverage industry, Molecular Gastronomy examines the physical and chemical processes that occur during the cooking of foods. Examining the social, artistic, technical components of gastronomy and the reasons behind the physical and chemical transformation of foodstuffs are also included in the study area of ​​Molecular Gastronomy (Özdohan, 2016: 201-202).  
Today, food science and technology have started to be used in kitchens, and modern chefs have sought to create new tastes, presentations and food pairings by questioning traditional recipes (Özgen, 2017). Molecular gastronomy; It is a scientific discipline that reveals existing situations, events and phenomena and investigates the reasons and processes behind them. Molecular cuisine is; It is a movement that uses this information and the techniques, methods, purgatory and materials produced in the light of this information (This, 2013; Erdem and Akyürek, 2017: 108).  
Neurogastronomy (Neurogastronomy) 
The concept of “neurogastronomy” emerged in 2006, when it was determined by Gordon Shepherd that odors have a significant effect on flavor production (Sheik, 2017). Scientific studies on how the human brain perceives flavor have led to the development of a new field of science called neurogastronomy (Kanwal, 2016). It brings the field of neurogastronomy, science and gastronomy closer by examining the behaviors that affect the human brain and the eating and drinking experience. 
Neurogastronomy; It brings together chefs, neurologists, behavioral psychologists and biochemists to investigate how the senses activate the brain while eating and how food can be perceived in different ways (Baral, 2015). While neurogastronomy can be defined as the research on how the human brain creates the perception of taste and how it is important for human culture; It includes all disciplines related to eating and drinking such as chefs in culinary arts, molecular biology, neurology, psychology, human evolution, child development, learning and memory, emotions, motivation and the brain's rewarding mechanism (Kurgun, 2017: 35).  
Neurogastronomy focuses on what can be done to make the brain perceive it differently, not on changing the taste by restructuring the food eaten. For example; It is not about genetically changing the taste of the carrot, but rather making the human brain perceive that the carrot is delicious (Baral, 2015). In other words; Instead of asking the question of how food stimulates the senses, those working in the field of neurogastronomy are interested in the brain, asking the question of how the brain creates sensations while eating.
In addition, since the visual presentation of sound, smell and food has as important an effect as the sense of taste, those working in this field also work on the effect of other stimuli (Pandell, 2017). Why do people turn to chocolate over broccoli when they want a getaway? This biologically ingrained preference for sugary food is a genetic trait inherited from our ancestors. 
While the brain still associates bitter tastes with poisonous plants, it signals sugary-tasting foods with properties such as quick energy supply and excess calories. Indeed, in today's modern times, survival needs have radically changed; People have come to need broccoli more than chocolate. Neurogastronomy, on the other hand, helps to understand how to adapt to this change (Fried, 2017). Culinary Arts was established in 2014 under the name of “International Society of Neurogastronomy” by leading representatives of agriculture, food technology and clinical sciences. The mission of this organization is to develop neurogastronomy as an art, science and health profession in order to increase the quality of human life and to produce and disseminate information about brain-behavior relations (Kurgun, 2017: 35).  
Fusion Kitchen 
Fusion cuisine is used deliberately to mix and combine cooking techniques and materials from various countries on the same plate. It can be defined as the synthesis of different world cuisine understandings and foods in order to reveal new dishes and new tastes (Sarıoğlan, 2014: 64).  
It is possible to define fusion cuisine as the combination of at least two different national cuisine cultures on the same plate as a result of a conscious effort, in order to create new different and original tastes, in a way that one cuisine culture does not dominate the other cuisine culture. Fusion kitchen applications; It is based on the principle of consciously combining the cuisines of two nations in order to create a new, different and original product. In the fusion cuisine, the synthesis and combination of processes such as culinary materials, processing and cooking techniques belonging to different nations and the fact that the resulting dish is a seal different from the food in both kitchens is the basis (Can et al., 2012: 877-878).  
Fast Casual Restaurants 
Fast-day restaurants fill the gap between fast-food restaurants and traditional, specialty or qualified restaurants. These restaurants have a concept that combines fast service with a more comfortable restaurant decor and alternative menus (Ryu and Han, 2010). Fast-day restaurants, which are at a higher level than fast-food restaurants in terms of restaurant atmosphere, have a wide menu range; offers services with more fresh, healthy and quality products (Yüncü et al., 2013).
Another difference from fast-food restaurants can be shown as table service, as in specialty and qualified restaurants. Fast-day restaurants can be characterized as small-scale restaurants that serve long-term eating behavior accompanied by fast-prepared foods (Dohdubay, 2016: 103-104).  
Fast Casual 2.0 
Fast daily 2.0 restaurants work with a chef focus, with menus prepared by and signed by a team of culinary professionals. These restaurants often focus on experience. Fast daily 2.0 in the new, comfortable, fast restaurant concept; It promises high quality food, elegance and hospitality. Materials are sourced locally; organic, fresh; antibiotic is free from corn syrup (Oches, 2015). Therefore, fast daily 2.0 can be explained as the development of fast daily restaurants in various aspects with the signature of a famous chef.  
Themed Restaurants 
Themed restaurants enable people to have a good time, especially their food and beverage needs, by creating a different eating and drinking environment in order to attract consumers and attract them to the business. The core product of themed restaurants goes beyond the food and beverages served (Kim and Moon, 2009). 
Themed restaurants are businesses that aim to meet people's basic needs, such as good sense and having a good time, through the food and beverages they offer, and make customers feel that they are in a special place. themed restaurants; It deals with a specific subject with its menu, atmosphere, staff and other features. 
Although it has similar characteristics with ethnic restaurants, it is different from themed restaurants. Ethnic restaurants cover the presentation of foods and beverages belonging to a certain culture or region in a unique way to that region. Themed restaurants, on the other hand, make an extraordinary difference with their features and atmosphere; There is no obligation to coincide with the themes of the food offered. The essential feature of themed restaurants is that at least one theme is used in a realistic way with special details (Kılif, 2016: 91-95).  
Surf & Turf 
Surf & Turf is a food fashion that has started to spread rapidly in recent years in the modern world, especially in the United States and Australia. The essence of the Surf & Turf experience is that seafood and red meat are served in the same menu. The phrase Surf in the Surf & Turf phrase encompasses all seafood, such as lobster, shrimp and large succulent fish. On the other hand, the word Turf corresponds to the group of red meat (especially soft meats such as tenderloin) (Yaşin, 2015: 32; Akdağ et al., 2016: 273-274).  
Living Kitchen 
Seeing, smelling, touching, tasting and hearing; While it enables the sensory stages of the eating and drinking action to be felt, it reveals the feeling of satisfaction with the bodily pleasure accompanying these sensory stages. The main purpose of the living kitchen is to serve dishes that appeal to the five senses of its guests (sight, hearing, taste, touch and smell). Along with these culinary practices, it is tried to create a sense of satisfaction by introducing the cultural characteristics of the local people, as well as the local food and beverages (Erdem and Akyürek, 2017; Kanık, 2016: 9).  
Black Foods 
Food color is one of the basic elements of recognizing food, gaining confidence, predicting flavor before tasting and having knowledge about its formulation. Therefore, color plays an important role in food selection and consumption preferences, as it will affect the pleasure and taste of consuming food. Black is associated with cold, mystery and ambition. In the dark food group, which is perceived as a cold, prestigious and sophisticated color in marketing communication; It is known that there are stimulants such as chocolate, coffee, cocoa and they are foods that give energy (Bozok and Yalın, 2018; Yılmaz and Erden, 2017). 
It is stated that black colored foods have been very popular for a long time in many countries of the world, from India to America. The reason for this popularity is thought to be due to the low number of black foods, although there are foods of various colors, and it arouses curiosity in people (yemek.com; Bozok and Yalın, 2018: 255).  
Black foods; The first one can be divided into two as natural black foods and the second one as the foods prepared and presented in completely black color by using activated charcoal, bamboo charcoal and cuttlefish. Of these black foods, natural ones can be called black garlic, black beans, black rice. Black foods, which are colored using activated charcoal, bamboo charcoal and cuttlefish, have just started to appear, but they have started to take their place on social media. 
Activated charcoal is used therapeutically in cases of poisoning in the health field. Due to its absorbent effect, it is used as an antidote or to reduce stomach acidity. However, recently activated charcoal has been used in foods with its coloring effect. Activated charcoal is obtained by burning natural plants such as coconut shells, wood, bamboo and so on, and when exposed to certain gases at high temperatures during a special process, it becomes activated charcoal and the resulting activated charcoal is added to foods (Bozok and Yalın, 2018). : 255).  
Since gastronomy has a dynamic structure that is constantly changing and developing, various trends are emerging in this field. The aim of this study is to contribute to the related literature by evaluating the trends that have emerged in the field of gastronomy together. Today, gastronomy has gained even more importance as a result of the importance people give to eating out, and while eating alone and relieving hunger were emphasized before, the developing structure of gastronomy has led to the importance of different dimensions of New Food Trends such as enjoying food, having a good time, and health. 
Now, people go to restaurants to have a good time and have different experiences as well as to fill their stomachs. With the economic factors, the expectations and demands of the consumers and the changes and developments in the product production process, new trends have started to emerge in the developing gastronomy field. In this study, the emerging trends in the field of gastronomy were brought together and evaluated. As a result of the study, when the emerging trends in the field of gastronomy are examined, it has been determined that there are various reasons behind the emergence of each trend.
These reasons can be listed as follows: 
• Applications to increase productivity as a result of decreasing world resources, increasing food/production costs and economic concerns 
• As a result of the increasing work tempo and the decrease in the time brought at home, the importance given to eating out has increased. 
• The importance of the features of eating, such as having different experiences and having a good time, apart from the function of satisfying the stomach. 
• Lack of information about the changes experienced during cooking and how food affects the human brain. 
• Beginning to forget local foods with cultural value 
• Desiring to benefit from the cultural dimension of local dishes 
• Desiring to adopt and use different cultures together 
• Kitchen chefs come to the fore and start to create their own brands 
• Beginning to harm nature as a result of practices aimed at increasing efficiency in food production 
• Practices for increasing productivity cause various health concerns and people become aware of whether the foods they buy are healthy or not. 
• Favor to reveal alternative ways for human nutrition with the developing technology 
• Ethical concerns about killing animals for food 
• Studies to improve human health and alternative ways to cure various diseases 
• Change in people's demands and desires 
• It is necessary for each person to have their own characteristics and to adopt a diet within the scope of these characteristics.  
• Impact of social media 
While people who prefer healthy eating adopt trends such as slow food, people seeking experience and difference adopt trends such as molecular cuisine and themed restaurants. Gastronomy trends can have an impact on tourism activities as well as the effects they try to create in areas such as health and economy. As a matter of fact, tourism activities can develop with the use of local dishes that reflect the culture of a region in tourism. Therefore, as a result of the adoption of the trends that highlight the culture of the region, such as living cuisine, themed restaurants, fusion cuisine, by the businesses that provide food and beverage service, the cultural characteristics of that region will be introduced to the visitors.  
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As the head chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR, I see the source:
Mr. I sincerely thank Muhammed Yıldız and Ms. Meral Yılmaz for their academic studies titled " An Overview of Trends in Gastronomy   " and wish them success in their professional lives . It will definitely be considered as an example by those who need it in professional kitchens and the gastronomy and culinary community.
*** You can contact me through my contact information for more information on the subjects specified by labeling, taking into account my professional background in the above article, and to get support for Gastronomy Consulting in the titles within my Service Areas. ***
Turkish Cuisine Chefs, Turkish Chef, Restaurant Consultancy, Kitchen Consultancy.