• Halal Gastronomy and Halal Certified Nutrition
  • Halal Gastronomy and Halal Certified Nutrition
  • Halal Gastronomy and Halal Certified Nutrition
  • Halal Gastronomy and Halal Certified Nutrition

Gastronomy is the science that examines food and beverages in the historical and cultural process based on people's tastes. Religious Muslims living in both non-Muslim and Muslim countries have not eaten pork, alcohol, or anything that they believe is suspicious, which is...

Halal Gastronomy and Halal Certified Food (Nutrition) Culture
Keywords: Halal Certified Nutrition food, nutrition culture, gastronomy, halal gastronomy
Gastronomy is the science that examines food and beverages in the historical and cultural process based on people's tastes. Religious Muslims living in both non-Muslim and Muslim countries have not eaten pork, alcohol, or anything that they believe is suspicious, which is certain to be haram. Muslims, who always take care to consume halal food, have paid attention to everything they eat and drink throughout history. Today, when gastronomy is mentioned, table cultures that usually have alcohol and wine on the table come to mind. 
However, it cannot be ignored that this is a new definition of Muslims. There is a need for a phrase to describe this culture of eating that does not include haram things. This can only be achieved by putting the word “Halal” before the word “gastronomy”. Then, naturally, gastronomy, which is also true in terms of the declaration of human rights, depends on the culture of eating and drinking; It would be appropriate to define it in two different ways as “Gastronomy” and “Halal Gastronomy”. In this study, it is aimed to give detailed information about halal food and halal gastronomy.
1. Introduction
Eating and drinking and nutrition have an important place in the history of humanity. In fact, sometimes by combining this subject with medicine, books have been written that give information about foods and beverages suitable for the human body. Especially Turks, from the moment they started to take place in history, gave great importance to nutrition and after they became Muslims, they gave great importance to Halal nutritional values. Eating and drinking is an important factor in social life. Therefore, the culinary culture of the Turks has continued considerably from Central Asia to the present day (Talas, 2005). In addition, Muslim societies living in different continents and regions of the world have taken care of halal nutrition as much as they can.
Dünya üzerinde hemen her ülkenin kendine özgü bir mutfak kültürü olduğu bilinir. Kimi mutfaklar çok özgün iken kimileri ise farklı mutfakların büyük etkisi altında kalmışlardır. Bazı toplum veya bireylerde zevk için yemek yeme alışkanlığı vardır. Bazı insanlar yemek, bazıları da doymak için yaşar. Eğlencelerin, düğünlerin, arkadaş toplantılarının olduğu, uzun akşam yemekleri ve gece çıkmalarının arttığı yaz günlerinde kendinizi daha mutlu etmek için daha bol yemekler yenebilir.
Gastronomy is a word that was first used by the French writer Joseph Berchoux in 1801, combining the Greek words "Gastro" for stomach and "Nomy", which derives from the word "Nomos" meaning law, rule. In terms of meaning; It can be translated into Turkish as food law (Manola and Koufadakis, 2020). Hundreds of years of food experience and flavor accumulation have stripped food of its vital importance and made it a matter of pleasure and pleasure. The pleasure of taste and visuality has made the importance of the term Gastronomy noticeable today and has caused it to be seen as a science. Gastronomy is a discipline that studies the relationship between culture and food (Caporaso and Formisano, 2016). All edible materials are put on the table in accordance with hygienic, palate and eye pleasure,
Gastronomy is a discipline that includes studies of understanding, applying, and adapting food and beverages to today's conditions in detail, starting from the historical development process. Gastronomy is related to many disciplines, and it brings eating to different dimensions, especially by combining the phenomenon of food with many fields. At the same time, gastronomy, which is a phenomenon that combines the concept of food and culture, provides an advantage in tourism marketing, as it establishes a link between food and culture. 
The Concept of Gastronomy is used in terms of the gastronomic character of a country or region, its gastronomic characteristics and so on. gastronomic values; It is called as a collection of elements consisting of a combination of many factors including cultural, social, historical, geographical and psychological factors (Aksoy & Sezgi, 2015).
Human beings like to eat and drink, and the science related to the pleasure of food and drink is called gastronomy (Aksoy and Sezgi, 2015). When it comes to gastronomy, besides eating and drinking culture, wine and other alcoholic dishes and appetizers come to mind, and the first country that comes to mind is France. Because a typical Frenchman gives up everything, but does not give up the pleasures of life, and especially eats food not only for food, but with love. The French drink wine with love, not like wine. 
Regardless of the definition of gastronomy, it definitely talks about alcohol on the table, especially wine and food, and the pleasure of eating with drinks such as alcohol and wine while eating. However, in some places, there are explanations made without mentioning wine and alcohol in the form of better eating, curiosity to consume, good for health, suitable for health, well-arranged, pleasant and delicious culinary culture, food order and system (Özdemir and Altıner, 2019). For all these reasons, there is no definition or phenomenon related to the eating and drinking habits and habits of Muslims in the publications or articles about gastronomy. Therefore, with this article, it is aimed to respond to this need in halal gastronomy and nutrition culture.
2. Concerns in Food Consumption
With the technological level reached by the food industry in recent years, the diversification of food products, genetically modified foods, the source and diversity of food additives, the development of international trade and the increase in the level of welfare, and the development of access to food have made the issue of halal food much more complicated than in the past. Turker, 2020). For this reason, it is the most natural right of consumers to ask for the elimination of uncertainties, even if there are any uncertainties, in order to be able to make the right decision in their product preferences. 
Gıdaların hijyenik, güvenli, kaliteli ve temiz olması gibi mutlaka olması gereken kriterlerin yanı sıra; dini inançlarının gerektirdiği koşullara sahip olması da istenmektedir. Bu nedenle, başta gıdalar olmak üzere mal ve hizmetlerin dini inanç sistemine uygun olduğunu belgeleyen bir sistemi görmek istemektedirler. Çünkü tüketilen gıda tüketen kişilerin ruh ve beden sağlığına, dini inançlarına uygun olup olmadığı ve hatta insan neslinin geleceğini nasıl etkileyeceğine kadar geniş bir kapsama alanına sahiptir (Kostak, 2006). 
Having a system that certifies that all consumption products, especially foods, are in accordance with religious beliefs; It is a requirement of the right to be informed that they are safe products in terms of health, environment and belief. In this regard, it is extremely important for the consumer that the "food label" information is complete and comprehensible, that the foods are healthy and not contradictory to their religious beliefs (Akgündüz, 2012). It is stated in the “Universal Declaration of the Consumer's Right” that this is a human right and that the individual has the right to obtain information on every issue related to the food he or she consumes (Çelen, 2010).
In recent years, there have been discussions about what to drink next to a meal in some places. No matter what anyone drinks, everyone is obliged to respect each other. Every mature individual has the freedom to decide for himself what he should drink. In recent years, in some places, perhaps especially Ankara, Istanbul, Izmir, Bursa, etc. There may have been an increase in the number of restaurants that do not serve alcohol in our big cities. If the operators can find customers for such restaurants, it means that there is no problem according to the supply-demand balance for the marketing of that product. Nothing could be more normal than that. However, the increase in the number of such restaurants should not disturb those who prefer other restaurants. Customers have the freedom to eat wherever they want. This has been the case throughout history and this means halal gastronomy in nutrition.
In line with Halal gastronomy, Hadith sources and the Holy Quran, Hz. Muhammad's (Aleyhisselam) diet, culinary culture of that period, halal and haram food and drinks determine the food consumption of religious Muslims. Thus, the Islamic Cuisine understanding emerged as a result of the combination of Allah's orders and prohibitions and the exemplary life style of the Messenger of Allah (Şimşek and Güleç, 2020). For this reason, religiously sensitive Muslims have paid attention to their food and beverages throughout history and have always been in search of halal certified food (HSG). However, the last 30-50 years have brought some difficulties for people who make religious life conditions their way of life. 
Therefore, these people were also on a quest and found themselves in a life of doubt. Thus, whether there is alcohol in some carbonated drinks, whether the meat is cut clean and according to Islamic methods, pork-derived fat, gelatin, etc. in foods. It has always been doubted and researched whether there are substances or not. People from all walks of life took a close interest in this issue; congregations, foundations and associations have produced solutions in their own way; but these solutions have not been able to absorb the great majority of society. 
Every producer and consumer organization, foundations and associations interested in the subject have also established food commissions within their own structure and continued their work in this way. In Turkey, such pursuits emerged a little more clearly in the 1970s, albeit before. In particular, it started with not eating margarine on suspicion of lard contribution, and this situation continued with the sensitivity of buying meat from more religious butchers. The suspicion of not eating meat in every restaurant and the presence of pig hair on their toothbrushes has made Muslims more careful (Batu, 2015).
This shows that Muslims are always after HSG and therefore they are with halal gastronomy.
It is known that there are many pig farms in our country and that pigs are slaughtered and sold. It may not be possible to consume this much pork only in touristic hotels or Western fast-food restaurants. For this, it is necessary to pay attention to cheap meat and meat products. In addition, alcohol-containing food additives may also be used in the food industry in our country, where the production and consumption of alcohol has increased continuously over the years (Batu, 2012a). 
Taking this situation as an example, we observe that alcohol or pork-derived substances are frequently encountered in Western products (Batu, 2015). For example, in the first half of 2014, even in Malaysia, which attaches great importance to halal food certification, it was determined that pig DNA was found in an important US company claiming to produce Halal certified chocolate (Anonymous, 2014a). As a result of all these, consumers who are sensitive to religious sensitivity are rightly suspicious about whether many foods they consume are halal (Batu, 2015).
One of the naturally concerned substances in food consumption is gelatin. Edible gelatin can be widely used in many food productions in the food industry. Thus, it is used in the ice cream industry, in the production of cake, confectionery, chocolate and dessert, in the meat industry, and is used as a brightening and smoothing agent in foods. 
Religiously sensitive people are quite rightly hesitant to consume certain products that do not have halal certificates and are believed to contain gelatin; because foreign-origin gelatin production is mostly made from pigs (Boran and Regenstein, 2010). This creates an obstacle for HSG consumption.
Additives that are forbidden to be eaten or cut with Islamic methods, or whether they are of plant origin or not treated with alcohol, are also considered suspicious. It is necessary to know the source of the suspicious products, especially the raw materials and the additives used (Haug and Draget, 2009). The Prophet (peace be upon him) says: "Allah is pure and only accepts those who are clean (Tirmidhi, Tafsir/3). 
Consumption of every food and drink that Islam has made unlawful causes harm to human beings. The Prophet (saas) also stated that alcohol is the root of all evils (Nak-Kütüb-ü Sitte, 8/160; Batu, 2015). Because of all these verses and hadiths, Muslims who are sensitive in terms of their religious beliefs pay attention to consuming haram and questionable foods. Thus, there is a form of consumption that avoids haram and is called halal.
3. Food for Heavenly Religions
Mankind has taken care of nutrition since its creation and has consumed different foods in it. There are rules for regulating people's lives in all beliefs, and in this sense, there are many provisions regarding food and drink for Muslims and Jews. Halal food, which is allowed to be eaten and drunk according to Islam, means clean and unsafe in terms of health, has gained more importance in today's conditions and the interest and demand for Halal and healthy food is increasing day by day in our country and in the world (Yetim and Türker, 2020). ).
Before the Divine Religions before Islam were distorted, they focused on HSG and suggested that the divine command HSG should be consumed. There are many verses about halal nutrition and halal eating and drinking in our Holy Book, the Quran. In addition, the concept of HSG, the first human, Hz. It would not be wrong to say that he co-existed with Adam (Aleyhisselam). As it is stated in the sources of Judaism (Judaism) and Christianity (Judaism), which are the heavenly religions before the religion of Islam, the first food that is forbidden to be eaten by human beings is the fruit of a tree in heaven. 
With the eating of this forbidden fruit by the Prophet Adam (Aleyhisselam), halalness was broken and he was sent to the world in return. In addition, the "Kosher" standards and certification that the Jews strictly apply are a sign that the subject of HSG has an important place in the falsified Torah. In the Ottoman Empire, leather products to be used by Muslims were stamped as "tahirdir", which means halal. The basis of this halal consumption in the Ottoman Empire is the practices of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and the Prophet. It is based on the "Hisbe Organization" founded by Omar (Radiyallahu anh). Although there is no concrete evidence in this regard, it can be considered as the first of the practices in the context of halal certification (Batu, 2015).
3.1. Kosher Food
In Judaism, there are some practices carried out by the Jews, especially with regard to food. Kosher certification process is carried out within the framework of these practices. In Judaism, they are basically held responsible for the provisions contained in their holy book, the Torah. Kosher, which means suitable and acceptable according to Jewish belief, takes its source from the Torah. 
Kosher food means foods that are allowed to be eaten in Jewish law and tradition and the rules about them. If we talk about these in general, according to Kosher rules, foods are classified as meat and meat products, milk and dairy products and other foods such as eggs, cereals, legumes, vegetables, fruits, fish, salt and water. The meat of ruminant and even-hoofed animals permitted from meat and meat products is kosher. 
Meat and dairy products should not be consumed together. Blood, carrion and meat of animals that are not slaughtered according to the desired conditions are also not kosher (Köseoğlu, 2014). For more information about kosher, Regenstein et al. (2006) can be found in the study.
4. Why Halal Certified Food (HSG)?
Halal is an Arabic word meaning legal or permitted and is a term used by all Muslims on the earth's surface. HSG, on the other hand, is God-approved food for Muslim consumers. More broadly, HSG; It is the name given to all of the food, raw materials, processing aids, components, additives, processing methods, operating conditions and all food produced in accordance with Islamic rules, of all food, vegetable, animal, chemical or microbial food products prepared from farm to fork, that is, completely in accordance with Islamic rules. . 
Human beings want to fulfill their life or way of life in accordance with their belief system and religious obligations (regardless of their religious beliefs). A believing Muslim wishes to realize his life, as revealed in the Qur'an, in harmony with belief systems. The most important emphasis in the thought of giving meaning to his life revolves around the positions of Allah (celle celalüh) and man.
In the Qur'an, Almighty Allah (celle celaluh) states in many verses that he is the rule maker and that his servants must believe in him (Riaz and Chaudry, 2004). It is a characteristic of human beings not to accept life without rules, to stray, to believe in the necessity of individual and social rules, to define a philosophy of life with this justification, and to accept an authority over oneself. Man determines what is halal and haram, or he believes in a creator and continues his life according to his orders and recommendations. The subject here is those in the second group who want to continue their lives in line with the suggestions of the creator (Batu, 2012b).
Pork, dead animal, blood, animals slaughtered in the name of someone other than Allah (celle celaluh), drowned, killed by impact, killed by falling from a height, dead by cuckolding, or torn to pieces by a predator, and animals slaughtered on standing stones are prohibited (Riaz and Chaudry, p. 2004). In processed foods, simply writing "it does not contain pork" on the packaging of the food is not enough to say that it is halal. Because the food that is haram in Islam is not only pork. In terms of religion, the meat of animals that have not been slaughtered properly and the meat of many animals such as dogs, cats, wolves and mice are not halal. 
It is not enough to write "no alcohol in" on the packaging of the drinks. In order for drinks to be halal like food, they must not be harmful to health and must not include anything that is haram to such an extent that its color, taste and smell are evident (Karaman, 2012). For many products, halal or haram is very obvious, while there are some products that are not. These varieties are considered questionable or questionable, and more information is needed to classify them as halal or haram. 
Products in this situation are in doubt and doubtful in terms of certification. The source of these suspicious products and the source of the additives used should be well known. The term HSG was used centuries ago in the Qur'an in Maide 87: “Do not forbid or forbid clean things that Allah has made lawful for you, and do not exceed the limit. Because Allah does not love those who exceed the limit”. Also in Baccarat-168: “O people! Eat the halal and clean things on earth” (Özek et al., 1992). 
Thus, while the halal and haram foods are specified for Muslims, in fact, the foods are considered to be a kind of 'halal food standard' created in this way. The food standard in the Qur'an and known as HSG among the people, includes the characteristics of foods prepared according to Islamic methods, the slaughtering methods, the additives used and the characteristics of the places where these foods are served (Karaman, 2012) .
5. The Status of Halal Gastronomy or the Search for HSG in Turkey
A person who accepts that he is a Muslim and religious would definitely want to know the source, production method, and which components and additives of each food he eats (Özek et al., 1992). The importance of consuming HSG is mentioned a lot in verses and hadiths. In addition to the above-mentioned verses and hadiths, the term HSG is also used in the Qur'an (Maide/87): “Do not forbid or forbid clean things that Allah has made lawful for you, and do not exceed the limit. 
Because Allah (jalla celaluh) does not like those who exceed the limit”, and it is emphasized again with the verse. The food standard in the Qur'an, which is known as HSG among the people, includes the characteristics of foods prepared according to Islamic methods, the slaughtering methods, the additives used and the characteristics of the places where these foods are served (Yıldırım, 2001).
The use of hundreds of food additives used in the food industry has recently become increasingly common. In addition, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are used in the food industry of "blood, pig and unclean animals, feed etc. The use of alcoholic beverages and drugs in different industries threatens humanity (Büyüközer, 2011). In this regard, especially the Jews, and then the Muslims since the 1970s have taken concrete steps. Muslims living as minorities in non-Muslim countries have tended to this issue before. 
This was led by Muslims living in the USA. Food, food and drink shapes people. Therefore, the food consumed must be clean, healthy and harmless. Harmful, clean and unhygienic foods darken the future of humanity and cause unhealthy upbringing and growth of new generations. Especially food additives contain many diseases and increase the risk of cancer (Sakr, 1988).
The search for HSG in Turkey emerged most prominently in the 1970s. It especially started with not eating margarine oil and continued with the sensitivity of buying meat from religious butchers. The possibility of not eating meat in every restaurant and the possibility of adding pork fat in toothbrushes and pork bristle toothpaste has made religious Muslims more wary. The appetizing nature of both the search for HSG and the increase in its market share caused the HSG issue to be addressed at the international level. On the one hand, while the international halal codex studies continue, on the other hand, practices and discussions on standardization and certification continue (Küçüköner, 2011). 
Muslims from all walks of life have paid attention to their food and drink and have been in search of HSG. The fact that the amounts of alcohol in carbonated drinks and their ratios are not disclosed by the manufacturers have increased the suspicions even more. In the mid-2000s, associations and foundations started to be established for this purpose (Batu, 2012a).
The most problematic sector is the meat sector. 
Although Hanafi and Shafi'i sect imams have held jurisprudence that it would be sufficient for the animal to be slaughtered by a Muslim or a Christian or a Jew for meat to be considered halal, according to Imam Malik, although it is considered halal to slaughter an animal by a Muslim or a people of the book, but a "zabiha". It has been stated that it is makruh to eat what was slaughtered by the People of the Book in the presence of an animal that was slaughtered with the condition (Muslim slaughtered with basmala) (Çakıroğlu, 2014). Another problem is that the producers of processed meat products do not show sufficient sensitivity about the source of the meat used in production, under which conditions and how the animal is slaughtered. For example, whether poultry meat is slaughtered exactly according to Islamic methods.
It is the situation where animals that are slaughtered by giving electric shock, that is, unconscious, are considered haram/suspicious (Batu and Regenstein, 2014)
Widespread production and consumption wheel began to imprison societies rapidly. Especially since the 1980s, religious people started to pay more attention and be more careful about the sources of the food they consume to protect themselves (Çelen, 2010). In the 1990s-2000s, lists in which all kinds of additives with an E code were touted as haram or suspicious began to be published by non-experts. 
Although these have some drawbacks, the social media culture has developed in the society and people have started to help each other. For example, NGOs have started to be established for the production and certification of HSG, which has developed with various association/foundation studies that started in the mid-2000s. Again in 2003, a website called “Food Report” was prepared by some volunteers and started to be published under the name of www.gidaraporu.com and has carried out important studies until today. 
With the view that such activities would not be sufficient, in 2005, the same volunteer group expanded its service dimensions by establishing an association called “Food and Necessary Substances Inspection Research and Documentation Association (GIMDES)”. GIMDES still continues its work on these issues in a stronger and more participatory manner. GIMDES has been working on HSG since 2005. First of all, it made various publications with the aim of raising awareness on this subject, then it was accredited by national and international organizations in 2009 and started certification. GIMDES, which is a member of many national and international organizations, has published the halal standard and established a certificate program. 
These studies are very important as they are the first in Turkey (Yıldırım, 2011).
In addition, the Turkish Standards Institute (TSE) has a study on this subject. HSG gained a public identity in the Republic of Turkey through TSE, with the start of TSE certification on July 4, 2011. Apart from these, there are competent private institutions that have issued Halal Food certificates in the last 5-10 years. Istanbul-based Reliable Foods Foundation has been one of the organizations that have entered the HSG certificate market seriously in recent years.
Except for the last 15-20 years, the number of those who claimed that all the food produced in Turkey was halal was quite high, since Turkey was a Muslim country. The fact that the number of additives originating from pork and alcohol used in today's food production has increased or become more known, even though they are still available today, has destroyed the theory that everything produced in Turkey is halal. Therefore, it cannot be said that a food produced in Turkey or in which region of the world is halal without a halal certificate.
Religious Muslims, who take care to consume HSG constantly, have paid attention to everything they eat and drink throughout history, thus avoiding harams and creating a definition of HSG consumption. Here, the most important thing in food consumption, regardless of climate, geography and local cultures, is that the food consumed is haram. Therefore, there is a phenomenon called halal nutrition, which is unknown and unaware. This is "Halal Gastronomy".
6. Status of Halal Food (Gastronomy) in the World
Halal food studies in the world started with the initiatives of religious Muslims living as a minority in western countries. The halal food standard, which is brought for food by some countries in the world, is mostly applied in Muslim countries or regions where Muslims live heavily. The halal food standard, which was first implemented in Malaysia, is now being implemented in countries such as the USA, England, Canada, Australia, Belgium, China, Japan, Vietnam, Singapore, Thailand, Russia (Republic of Tatarstan), South Africa and Australia, thus creating a large market. has occurred. 
In these countries, products that are certified by organizations that issue halal food certificates and become Islamically safe, have started to take their place in the markets on the one hand, and have become a new item in terms of exports (Büyüközer, 2012). Halal certification institutions in the world largely act as foundations, associations and non-governmental organizations.
As in other religions, Muslims, no matter where they are in the world, no matter what type of government they live under, take care of their religious life and pay attention to what they eat and drink as much as possible. Therefore, Halal certified food production and consumption has an important place in many countries of the world. 
The Muslim population in the world is around 2 billion, and the target market of HSG is this 2 billion population, which corresponds to more than 20% of the world's population. According to the latest data of the PEW research center, one of the famous research companies of the USA, the number of Muslims in America has reached 2.6 million, and it is estimated that this number will rise to 6.2 million by 2030. If the predictions are correct, the number of Americans converting to Islam in 2030 will constitute 1.7% of the US population, reaching the number of Jews today. 
After the State of New Jersey broke new ground by enacting a law on the protection of the HSG Consumer in 2000, similar laws were enacted in the states of Illinois, Minnesota, California, Michigan, Texas, New York and Maryland.
The pioneer and current leader of the HSG industry in the world is Malaysia. Studies in this field, which started to become institutionalized in the 1980s, lead various countries in the world." Malaysia does. 
This country has established Halal standards and specifications; As a state, it takes care of this business and makes the products it imports from production countries in accordance with its own specifications. In addition, halal products research institutes have been established within State Universities in Malaysia, where scientific and technical studies related to HSG production are carried out. Malaysia is the first country to achieve HSG certification. HSG studies in Malaysia are carried out by the Islamic Development Department (JAKIM), which is a state institution, and it provides certification on an international scale (Batu, 2012b).
As one of the world's largest food producing countries, Australia exports various certified halal foods to more than 70 countries every year. While Muslims make up 23% of the world's population, the HSG industry is increasingly becoming the standard of living for the non-Muslim masses. Today, HSG has become an industry. It is not surprising that the HSG industry is one of the dynamics of socioeconomic development. The authority to issue halal certificates in Australia belongs to “Halal Certification Authority International”. The organization requires the company and its employees to perform five daily prayers in order to issue halal certificates to companies. Fulfilling the conditions of Islam for halal certification inspection is an indispensable element for them (Anonymous, 2010).
The demand for HSG in Europe is also very serious. The region where HSG debates are most common is the European continent. Because the number of Muslims in the European continent and even the number of devout Muslims is quite high. The most important of the problem is whether or not the meat cut "halal" by Muslims according to Islamic methods can be found. Despite the fact that Muslims have established halal-food establishments in Europe by their own means and import halal food from Turkey and similar Muslim countries, their problems still persist. 
The biggest problem in the issue of halal food in Europe is that pork products, alcohol, blood products, some types of meat are strictly forbidden and such products are widely sold in Europe. In addition, it is not always easy to distinguish halal and haram from the ingredients of today's foods. 
Muslims are not fully aware of this issue. For example, it is very difficult for ordinary Muslims to know which foods contain gelatin, glycerin, etc. additives or auxiliary substances. For this reason, Muslims prepare and distribute books, booklets and even hand-written e-articles and other unreliable lists about halal and haram foods, in order to be aware of the non-Halal contributions among themselves. These are issues that are not very easy to solve, but they can be solved with the HSG document” (Akgündüz, 2011).
In France, which has a Muslim population of over 1 million, discussions on the PHS started in the early 1920s and only in 1986 Muslims were given the right to make an Islamic slaughter. However, later on, the developments were not very positive and easy and the law prohibiting the slaughter of animals without drugs, which has been going on for a while in the country, was passed by the parliament. The law brought to the parliamentary agenda by the two-seat Animals Party was accepted. 
One (1 each) million Turks and Jews reacted to this decision and issued a joint declaration. In the Netherlands, the Ministry of State responsible for agricultural affairs, more stringent controls are carried out in order to comply with the law enacted in the slaughter of animals made without drugs, which is required by the Islamic and Jewish faith. However, slaughtering is allowed without sufficient anesthesia for Muslims and Jews. 
As it is known, for halal slaughter for Muslims and for "Kosher" slaughter for Jews, animals must not be dead even if they are knocked unconscious. In the Netherlands and many other European countries hitherto practiced in abattoirs animals are stunned or anesthetized before being slaughtered; however, Muslims and Jewish butchers were exempted from this due to religious freedom and slaughtered animals in accordance with their religion.
Therefore, it seems that Muslims in the Netherlands will start importing halal meat from Belgium and Germany or move their slaughterhouses there” (Akgündüz, 2011).
This is why the Netherlands and Germany have been leading the way for years in solving the HSG problem. The most important issue is whether the meat should be cut and presented to the market according to the Islamic rule. The biggest problem is the halal meat issue. There are also disputes on this issue. 
On the one hand, there are some sect imams who say, "Whatever people of the book cut is halal", and therefore this rule is unanimously accepted in Islamic law, on the other hand, the question "How can we call Europeans, 50% of whom say they are atheists," comes to the fore. No one can call an atheist the People of the Book. As a result, this issue is of vital importance especially for South America, Spain and similar meat exporting countries. 
Avrupa ülkeleri arasında henüz kesin bir çözüm yoluna girmemiş bir ülke de Almanya’dır. Müslüman nüfus resmî iddiaların aksine 6 milyonu bulmaktadır. Almanya’da Türk işyerleri ve kasaplarını bir tarafa bırakırsak Alman marketleri ve kesimhaneleri meseleyi yeterince kavrayamamıştır. Çoğu kesimhaneler, İslâmî usullere göre kesim yapmaya gönüllü değillerdir. Sebebi hayvan haklarını savunan ve bunu protesto eden gruplardır. Alman kanunları uyuşturulmamış bir hayvanın kesimini yasaklamaktadır ve bu da çoğu Müslümanların itirazıyla karşılaşmaktadır. Bu sebeple helâl gıda tedarikçileri helâl eti dışarıdan temin etme yoluna gitmektedirler (Akgündüz, 2011).
Muslims in Germany want halal certified products. The German Council of Muslims demands that a common halal certificate be valid throughout the country. In the statements made at various meetings, it is stated that the German food industry should give more space to the Muslim food culture. It is stated that the concept of halal describes the meat used in the production of foods permitted by the Islamic tradition, blood, carrion, pork, and intoxicating substances are prohibited within the scope of this concept, therefore it should be cut and prepared in accordance with the Islamic method. 
It is stated that approximately 4 million Muslims live in Germany, where there is a great economic potential to meet the PHS needs of Muslims, and 30 million Muslims live in the whole of Europe, and a total of 18 billion Euros is spent annually in Germany for foodstuffs and 120 billion Euros is spent in the whole of Europe (Gmdes, 2016). ).
The concept of halal market in Germany is developing in an unstoppable way.
For example, 800 of the 7000 companies participating in the Trade Fair held in Cologne were companies interested in halal food. The German Food Retailers Association also recognizes the importance of the issue. If it is said that the purchasing power of Muslim Turks has reached 20 billion Euros, the importance of the issue will be understood better (Akgündüz, 2011).
In France, the country with the highest number of Muslims in Europe, the problem of HSG and halal meat consumption is extreme. The number of slaughterhouses that were slaughtered according to Islamic methods did not exist until a certain time ago. The biggest problem in France is slaughtering animals with anesthesia and unconsciousness. Recently, it is stated that this has become compulsory throughout the country. Since such cut meat will not be halal, companies that issue halal certificate should also be viewed with suspicion. That's why France has halal slaughter in slaughterhouses.
It was very difficult to find halal meat with one hundred percent confidence in slaughtered meat in France. In order to solve this problem, some companies tried to solve this problem by opening slaughterhouses in Romania and Hungary. Although halal meat cannot be slaughtered in France, it seems that the halal meat problem has been solved by procuring from other countries (Akgündüz, 2011).
The UK succeeded in establishing the British Muslim Food Board (MFB) Muslim Food Council in order to solve the halal food issue within European countries. The same is true for America. Because the organization, which is abbreviated as IFANCA in America, is in a position of knowledge and dominance on the issue of halal food. The Muslim Food Board (UK) was established in 1992 and JAKIM (Department of Islamic Development Malaysia) was referred in this regard. Tesco and Sainsbury market chains in England have been selling halal food for years (Akgündüz, 2011).
In many parts of the world, different Islamic institutions, associations or foundations have prepared different specifications in order to be sure of what they eat and drink. One of these is the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA), a non-governmental organization (NGO) established in 1963 as a result of the individual efforts of Muslims living in Canada, and was established to work and continue to work on issues that concern their daily lives. 
The work of this NGO has started to bear fruit, and American and Canadian Muslims first determined and documented the halal standards and started to operate to conduct new studies in this field (Batu, 2012b). They have also signed many studies on these issues until today. Another organization in the USA is the Islamic Food and Nutrition Council of America-IFANCA.
IFANCA was established in 1982 and has been working on halal issues since that date. It also continues to help halal consumers through education and advocacy since its establishment. One of the services that IFANCA provides to halal consumers is to provide third party HSG certification. HSG consumption and certification are also available in South American countries (Batu and Regenstein, 2014).
Before the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Muslim Kazakh, Tatar, Turkmen, Kyrgyz, Tajik, Azeri and Chechen Muslims, who were in this union, paid attention to their eating and drinking and took care to consume HSG for the most part. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the demand for HSG in Kyrgyzstan is increasing day by day.
Muslims make up 87 percent of the country's population. While there has been a certain sensitivity about HSG in the country, especially in recent years, some manufacturers only produce HSG. In addition, halal certification is carried out in Kazan city of Tatar Muslims living in the autonomous Tatar Republic in Russia, and HSG consumption is increasing.
After all, no matter where in the world religious Muslims live, halal gastronomy is a part of their lives and lifestyles, regardless of different geographies and cultures. Therefore, it would be appropriate to focus on this issue in a little detail.
7. Halal Gastronomy in the Islamic World
Muslims who want to eat or drink halal are careful and meticulous about "halal foods and drinks" and try to consume halal bites (Riaz and Chaudry, 2004). Human beings want to bring their life or way of life into a shape that is suitable for their own belief system and religious obligations. A believing and devout Muslim wishes to realize his life in harmony with belief systems as Allah (celle celaluh) has revealed in the Qur'an. He wants to consume foods that are produced according to halal methods and produced without the use of haram additives. Halal religion means hygienic and harmless in terms of health. Halal is indispensable for a Muslim's standard of living (Batu and Regenstein, 2014). 
HSG, on the other hand, includes foods that are permitted by Allah (celle celaluh) for Muslim consumers and that are purified from haram. The opposite of halal is haram, which means religiously prohibited or not allowed. Meat and meat products that are haram are forbidden in the Qur'an: “Pork, dead animal, blood, animals slaughtered in the name of anyone other than Allah (jalla celaluh), drowned, killed in any way or dismembered by predators, and animals slaughtered on standing stones are prohibited. ” (Batu, 2012b). 
While halal or haram is very clearly evident for many products, it is not certain and is in doubtful or suspicious situation. In this case, it is necessary to have halal certificate for suspicious products. It is necessary to have good and solid information about the raw materials or additives used in the production of these products and the processing methods (Anonymous, 2013; Batu et al., 2015).
Although it is quite difficult to fully explain and define the concept of Gastronomy, when Gastronomy is mentioned, wine and other alcoholic dishes and appetizers come to mind in addition to eating and drinking culture. They drink wine with love, not like wine, and it is said that they experience love not like love but with passion. No matter which definition of gastronomy you look at, it definitely mentions alcoholic meals and the pleasure of eating with drinks such as alcohol and wine while eating. 
However, in some places, there are explanations made without mentioning alcohol in the form of better eating, curiosity to consume, good for health, well-organized, pleasant and delicious culinary culture, food order and system. 
Well; We can say that gastronomy is a study that examines the relationship between culture and food. The main study of gastronomy is the process of making all edible substances ready to be eaten, consumed and consumed by aiming to satisfy the palate and eye pleasure at the highest level in a hygienic but healthy way (Anonymous, 2014b).
İnsanoğlu hayatını veya yaşam şeklini kendi dini inanç sistemleri doğrultusunda yaşamak istemektedirler. Buda insan hakları evrensel beyannamesi ile doğrudan ilgilidir. Sözü edilen bu beyannamede “Tüketicinin satın aldığı mal ve hizmetlerin sağlık, çevre ve inanç değerleri açısından güvenilir ürünler olduğunun belgelenmesini istemesi bilgilenme hakkının bir gereğidir. Bu konuda, “gıda etiketi” bilgisinin eksiksiz ve anlaşılır olması, gıdaların sağlığa uygunluğu ve dini inançlarına aykırı olarak üretilmemiş olması tüketici açısından son derece önemlidir. 
Because, Article 2 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states, “Everyone is entitled to all the rights proclaimed in this declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or any other creed, national or social origin, property, birth or other can benefit from all rights and freedoms” (Anonymous, 1948). A believing Muslim wishes to realize his life in harmony with belief systems, as Allah (celle celaluh) has revealed in the Qur'an. 
The most important emphasis in the thought of making sense of his life revolves around the positions of Allah (celle celalüh) and man. For this reason, he stays away from what Allah has forbidden. Thus, millions of devout Muslim people, who are sensitive about their religious life, live and eat and drink on Islam, faith and culture. There is nothing haram in the food they consume and the drinks they use. They use halal food and drinks (Batu, 2015). Therefore, a consumption style according to halal culture has been widely maintained for centuries. Defining this as halal gastronomy is the most natural way of definition.
Regardless of the type of government in the country they live in, believers living in any part of the world believe that they must obey the rules of Islam and especially pay attention to the fact that the things they eat and drink are both halal and clean. Muslims living in Europe, America, Russia, China and some Islamic countries do not even eat what they believe is suspicious, especially pork that is strictly forbidden and animals slaughtered without basmala (Batu, 2012b). 
As such, how can the gastronomy of these people be explained? A definition should be scientifically universal and include everyone. There is a need for a word that can include the culture of eating non-alcoholic meals, since the term gastronomy does not include the general public, but usually brings to mind the tables that contain alcohol and wine. This can only be solved with an adjective that can be brought before the word gastronomy. It should also be the word "Halal". So naturally, the correct definition in terms of the declaration of human rights should be "Gastronomy" and "Halal Gastronomy".
Muslims believe that the reason for their existence in the world and their reason for being in the countries they live in is to live in accordance with the lifestyle that Allah demands of them. Therefore, Muslims who are sensitive to religious sensitivity want to know whether the things they eat and drink are halal and clean even in countries where they live in the majority and even in a country where they are a minority, and they want to act accordingly. This is a human and Islamic right. He avoids haram food and drink (Batu, 2012a). It prefers halal taste. This can actually be defined as “Halal Gastronomy”.
There are many people in the world and especially in Muslim countries who do not drink alcoholic beverages. Then, the gastronomy of those who eat and drink in the halal culture and life circle without consuming alcoholic beverages can be defined as "Halal Gastronomy". In fact, if we want to take a look at halal gastronomy in the historical perspective, we first come across "Halal food". The concept of HSG existed with the first human. The first man and the first prophet of humanity, Hz. It caused Adam (Aleyhisselam) and his wife Eve (Radiyallahu anha) to be expelled from Paradise as a result of eating the fruit of the tree forbidden to them by Allah (celle celaluh) with the deception of Satan.
This emphasizes the importance of halal mouthfeel by eating and drinking what Allah (celle celalüh) allows in Halal circle. Thus, Halal Gastronomy gives the result how important it is for people. In addition, the concept of HSG was used to mean "There is no harm in consuming this item or food" by stamping "Tahirdir" on the skins used by Muslims during the Ottoman Empire (Baran and Batman, 2017). This shows that the understanding of HSG and Halal Gastronomy existed even during the Ottoman Empire. 
Even if there is no information about concrete examples, it can be considered as the first practice in the context of halal certification in Turkish history. The basis of these studies in the Ottoman Empire is that which existed at the time of the Prophet, but Hz. It is stated that it is based on the "Hisbe Organization" founded by Omar (radiyallahu anh). As it can be understood from here, we can say that HSG, hence Halal Gastronomy, has continued from the first human to the present day rather than being a newborn concept, but has been better understood, comprehended and defined recently. Therefore, there is no harm in saying that Halal Gastronomy was born with the first creation of man.
8. Conclusion and Recommendations
Today, where two billion Muslims live and most of them want to know what they consciously eat and drink, the HSG market has a very important place. It is obvious that it will have an important place in world trade in the future. In order for countries such as Turkey to get their share of this cake, they must produce these foods in accordance with the HSG discipline and take their place in this market.
The level of education and the number of educated people, especially in Muslim communities, have increased in the world. Therefore, Muslims have started to become more conscious and societies around the world have become more conscious in terms of democracy and human rights. Respect for human rights has begun to increase, and ready-made food has an important place in food consumption, and the rate of use of additives in ready-made food production has increased day by day. Most importantly, due to the awareness of halal food consumption in the world, people have started to become a little more sensitive and conscious in terms of religious belief.
Besides all these; With the birth of the religion of Islam, Muslims have always avoided haram, and halal food consumption awareness and culture began to emerge in a better way. Therefore, it is obvious that gastronomy, which is a science that studies table culture and includes mostly alcoholic tables and eating and drinking styles that use wine, also has a non-alcoholic version. I believe that it would be appropriate to call it "Halal Gastronomy".
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As the head chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR, I see the source:
Mr. I sincerely thank Ali BATU* for his academic studies on "Halal Gastronomy and Halal Certified Food (Nutrition) Culture" and wish him success in his professional life . It will definitely be considered as an example by those who need it in professional kitchens, related research and the world of gastronomy.
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