• Sustainable Tourism Management
  • Sustainable Tourism Management
  • Sustainable Tourism Management
  • Sustainable Tourism Management
  • Sustainable Tourism Management
  • Sustainable Tourism Management
  • Sustainable Tourism Management
  • Sustainable Tourism Management
  • Sustainable Tourism Management

This causes touristic businesses and marketers to turn to sustainability and ecotourism. Due to the weakening of people's bond with nature, the concept of returning to nature emerges. The expectations of this type of tourists are to have a holiday away from the tourism centers dominated..

Exemplary Ecotourism Practices Within the Scope of Sustainable Tourism Management 
Sevinc ISAYEVA  
Murad Alpaslan KASALAK  
Due to the changes in the world, the negative impact of people on the environment has also increased. Depletion of natural resources, environmental pollution, deterioration of ecological balance ultimately cause damage to the countries of the world. One of the most important sources of income in developing countries in this negative situation is tourism. However, mass tourism has increased this negative damage. This situation has made sustainability and ecotourism obligatory for the world. For this reason, in our study, it is aimed to examine the examples of ecotourism, which is a type of sustainable tourism, around the world.
In the first part of our study, the sustainability policies of Europe and Turkey within the scope of sustainable tourism and sustainability policies in tourism, the conceptual approach to ecotourism, the aims and principles of ecotourism in the second part, and ecotourism and sustainable tourism practices in the world in the third part. In this study, ecotourism practices in Spain, Italy, Costa-Rica, Florida, the Caribbean, Taiwan, and China, which are also considered as examples of tourism types that affect sustainability and ecotourism less negatively on the environment, were examined. 
Keywords: Sustainability, Sustainability Policies, Ecotourism, Ecotourism Practices 
Since tourism is one of the fastest growing sectors today, it is considered as an economic resource for many countries. Globalization and changes in lifestyle have also caused changes in the perspective of tourism. These changes have manifested themselves in tourism preferences, along with an increase in the number of tourists and an increase in tourism income. With the increase in the education level of the tourists, their environmental and nature awareness has increased and their demands and demands have changed. Now tourists seek exploration, adventure, friendship, nature awareness, enriching their inner world. The activities they excel at are mostly nature-oriented activities such as camping, fishing, backpacking, nature photography. 
This causes touristic businesses and marketers to turn to sustainability and ecotourism. Due to the weakening of people's bond with nature, the concept of returning to nature emerges. The expectations of this type of tourists are to have a holiday away from the tourism centers dominated by sea-sand-sun tourism, with a service integrated with the environment and in an unspoiled clean environment, intertwined with nature. The integration of tourism with nature creates the concept of sustainability. The concept of sustainability began to spread in the 1990s.  
Sustainable Tourism and Sustainable Management in Tourism Businesses 
The concept of sustainable tourism has emerged with the reflection of the understanding of sustainability, which manifests itself in every sector, on tourism. Sustainable tourism is defined by the World Tourism Organization as follows: “It is tourism that takes into account the current and future economic, social and environmental impacts of tourists, the sector, the environment and the host people.” Bramwell According to and Lane (1993), sustainable tourism is an approach that aims to reduce the tensions caused by the complex relations between the tourist, the environment and the local people, and with this, tries to ensure the quality and long-term continuity of both natural and human resources (Kozak, 2014, p. .17). 
According to the report published by TÜSİAD in 2012, sustainable tourism means controlling the sector and managing its negative effects, and it has a very special place in terms of providing economic and social benefits to the local people and protecting the environment.  
Sustainable tourism is the art of preserving future opportunities while meeting the needs of local people and tourists. In the realization of sustainable tourism, it is important to protect all resources, which include natural and cultural values, where tourism-environment-human interaction is experienced and transfer them to future generations (Kaypak, 2010:94). Sustainable tourism has become a key word in the discussion of environmentally integrated tourism development (Sezgin and Karaman, 2008:430). In 1992, at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) within the scope of the Rio Earth Summit, Travel Tourism was defined as one of the most important sectors of the economy that ensures the achievement of sustainable development goals. 
182 governments adopted the 21st Agenda Item, which is a comprehensive action plan to achieve sustainable development goals at the World Summit (Fidenza et al., 2011:25). Touristic businesses are accepted as one of the sustainable tourism actors. When we say sustainability in touristic businesses consisting of different structures and units, the protection of natural resources in the activities of these businesses, being environmentally sensitive in the construction, construction and operation processes and a number of practices like this are mentioned. 
When it comes to resources, the first thing that comes to our mind in the classical sense is not only the consumption of energy and raw materials, but also the possible financial resources and people. In this context, the main foundations of a sustainable business, which carry the classical general business objectives such as growth, development and profit, should be based on economic, ecological and human/social (socio-cultural) factors (http://www.ekoyapidergisi.org/269-turizm-ve- sustainability.html). 
In terms of organizational sustainability, it has emerged as an approach that takes into account the coordinated activities of all stakeholders in management and is considered as an alternative to the traditional management approach. According to Sirvastava, this management approach supports an ecosystem-oriented management style for societies at risk (Günlü, 2014:63-79). The alternative management system for the ecosystem includes concepts such as green product, green business, and green marketing. 
It is not dangerous for human or animal health, does not harm the environment during production, use or destruction, does not consume excessive amounts of energy and other resources, does not cause unnecessary waste due to excessive packaging or short life span, does not require unnecessary use, does not torture animals and the product that does not use harmful substances that will harm the environment (Kozak, 2014: 74). 
Table 1. Differences in Management Approach 
Source: Kozak,2014:15 
Working on alternatives that try to cause the least harm to the ecological environment, choosing their subcontractors and suppliers in accordance with this idea, and seeing green products and services as the creator of green life quality rather than marketing strategy, in this context, green ethics and green responsibility in businesses are also shared by consumers and other parts of society. The management style that makes it a driving force is the green business approach. The increase in consumers' sensitivity to the environment will increase or decrease depending on the importance that businesses give to green product and service provision. In parallel with this, the main issue in the understanding of green marketing is to reveal the ecological realities instead of hiding them, and to fulfill the wishes of the consumers by designing nature-friendly products, 
Definition and Importance of Ecotourism 
Nature-based tourism leads to various social and economic benefits in society. There is more talk of the economic benefits of nature-based tourism, this is because of the economic benefits. It is much easier to measure than tangible social benefits. According to the researches, people living in natural areas do not make an economic profit in participating in recreation and tourism activities. For example, in the Minnesota state park, according to community stakeholders, the parks help their indigenous people to participate in rare outdoor recreational activities, while at the same time participating in these activities gives a sense of security that natural areas will not be destroyed. 
It is known that recreational activities will also contribute to the quality of life and individual health of the local community, thereby increasing social welfare. According to the report published by the World Tourism Organization in 1998, nature-based ecotourism draws attention as a rapidly developing sector within the rapidly developing tourism industry since the 1990s (Stein et al., 2003:155). Increasing interest in environmental issues increases the interest in ecotourism. The United Nations declared 2002 as the “International Year of Ecotourism” to recognize the importance of Ecotourism (http://www.omcekonomi.com/175/ekoturizm). 
The word ecotourism was first used in 1983 by Mexican architect, environmentalist and international eco-tourism consultant Hector Ceballos-Lascurain. Ecotourism is a sub-market of nature-based tourism. Parks and protected areas are the most important eco-tourism destinations (Stone, 2002:1-2). Ecotourism; It is the abbreviation of ecological tourism. Ecotourism refers to a tourism approach that does not spoil and preserves nature. According to the definition of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), ecotourism is travel and visitation that supports recreation, understanding and protecting nature and cultural resources, has low visitor impact, provides socioeconomic benefits to the local people, and is environmentally responsible towards natural areas (Kaypak, 2010:95). ). 
Although ecotourism is understood as "tourism that guarantees the sustainability of environmental and cultural values ​​and provides financial benefits to local people", it mainly covers the types of tourism made in nature as a field of activity. (http://www.ekoturizmdernegi.org/ekotur.asp ) Green tourism, alternative tourism, nature tourism, wild tourism, cultural tourism are used as synonyms for ecotourism. Ecotourism reveals the form of ecotourist, which is defined as a person who visits areas that preserve their relatively natural characteristics in the spirit of value, participation and sensitivity. This type of tourist does not approach with a consumer understanding while using wildlife and natural resources. 
Ecotourism is the whole of environmental, economic and social relations. (Kasalak, 2014:52-53) The United Nations declared 2002 as the “International Year of Ecotourism” to recognize the importance of ecotourism (http://www.omcekonomi.com/175/ekoturizm). The aim of ecotourism is to increase the living standard of the local people, to restrict all activities that have an impact on the environment and to create sustainable and livable tourism opportunities. (http://www.ecotourism.ca/importanceofecotourism.html ). Reducing the environmental impact from mass tourism and its resource-intensive infrastructure is the goal of ecotourism. Furthermore, it ensures the active activity of the local people, which is known as community-based eco-tourism. 
The work to be done within the scope of ecotourism is to reduce the use of resources, to support environmentally friendly infrastructure design and to adapt it to the traditions and local society. Reducing the impact is also reducing the number of tourists. In general, ecotourism is defined as respecting the local community, traditions, and alleviating the exploitative aspects of travel. Income from ecotourism should contribute to the development of local people as well as cultural heritage (Healey and Media, http://traveltips.usatoday.com/aims-objectives-ecotourism-108341.html) 
Figure.1.Framework for the Conceptualization and Evaluation of Eco-Tourism Source: Stone, 2002: 26 
According to the World Tourism Organization, the aims of ecotourism are; 
* Protection of nature and traditional environment 
* Tourists get to know nature and local people 
* Economic development of local people 
* It is the protection of the environment at the highest level (http://www.ekoced.org.tr/?p=73 ). 
The groups participating in ecotourism are generally small groups and the average number of people is 25 people. They are units that do not exceed 100 bed capacity in accommodation establishments in ecotourism centers (Yücel, 2002). 
Sample Ecotourism Destinations 
It is seen that many countries that realize the importance and bright future of ecotourism have become important destinations for ecotourism. Some destinations in these countries also contribute to the country's income by focusing on ecotourism. 
Spain Example 
The number one destination in the field of holiday tourism and the second most visited country in the world is Spain. After the great economic crisis that started in 2008, tourism has been the only sector that has survived in Spain. According to the research made by the Spanish Ministry of Tourism, in July 2015, 7 million 875 thousand 997 tourists came (http://www.turizmhabercisi.com/ispanya-turizmi-tirmaniyor.html). Ecotourism in Spain started in 1990 with organic farming, birding in wetlands, and bicycle tours in the white towns of Andalucia. At the same time, Spain is the 4th country to use wind power. The cities of Madrid and Barcelona are supplied with renewable energy and have an environmentally conscious approach. 
Specially designed glass walls and solar heating panels are used to reduce energy consumption at El Part airport located in Barcelona. Madrid is known in Europe as a city with numerous parks and gardens and large green spaces. The first for-profit solar power station in Europe was established in Andalucia. In these cities, environmentally friendly activities are beneficial in minimizing carbon footprints. Guests staying in these cities are satisfied with the energy conservation policy and environmental awareness. 
There are many eco-friendly hotels and farmhouses in Spain. In a hotel known as Urbany in Barcelona, ​​50% of the water used by the guest is used in the blend with rain water. Furthermore, tourists are offered opportunities to work in many nature tourism programs, for example in vineyards or farm fields (http://www.spain.net/spain-guide/ecotourism-spain.html). 
Another important region in terms of ecotourism is the province of Almeria. The economy of this region is based on fishing, farming and mining. Starting from the 1960s, tourism has been a growing economic activity. Cycling activities, mountain climbing, sailing and windsurfing are offered for tourists in the area. It is very suitable for outdoor activities in summer, especially for the beaches of Spain. Cabo de Gata –Nijar National Park here reminds of North Africa with its 30 km long coastline, landscape and nature. 
The area was included in the UNESCO protection list in 1987. This is due to the 38,000 hectares of land and 12,000 hectares of marine reserves and the extraordinary richness of wildlife to protect very rare and endemic endangered plants and to prevent overfishing. The number of plant species recorded here is 1,000, and the bird species is 1,1000 (Hose, 2007:270-271). 
Italy Example 
Tourism began to attract the attention of the Italian government after World War II. With its museums, people, spaghetti, music, historical streets, Italy is one of the countries to visit. The most important touristic cities of Italy are Rome (the city that attracts the most tourists), Bologna (the important fair city), Florence (the city of art: the most important places are Uffizi and David of David). Michelangelo Buonarroti museum), Genoa (the birthplace of Columbus), Milan (the historical port city), Naples (the city where the Vesuvius volcano is located), Pisa (The Leaning Tower of Pisa), Verona (where the ancient gladiator battles took place). (about http://www.italyankonsoloslugu.com/). 
It is the establishment of the "Ekkotourismo Italia" organization, which was established in Rome in December 2002, with the aim of developing ecotourism in Italy during the activities carried out in the name of sustainability and ecotourism in Italy as a developed country with so much potential. This organization gathers all stakeholders together and provides technical support to tour operators and travel agencies by providing coordination. The organization also collaborates with Colleges and Universities, encouraging them to engage in discussions on sustainable tourism development. “Ekkoturizmo Italia” implements a policy open to the whole world. 
It has developed partnerships with similar institutions in other countries, especially in Latin America (Satta.Ecoturismo Italia http://www.soetownsville.org/ecotourism/delegates/pdfs/ecotourismo_italia.pdf).  
Since 2009, a completely eco-friendly holiday proposal has been offered by the state of Alto Adige. It has initiated an integrated environmental program to protect the Sicilian land in the Siusi Alps region of the province. Transportation is limited to buses only, and hotels that adopt an eco-sustainable approach are local, as much as possible, as much as possible with the wine or food they offer to tourists. It also hosted the Sicily interregional green tourism project. 
In this context, it is aimed to open the train service to the natural protected parts of the region. According to Nino Strano, the Tourism Console of this region, green tourism will be very beneficial for Sicily's economic resources. In this sense, the aim of the Italian government is to attract more ecotourists to the country by increasing green areas in the regions. Apulia, one of the 20 regions granted partial regional autonomy with the Italian constitution, gave 50 million Euro financial support to the development of accommodation infrastructure in order to ensure competitiveness and sustainability in the international market in 20009 (Gordon, 2010). 
İtalya´da ekoturizm için uygun olan yerler sırasında Akdeniz´in bozulmamış çölünü sunan Fiery adalarında otel yapımı ve araba kullanımı yasaklanmış, sadece kırsal çevre dostu küçük işletmelere izin verilmiştir (http://traveltips. usatoday.com/ecotourism-italy-109357.html) Buna benzer doğaya sahip diğer bir yer Florens ve Arezzo arasında yerleşen, etrafı organik çilek tarlaları, üzüm bağları, zeytinliklerle kaplı, önceden eski bir ev olan İlPino konaklama yeridir. Fakir sanat tarzı olarak bilinen, tüm modern konfora sahip İlPino orijinal rustik Toskana tarzında restore edilmiştir. 
Visitors have started to stay in this place since 2000, and old traditions and old life experiences of the country have been revived ( http://ecotourisminitaly. blogspot.com.tr/p/italy.html). Ecotourism in Italy focuses on the preservation of all local cultures and flora and fauna on the national territory. In this context, a conference on sustainable tourism was held at the national railway museum in Pietrarsa on 1-2-3 September 2015.(http://placeinitaly.com/rome-italy) /item/12946-italychooses-sustainable-tourism).  
Caribbean Example  
The importance of tourism in the economy has increased even more during the times when traditional agricultural activities were in crisis. In this context, the tourism and service sector has become the most important source of foreign currency for the Caribbean's economy in the last 20 years, as well as becoming an effective power for the economy. According to the World Tourism Organization, tourism brought a full 20,400 million dollars to the country's economy in 2005 and according to the report of the World Travel and Tourism Consulate in 2001, the business in this sector increased to 2.5 million. 
The resorts that only the elite can reserve have become accessible for mass tourism within 20 years. According to the information given by the Caribbean Tourism Organization and the World Tourism Organization, the Caribbean was able to attract up to 40 million tourists in 2004 (Dehoorne and Tatar: 2013, p: 283-299). In the 2012 report of the Caribbean Tourism Organization, it was stated that 14% of the Gross National Product and 12% of the employment of the Caribbean, whose economy depends on tourism, is from the tourism sector (Scott 2014.s:21-36). 
Although ecotourism is in its infancy, the Caribbean has the potential for forest ecotourism in Dominican and marine ecotourism in Dutç. A few decades ago, the Dominican government's efforts to develop resort-type tourism failed. The reason for this was the lack of sandy beaches and the long periods of rainy weather. Despite the lack of infrastructure, the Dominican island, which covers its sparse habitat, well-preserved places encourage tourists to visit with their own smoking volcanoes, untouched, clean nature, and magnificent dense forests. Ecotourism is presented in the form of nature parks, small businesses and eco-accommodations as a new type of accommodation (Dehoorne & Tatar, 2013: 284-295). 
USA (Florida) Example 
The main driving force of its economy is tourism, Florida's most important tourist attraction is its sandy beaches and theme parks. According to the researches, 92% of the tourists coming to Florida beaches are US citizens, 40% of them stated that beach and beach activities are at the forefront of their activities. However, 8 out of 20 amusement parks in North America are in Florida. In 2011, 53.5 million tourists visited the Orlando province, where most of these amusement parks are located. 
Also famous for its unique nature, Florida has hundreds of state parks and protected lands that are frequented by tourists and locals alike. According to the information provided by Florida Environmental Protection Agency, in 1994, a total of 290 million people, both domestic and foreign, used Florida's natural areas for recreation. In 2010-2011, 20.4 million people visited the state parks. Everglade National Park, located in Florida and is North America's untouched sub-tropical resource, is a UNESCO Heritage Site. (A Florida Taxwatch Research, 2013). 
Entrance to national parks is paid in many places. Tourists who want to visit the national park get permission from the National Park Foundation. This permit is annual and costs US$50. Moreover, with The Golden Age Passport, which is given to US citizens over 22 years old for 10 dollars, tourists gain the right to visit the National Praks throughout their lives (http://upf.com/ mkt/samples/Ambrose2.pdf ). 
According to the results of the research conducted by Stein (2003), evaluating the role of nature in the development of Ecotourism in Florida and involving experts from 67 counties and 15 decision-making institutions, 23.9% of the participants say that nature-based tourism provides direct money flow to their own county, and 43.9% provides indirect benefits. In addition, 14.9% of the participants think that ecotourism can be important in promoting their area and attracting tourists in connection with economic growth (Stein, et al., 2003:160-164). 
Notable ecotourism programs in Florida: DP Nature Tour is Farmer Broun's Bed and Breakfast type farm. 
DP Nature Tour: Made by Dennis and Dorothy Prays in North Florida's Suvanne River Valley and Okefenokee Swamp for 3 years, this tour includes activities such as sightseeing, hiking, canoeing. 
Broun's Bed and Breakfast Type Farm; Located in central Florida near the counties of Orlando and Tampa, this farm is the farm of Fred and Maria Brauns and they have been opening their farms to tourists for four years. .The guests of the farm are usually young families with children. 
By opening their own homes to the community, they have gained the chance to share their experiences of working and living on the farm with people. The season here lasts from January to May. The design of the house is similar to the old houses and at the same time, the tourists can feel the nature (Best & Stein) in the 45 hectares of land with pine trees, pastures, an orange grove, a protected wetland. Florida`s eco-touristic attractions include Sea World Orlando, Dream gardens in Tampa, Dolphin tours, Everglade tours, Western Tropical Forest, Botanical garden tours (Cotera, 2008). 
Chinese Example  
Modern tourism in China began to develop in the 1950s. In 1954, the China International Travel Service with 14 branches in Guangzhou, Shanghai, Beijing provinces and several important cities, and in 1964 the State Tourism Organization was officially established. There are two most important travel routes in China: 1. the “S” shaped route covering the cities of Beijing, Xi'an, Shanghai, Suzhou and Hangzhou, the other, crescent-shaped, covering rural areas such as the Liaodong and Shandong islands and the Yangtze and Pearl river deltas. It is a crescent-shaped route. Eco-tours are mostly on the crescent-shaped route. All destinations located on this route have resorts and various types of recreational activities.” In the 99th International Ecology Tourism Year, China sponsored the ecological tour route ( http://www.asianinfo.org/asianinfo/china/pro-tourism.html ). 
China's Biodiversity Conservation Action Plan specifically addresses eco-tourism and aims to provide jobs and wages to local people and to bring them closer to protected natural areas. (Tisdell, 1996:11-19). There are 1110 protected areas in 27 provinces of China. In the research conducted in these areas, the buildings in 54.9% of the protected areas have a simple and practical structure in character, although they are in harmony with the local architecture. The transportation vehicles used in 28% are environmentally friendly tour cars. The development of ecotourism in northeastern China depends on numerous forest parks and wildlife. 
Therefore, the most important consideration in conservation areas is to provide infrastructure and to organize entertainments by providing high economic values. Reducing water consumption is at the forefront in northwestern China, which has a dry nature (Zhong, 2014: 6787-6788). 
Table 2. Destinations Most Visited by Tourists in China  
Source: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/tourism/ 
The harmony between the existing tourism-park, resource-society is manifested in the Jianfengling and Diaoluoshan National Forest Parks in China's Hainan province. Hainan, which has a predominantly rural structure, is one of the most economically underdeveloped provinces. The 'EcoProvince' initiative, which aims to promote sustainable development on the island, has identified eco-tourism as an important strategy to balance economic growth with conservation measures.
Park and protected areas are the most important natural tourism resources of this island (Stone, 2002:5363). Furthermore, Nanshan Cultural Tourism Area is located in Sanyan City of Hainan Province. Numerous tourists and visitors gather here because of the natural beauty of Nanshan city, making it an important eco-tourism area. Another reason why tourists flock here is the Buddhist influence on the local culture. Buddhism Cultural Park, Blessing and Longevity Park, Hainan Traditional Cultural Park are exclusive to this area (http://www.travelchinaguide.com/attraction/hainan/sanya/nanshan-cultural-tourism-zone/).  
Taiwan Example 
With steep mountains, beaches, national parks, lush forests and hot springs, Taiwan is a pristine eco-tourism destination. Taiwan's natural heritage is protected in its National Parks known for eco-tourism: Yangmingshan, Taroko Gorge, Shei-pa, Kinmen. Some of the most important eco-tourism destinations such as Alishan-Misty can only be reached by train. Kenting National Park, located at the extreme south end of the island, this park is famous for its beaches and lush vegetation. Sun Moon lake is located 2,500 feet high in the famous Nantou County Mountains with its sparkling blue waters and stunning mountain scenery (http://www.voyagersworld.in/article/eco-tourism-taiwan). 
The fact that 58.5% of the island is covered with rich forests with various plant species makes it important to develop sustainable management of resources for sustainable development. This provides a balance between economic income and biodiversity. By maximizing the use without damaging the bio resources, the central government has established a total of 22 National Parks. and 18 of them are managed by the Taiwan Forest Bureau. According to statistics, 2.81 million people visited these 18 parks in 2002, and the number of people reached 3.14 million in 2006 with an increase of 11,74% (Lee, 2010:812). 
Exiled from their lands by European, Chinese and Japanese colonists, the Tsou people living in the western part of Taiwan settled in the bamboo forests of the Yuu Shan mountains in the center of the island. Taiwanese people, who became aware of the features of the mountain regions later on, started to come to such places to relax and get rid of the stifling life of the city. One of the most remarkable places due to the increasing demand for mountain recreation areas is the Tanayiku National Ecological Park in the village of Saviki, which is visited by 450,000 tourists annually. 
The park is located around the Tanayiku Stream and is 18 km from the Zhengwen River Stream. The area it covers is 2,500 acres. The opening of this place to ecotourism also contributed to employment and served as 180 local human protection images (Hipwell, 2007: 876-894). Alishan village, the other village of Saiviki, also has a very important position in terms of ecotourism. In 2003, the number of people living here was 637. The Danayigu River, where the rare Scaphesthes alticorpus fish is abundant, passes through this village. 
One of the reasons visitors come here is to fish. After Danayigu Ecological Park was opened to tourism in 1995, they offer activities for tourists such as fishing, local music and dance, traditional cuisine, fine arts and handicrafts. In Taiwan, all parks are built by the government, but Danayigu is planned and built by local people. Before the establishment of the Danayigun, the local people were making a living from agriculture, but then tourism started to provide economic benefits to the people. The number of tourists visiting this place increased from 10,492 in 1995 to 147,049 in 2003 (Tsaur, et al, 2006:644-645). 
The Costa-Rican Example 
Costa Rica is one of the most preferred ecotourism regions among North American destinations with its volcanoes, rivers and national parks. The hotel sector in Costa-Rica increased 400% from 1987 to 2000. At the same time, Costa-Rica, which had 250 000 hotels in 1987, reached 1 million hotels in 1999. In general, the average number of tourists, which was a few thousand in 1990, reached 20,000 in 2000. At the end of the 1980s, South American and European investors began to evaluate the ecotourism potential of these lands.
Traditional farming activities, cattle ranching were at the center of life. A few decades later, backpacker ecotourists on small planes began to fill small hotels. The reason for not investing here before was its geographical distance and lack of infrastructure. Foreign investors, who started to buy land here in the 1990s, contributed economically and culturally, as well as contributing to ecotourism. Mid-size eco accommodation establishments located on privately owned properties with primary ecotourism participation, bordered by Corcovado National Park and the Drake Coast, had a room rate of US$ 50 per night. Second-degree ecotourism participation is huts run by wealthy Costa-Rica natives (Almeyda, 2010:803-804). ). 
The prices of these cottages ranged between 10 and 20 US dollars per night, and those who work here provide services such as taxis and horseback riding to ecotourists. Third-degree ecotourism participation was the employment of low-income local people in foreign-dominated businesses in jobs such as cooks, maids, watchmen, and belet workers. Moreover, although traditional sexist rules in Osa have restricted women's chances of earning an income, thanks to ecotourism, women have started working in small businesses, cottages and restaurants. Another of the most visited ecotouristic regions, Nikoya, which is forested in the interior, mostly serves ecotourism.
The Punta Invasion eco accommodation business here has been a successful example of ecotourism by creating employment and causing employees to return (Horton, 2009: 96-97). Nature-based tourism is one of the most important segments of Costa-Rica's tourism industry. The Sustainable Tourism Certificate Program in Costa-Rica is administered by the Costa-Rica Tourism Institute. Examples of agrotourism tours in Costa Rica are Coopesarapiqui Saraplquf Alajuela Coffee tour, Isla Chira.
We can show you Golfo de Nicoya Traditional Fishing tour, Danta Corcovado Lodge La Palma Golfito Palma tour, Santa Cruz de Turrialba Dairy tour. Although agro-ecotourism is an alternative source of income for farmers, it does not sharply change the level of rural life. Within the scope of sustainability, the best agricultural practices are those that do not disturb the balance between the environment and agriculture (Zumbado, 2010: 203-207). 
Today, the tourism sector, which has become an important source of income for destinations, and alternative tourism type are important to increase the attractiveness of the destination. Traditional tourism types are no longer attractive to tourists, but they also pay attention to how compatible the touristic activities in the destinations are to the environment. People who want to relax by getting tired of the stressful and intense pace of the city prefer activities that will deal with the soil. Therefore, recently, the number of nature-based activities in tourism has increased and new nature-friendly tourism types have emerged. However, the number of ecological accommodation businesses, which are the new type of touristic business and entered the literature as eco-lodge, are increasing and creating an attraction for tourists. 
The purpose of such businesses is to offer tourists a holiday in touch with nature, as well as to offer them a series of agriculture and livestock activities and not to harm the environment while doing these. The aim here is to raise awareness of environmental sensitivity in tourists. Thanks to ecotourism, societies' perspectives on the environment become more sensitive and contribute to countries in terms of tourism diversification and sustainability. As stated in the sample destinations, ecotourism creates opportunities for many countries. While the tourism movement has grown by 4% since the 1990s, ecotourism has grown by 24-30%. For this reason, many countries with suitable vegetation, biological diversity and climate, especially in our country, should implement ecotourism as a type of tourism.
Retrieved December 19, 2015 from http://www.asianinfo.org: http://www.asianinfo.org/asianinfo/china/pro-tourism.htm 
On December 20, 2015 http://www.travelchinaguide.com/tourism/: http://www. ravelchinaguide Retrieved from com/tourism/ 
http://www.omcekonomi.com. (2013, July 15). Retrieved on December 06, 2015 from Ecotourism: http://www.omcekonomi.com/175/ekoturizm 
(http://www.italyankonsoloslugu.com. (no date). Retrieved on December 17,2015 (from http://www.italyankonsoloslugu.com/about/) 
A Florida Taxwatch Research. (2013). Investing in Tourism; Analyzing The Impact of Expanding Tourism. Retrieved December 18, 2015 from http://www.floridataxwatch.org: http://www.floridataxwatch.org/resources/pdf/2013TourismFINAL.pdf 
Almeyda, AM et.all (2010). Ecotourism Impacts in the Nicoya Peninsuala, Costa Rica. International Journal of Tourism Research, 803-819. 
Best, MN, & Stein, TV (no date). Ecotourism in Florida. Retrieved December 18, 2015 from http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/fr/fr17800.pdf. 
Retrieved from http://www.univeur.org/cuebc/downloads/PDF%20carte/07.%20Calvia%20declaration.P DF. 
Cotera, C. (2008). Florida`s Eco Tourism. Retrieved December 18, 2015 from http:// next2disney.com: http://next2disney.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/8 _6_15ECO-TOURIST-PDF-OF-FLORIDA.pdf 
Dehoorne, O., & Tatar, C. (2013). Ecotourism Development Strategies for Caribbean Tourism Destinations. Tourismos: An International Multidisciplinary Journal Of Tourism, 283-299. 
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Association. (2007). What is Ecotourism? On December 10, 2015 http://www.ekoturizmdernegi.org: 
Retrieved from http://www.ekoturizmdernegi.org/ekotur.asp 
Emgin, Ö., & Türk, Z. (2004, June). Green Marketing. Retrieved on December 06, 2015 from http://www.mevzuatdergisi.com: http://www.mevzuatdergisi.com/2004/06a/01.htm 
Fidenza, C., Barbone, S., & Dabdoub, C. (2011). Sustainable Tourism Project Management in Europe. Retrieved on December 18, 2015 from www.adam-europe.eu: http://www.adameurope.eu/prj/6055/prj/PM4ESD%20Manual%20TR.pdf 
Gordon, L. (2010). Sustainable tourism gains ground in Italy. Retrieved December 17, 2015 from Euromonitor International: http://blog.euromonitor.com/2010/08/sustainabletourism-gains-ground-in-italy.html 
Günlü, E. (2014). Sustainable Tourism and Management. In M. Kozak, Sustainable Tourism (pp. 63-79). Ankara: Detay Publishing. 
Healey, M., & Media, D. (no date). http://traveltips.usatoday.com. On December 15, 2015 USA Today: http://traveltips.usatoday.com/aims-objectives-ecotourism-
Retrieved from 108341.html 
Hipwell, WT (2007). Taiwan Aboriginal Ecotourism/Tanayiku Natural Ecology Park. Annals of Tourism Research, 876-897. 
Horton, L.R. (2009). Economic and Social Impacts of Costa Rica `sEcotourism Boom. Latin American Perspectives, 93-107. 
Hose, TA (2007). Geotourism in Almeria Province, southeast Spain. Tourism Preliminaru Communication, 259-276. 
http://ecotourisminitaly.blogspot.co.uk/ . (no date). Retrieved December 10, 2015 from Ecotourism In Italy: http://ecotourisminitaly.blogspot.co.uk/ 
http://placeinitaly.com. (no date). Retrieved on December 17, 2015 from http://placeinitaly.com/ rome-italy/item/12946-italy-chooses-sustainable-tourism 
http://traveltips.usatoday.com. (no date). Retrieved December 17, 2015 (from http://traveltips.usatoday.com/ecotourism-italy-109357.html 
http://upf.com. (no date). Retrieved December 18, 2015 from http://upf.com/mkt/ samples/Ambrose2.pdf 
http://www.ecotourism.ca. (no date). On December 10, 2015 http://www.ecotourism. Retrieved from ca/importanceofecotourism.html 
http://www.voyagersworld.in. (no date). On December 19, 2015 http://www. voyagersworld. Retrieved from in/article/eco-tourism-taiwan 
Kasalak, MA (2014). Measuring Ecotourism Entrepreneurs' Susceptibility to Innovation: A Field Study within the Scope of Ecological Hotels in Muğla Region. 
Published Master Thesis . Konya, Turkey: Selcuk University. 
Slippery. (2010). Sustainability of Ecological Tourism. Alanya Faculty of Business Administration, 93-114. 
Kozak, M. (2014). Sustainable Tourism. Ankara: Detay Publishing. 
Lee, C.-F. ( 2010 ). Developing an Evaluation Model for Destination Attractiveness :Sustainable Forest Recreation Taiwan. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 811-828. 
Sata, A. (no date). Ecoturismo Italy. Retrieved December 17, 2015 from http://www.soetownsville.org/ecotourism/delegates/pdfs/ecotourismo_italia.pdf 
Scott, MM (2014). Natural Disasters and HIV/Aids :Intensifying Threats to Sustainable Tourism Development in the Caribbean. Journal of Tourism, 21-36. 
Sezgin, M., & Karaman, A. (2008). Sustainable Tourism Management and Marketing in a Touristic Destination Framework. Selcuk University Social Sciences Institute Journal, 429-438. 
Stein, TV, Clark, JK, & Rickards, JL (2003). Assesing Nature`s Role in Ecotourism.Development in Florida :Prespectives of Tourism Professionals and Government Decision. Makers .Journal of Ecotourism, 155-172. 
Stone, MJ (2002). Ecotourism & Community Development: Case Studies From Hainan, China,. A thesis presented to the University of Waterloo in fulfillment of the thesis requirement for the degree of Master of Arts in Planning, . Waterloo, Ontario, Canada: University of Waterloo. 
Tisdell, C. (1996). Ecotourism, Economics, and the Environment: Observations from China. Journal of Travel Research, . Journal of Travel Research, 11-19. 
Tokgöz, N., & First, S. (2009). Company Sustainability: Traditional Management. Afyon Kocatepe University, İ.İ.BF Journal, 255. 
Tsaur, S.-H., Lin, Y.-C., & Lin, J.-H. (2006). Evaluating Ecotourism Sustainability from the Integrated Perspective of Rescource, Community and Tourism. Tourism Management, 640-653. 
Tourism and Sustainability. (no date). On December 05, 2015 Ekoyapı: http://www.ekoyapidergisi.org/269-turizm-ve-surdurulletmelik.html  Access: 
06.12.2015) retrieved from 
TUSIAD. (2012). Sustainable Tourism. Istanbul: TUSIAD. www.spain.net. (no date). Retrieved December 15, 2015 from http://www.spain.net/spainguide/ecotourism-spain.html 
Yucel, C. (2002, April). Rising Value in Tourism: Ecotourism. On December 18, 2015 https://www.tursab.org.tr: 
Retrieved from https://www.tursab.org.tr/dosya/1023/02nieko_1023_1889046.pdf 
Zhong, L. (2014). Ecotourism Environmental Protection Measures and Their Effects on Protected Areas in China. Sustainability, 6781-6798. 
Zumbado, F. (2010). Agrotourism and Agro-ecotourism in Costa Rica.e-Review of Tourism Research, 196-210. 
As the head chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR, I see the source:
Ms. I sincerely thank Sevinç İSAYEVA Murad Alpaslan KASALAK for their academic studies titled "Exemplary Ecotourism Practices Within the Scope of Sustainable Tourism Management" and wish them success in their professional life . It will definitely be considered as an example by those who need it in professional kitchens, related research and in the world of gastronomy.
The original text, which is accepted as a source, is as follows. Google translation was used for the necessary language change.
*** You can contact me through my contact information for more information on the subjects specified by labeling, taking into account my professional background in the above article, and to get support for Restaurant ConsultingKitchen Consulting  in the titles within my Service Areas. ***
Turkish Cuisine Chefs, Turkish Chef, Restaurant Consultancy, Kitchen Consultancy.