• What is Baklava in Ottoman?
  • What is Baklava in Ottoman?
  • What is Baklava in Ottoman?
  • What is Baklava in Ottoman?
  • What is Baklava in Ottoman?
  • What is Baklava in Ottoman?
  • What is Baklava in Ottoman?
  • What is Baklava in Ottoman?
  • What is Baklava in Ottoman?
  • What is Baklava in Ottoman?

In the periods when flour import to Istanbul was prohibited, if illegal flour was shipped to Istanbul and this was detected by the state, the stones of the mills that were more than necessary in the regions where flour was imported were crushed and closed. So much so that in..

What is Baklava in Ottoman?
In the Etymological Origin of the Word Baklava, various theses have been put forward about the etymology of the concept of Baklava. Priscilla Mary Işın states that the word "baklava" first appeared in Kaygusuz Abdal's poems, and that "sarigiburma baklava" with the name "karnıyarık" was named after XIII. 174 In the same century, we also see that baklava is mentioned as “samsa baklava” in the work of Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi called Divân-ı Kebir.175
On the other hand, Charles Perry, the food editor of the Los Angeles Times newspaper in the USA, says that baklava is a Turkish dessert with everything and its origin goes back to Central Asia. Perry bases his thesis on the fact that the words kat and yufka are Turkish. Indeed, the word yufka, pronounced as “yuga” in Anatolia, is also used to mean “thin”.
Oklava has made a name for this new dessert due to its indispensable role in baklava. There are different theories about the etymology of the word baklava. In his work on -lağu and -legü suffixes, Turcologist Dr. Mustafa S. Kaçalin argues that just as the rolling pin is based on the root of "arrow", it was called "fishlava" because the slices of baklava resemble fish, and this word may have been shortened to "baklava" later on.177
In fact, it is stated by the Turks who still live in the region that the name of the city of Balaklava in Crimea, which remained under Turkish rule for hundreds of years, was given because its geographical surface resembles baklava.
Paul Buell, an American Altaic linguist, thinks that this word may be composed of bakala, which means "to fold" in Mongolian, and the suffix -va, from the Turkish verb.
In the Byzantine Empire, this dessert was called kopti, which means cut. This dessert consisted of two thick sheets of phyllo dough, among which were ground walnuts, honey and sesame seeds.178
In many parts of Anatolia, "katmer" is yufka bread folded with cream or oil, while in Urfa it is the name of baklava. The folding, which is also common in Central Asia today, is made from layers of phyllo. Dürüm is also registered as “türmek” in Divânü Lûgati't-Türk. In other words, phyllo becomes a roll by rolling, a pancake by folding, and a baklava or pastry by stacking layers.179
Although many dumplings such as kadayif are found in medieval Arabic cookbooks, we do not find baklava itself or its name, except for the "karnıyarık" mentioned above. On the other hand, the Iranians called baklava laberla, which means "layered". This word, which was used in the Divan of the Persian poet Bushak in the 15th century, is one of the examples showing that Turkish cuisine influenced Iranian cuisine at that time.180
Desserts and Baklava Prepared in Ottoman Cuisine
It was a tradition for the Ottomans to eat and distribute sweets in every event from birth to death. Even the smallest event would have caused the Turks to eat sweets. 181 Therefore, sweet and sugary foods had an important place in the Ottoman palace cuisine . 182 So much so, the palace halvahane cuisine.Istanbul's famous sukye, jams, murabbas (marmalade), candies, currants with milk, fruit desserts with cream, bulk and string kadaifs, halva, almond heriresi, woman's belly and revani desserts, palace and kak bites, sour cherry, berdeşe, pistachio, damask , pine nuts, taflan, pomegranate, fig, apricot compotes, melon baklava cooked by spreading sweet melon paste on fifteen to twenty baklava phyllo spread on a tray, topped with sugar and eaten, and a custard made with rice because it resembles a baklava slice. 184
In contrast to the familiar varieties such as apple, pear, quince, cherry, cherry, sour cherry, citrus, cranberry, medlar, peach and green almond jam used in jam making; The variety of foodstuffs such as melon, watermelon, walnut, jujube, lemon, zucchini, eggplant, ink which is a citrus fruit type, citron and limon-ı syphilis (a type of citrus fruit) is also astonishing. All pickles and drinks were produced in the palace halvah, except for those who had a job.186
It is known that those with pastries are prepared by bakers and baked in ovens. In the meantime, old women (pirezenan) were assigned to open the baklava dough to be baked and to cook the baklava on the days of Ramadan, feast days, and the distribution of ulûfe to the janissaries.187
Although a wide variety of desserts were made in the rich Ottoman palace cuisine , the most preferred dessert in the palace was sometimes only baklava and sometimes rikak baklava. Baklava was among the indispensables of iftar, feast and banquet tables . It is seen that pudding, pumpkin, boza, pomegranate, black plum and grape sherbets, edible animal oil, sesame bread, thin pita bread and baklava are included.189
Again, during the circumcision wedding of Sultan Bayezid and Sultan Cihangir, the sons of Suleiman the Magnificent, held in 1539 and lasting thirteen days, a jog was held in Ok Square and the feast given in this race was “grain rice, memuniye, pudding, chicken kebab, chicken.” Soup, börek, lamb kebab, special donuts (one hundred and fifty pairs) and baklava were also served. It is also known that baklava was distributed to the janissaries on the day of the ulûfe payments and after the visit to the Cardigan-i Sharif on the fifteenth of Ramadan.
In addition, the oldest recipes of baklava known today are found in the records of Sultan Bayezid soup kitchen in Amasya. So much so that baklava in Amasya consisted of nine layers of phyllo dough. 150 dirhams (462.9 g.) ghee and 200 dirhams (617.2 g.) honey were smeared on each layer.192 Rikak baklava's phyllo dough was fried with clarified butter, and when served to the Janissaries, a large amount of honey and much less sugar were used as sweetener, and almonds were added to it.193
Sulo Bozis describes Baklava as one of the most famous and popular desserts of Istanbul in her book titled Istanbul Taste. Then it continues. Baklava falls into the category of desserts with syrup. It takes different names depending on the filling material or its shape: burma, queen finger, woman's belly, nightingale's nest, dilberlip.194
In his work titled Dessert in the East, Unger describes Turks' fondness for sweets with the following sentences: “Muslims' special interest in sweets is due to their prophet (...) also attaches importance to halva (...) Turks mean all sweets by confectionery. For this reason, those who manufacture them are called confectioners or confectioners.”195 Although Unger has mentioned this issue with verses and hadiths, it is not possible to confirm this information from both the Quran and authentic hadith sources. Therefore, it should be noted that Unger's statements are not correct.196
The quality of baklava depends on the baklava phyllo used, its oil and sugar. The dough should be as thin as a rose petal.197
Approximately 40 sheets of dough are required for a round copper tray. Its inner material is walnut, pistachio or cream. It is the fat of the lamb kidney membrane added to the fat that makes the baklava melt in the mouth. Cooking and making sherbet are also important.198
Sulo Bozis, in his book titled Taste of Istanbul, states that the baklava made in Greek houses is a mediocre baklava with ready-made thin dough and plenty of syrup. says it leaves a taste.199
Supply of Ingredients and Provisions Used for Baklava
As it is stated in the couplet of Abdi's Câmasb-nâme, “Baklavas had plenty of oil and honey/Blessings were food in business”, it is seen that it is acceptable for the baklava dessert to have plenty of honey and oil. When it comes to the provisions included in it, it is possible to count as hard wheat flour, eggs, wheat starch, semolina, salt, clarified butter, milk, walnuts, almonds, peanut kernels, honey, sugar and water.
Where Did Honey and Sugar Come From For Baklava?
Honey, which was one of the indispensable ingredients of desserts and especially baklava in the Ottoman Period, was brought from all over the empire and transported to Balkapanı in Tahtakale. Oil, honey, cheese, pastrami etc. to Istanbul. The merchants who brought grain were the merchants attached to the Galata oil trap and the Istanbul honey trap. Unless there was a need, it was not allowed to bring this kind of grain to Istanbul, except for the merchants who were tied to these traps. 
Turkish-Cuisine-Chefs-Turkish-Chef-Restaurant-Consultancy-Kitchen-ConsultancyThe grains traded by Galata oil trap and Istanbul honey trap merchants were generally procured from Wallachia and Moldavia, as well as from Silistra, Ruse, Ziştovi, Niğbolu, Prevadi, İbrail, İsmail, Kili and Akkirman townships and piers. 202 Honey coming from the East, for example from Hakkari, is among these. 203 Meanwhile, the Ottoman palace was constantly demanding and meeting its needs for honey from Gallipoli, Malkara, Hayrabolu and Edirne.204
Quality was given importance when purchasing goods for the Ottoman palace. The quality of the goods was indicated with the adjectives ala, genuine, distinguished, and the goods of this nature were tried to be procured wherever they were, regardless of their price or cost. The honey that the palace needs and from which region it will be brought is determined beforehand, Malkara, Gallipoli, Eğriboz, Wallachia, Moldavia, Athens, Sofia, Prevadi, Niğbolu, Shumen, Hazergrad, Chernovi, Trabzon (Hemşin), Saruhan, İzmir and its environs, Edirne and Hayrabolu. and from Crete.205 
The Ottoman rulers, by being meticulous in supplying the honey, which is expensive and scarce, which is preferred more in making sweets instead of sugar and sometimes used together, demanded a large part of the honey from Wallachia and Moldavia in return for certain taxes. Ottoman administrators would not allow the export of goods such as honey, wheat, timber, and cattle until their demands were met . In this way , it prevented the palace from being dependent on the Istanbul cuisine market.
Sugar, XIII. In the 19th century, it was sold at a price so high that the wealthiest could afford it. That's why sugar was introduced to the kitchens in XIV. century began to enter. It took a long time to reach large masses. XV. By the turn of the century, it is still a luxury item.211 It was a commodity that only the rich and well-off could reach. 
Since it was not a very cheap object, it was only sold in pharmacies as a "tasting and healing" substance. King of France VII of the Sultan of Egypt. It is understood from a visit he made to Charles how important a commodity sugar was in this period. So much so that, to please the King, the Sultan gifted him 50 kilograms of sugar, which was a huge amount at that time, and he achieved great success with this gift that really suited the Kings. XVII. Although sugar was known all over the world in the middle of the century, it still retained its status as a luxury food. It is stored in locked, keyed precious gold or silver boxes. Until the 19th century, it was sold only in pharmacies and special shops.212
The slow spread and value of sugar in the Ottoman lands and in the world must have resulted from the limited production.213 After 1850, the price of sugar dropped significantly, and its consumption and preference increased accordingly. So much so that while sugar was a rare item in 1650 and a luxury item in 1750, it turned into a real need item in 1850.214
Meanwhile, in Ottoman cuisine, sugar and honey were used not only in making drinks such as sherbet, compote and some dishes, but also in making desserts. Sugar was a luxury and expensive ingredient used in making sweets. Honey, molasses and dried fruits were sweeteners used in dessert making, especially in public cuisine. Sugar limited to the consumption of the rich, XIX. It was also consumed in large quantities in Ottoman palace cuisine in the 19th century . Two types of sugar, granulated sugar (sugar-i gubar) and kelle sugar (seker-i minar), were bought in palace kitchens and halvahs.
In the Ottoman palace cuisine , baklavas were sometimes made with sugar and sometimes with honey. In some cases, it is known that honey and sugar are used together in certain proportions. In fact, baklava, paluze, me'muniye, ashura, zerde, pancake and pudding, which were among the dishes served to the viziers and other members of the council, were made with sugar.
Some of the sugar used in making desserts in Ottoman cuisines, especially in the XV century. It is estimated that it was taken from Bursa, which was the international trade center of the period, at the end of the century. In the Kanuni period, a significant part of the sugar need was met from Arap217 and Damascus provinces. Since 1573, it is seen that Egyptian sugar mainly met the needs of the palace. 
Sugar from Egypt was cheaper than European sugar, but of lower quality, but it was in the first place in consumption. 219 Sugar was brought to Alexandria by galleons twice a year. 220 With the conquest of Egypt, sugar, and our Ottoman history, from 1571, was the Egyptian dispatch. was brought. Again, after the conquest of Cyprus Island, sugar was taken from here as well, albeit not regularly, as a waybill from the beylerbeyi.221
XVI. At the end of the century, a significant part of the sugar produced in Egypt, Cyprus and Tripoli was coming to Istanbul. Despite this, the increase in hard sugar production in the capital upset the sugar market. In kitchens where sugar did not enter, honey and dried fruits, especially raisins, took its place. Despite the high consumption of sugar in the palace, XVII. Even in the 19th century, it could not replace honey. 
So much so that, although there is no information based on figures about the sultan, the people of the dynasty and the high-ranking bureaucrats, the rate of sugar in the sweeteners added to the baklavas of the Janissaries of Dergah-ı Âli is only 0.20%. In the baklava made for the janissaries in 1641, 2,440 kilos of flour, 120 kilos of almonds, 695 kilos of butter, 1000 kilos of honey and only 18 kilos of sugar were used.
Again, XVIII. Baklava, which was made for the Janissaries during Ramadan at the beginning of the 19th century, was only sweetened with honey. We can explain this situation in several ways: First, sugar is a luxury item in this period. The second can be explained by the financial situation of the Ottoman state . Because the Ottoman Empire XVIII. At the beginning of the century, he signed the Karlowitz Treaty. 
XVII. The protracted Ottoman-Austrian wars at the end of the century had a negative impact on the Ottoman economy. In this period, Sultan III on the Ottoman throne. Ahmed (1703-1730) was present. In the period between 1703 and 1718, the policy of reclaiming the lands lost with the Karlowitz Agreement, that is, the policy of istirdad, was followed. This situation may have affected the purchasing power of the Ottoman society and further reduced the interest in sugar, which was expensive. Thirdly, there are black market stocking initiatives that stem from the fact that sugar is a precious material.
As a matter of fact, this issue is mentioned in a document dated March 22, 1582, and it is complained that sugar prices are too high. As it is understood from the document, sugar was a profitable shopping material. People unrelated to this line of business were using the sugar that came to the city to make hard candy by stockpiling them. As it is known, not every artisan in the Ottoman State organization could open a shop wherever he wanted. 
Because the number of shops was determined by the Guilds. The guilds allowed new shops to be opened in addition to the existing ones, depending on the need. In addition, as a fugitive, a shop was opened outside the street where that business line was located, which was called "Kottukçu". These were identified, complained to the kadı and closed down. However, since the intervention of the state was not immediately possible, this situation caused sugar prices to rise.
Regarding the Increase in the Price of Sugar as It Was Acquired:
It was decreed to the Kadi of Istanbul that he sent a letter to Mevlânâ Zekeriyâ-damet-fezâiluhu südde-i saâdet , who is the judge of the mahrûse-i mezbûre ( What is the Mevlevi Cuisine ), and that the head of the confectioners' masters and the masters of the master's degree When they came to the assembly-i şer', the number of armchairs increased in the mahrûse-i mezbûre, and they bought the sugar that came to the city and bought akide224, it was said that sugar went up to a great price and its price was at twenty thirty Akça and it became forty-five and fifty Akçay. I ordered to be banned and ordered that when we arrived, bin-ba'd forbade the armchairs and menba'd should be prepared to do something contrary to the tradition, my order. (Given to the Clerk-i Kadimi boy) Fi 26 Safer 990/22 March 1582.225
Where Did the Butter for What is Baklava in Ottoman Come From?
Although there were various oils such as olive oil, linseed oil, sesame oil, tail, kidney and tallow in the Ottoman palace, mainly butter and melted butter were used to keep it intact throughout the year. Clarified butter used in cooking is the most consumed oil in the palace. XV. It is understood that at the end of the century, clarified butter was mostly bought from the Istanbul market. 30 percent of the total supply is met from the provinces. Oil-supplied districts are Bursa, Edirne, Ankara and Plovdiv. XVI. Since the second quarter of the 20th century, Kefe was included in these accidents where oil was supplied. Direct oil purchase for Matbah-ı Âmire from Kefe XVII. started in the first years of the century.
The clarified butter supplied from Kefe was transported by ships operating in the Black Sea. Again, the goods supplied from the regions in the south of Anatolia, the cities in the Eastern Mediterranean and Egypt were transported to Istanbul by sea. Ships such as galleon, karamursel, burtun and igrib were used in maritime transport. The galleon, which is a more solid type of ship, was preferred especially for the goods brought from Egypt.227
XVII. The districts that sent oil to the palace in the early part of the century consisted of Rumelia districts such as Shumen, Hezargrad and Chernovi, and Bursa, where Karakeçili oil was supplied.
XVII. Kefe oil supply areas since the beginning of the century Kefe is the Rado/Radovic village of Talende in the same region as Maçin village of Tırhala in Greece. In addition, in some periods, it was taken from Azak in the Northern Black Sea Region and Vostica and Tımışvar towns in Rumelia. XVII. Since the middle of the century, when the sultans migrated to Edirne frequently, the supply of clarified butter was made from many towns in Rumeli.
A large part of the butter used in the preparation of meals and desserts in the Ottoman Palace cuisine was brought from Kefe, via the Black Sea route, from Moldavia and its surroundings.231 The Ottoman palace was the most important consumer of butter from Kefe. So much so that the XVII. Some taxes collected in Kefe at the beginning of the century were reserved to pay for the large amount of butter that the palace people consume every year. A significant part of the clarified butter need of the palace was met from this region where animal husbandry was common.
For example, according to a decree sent to the administrators in Kefe during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, it is understood that wholesalers dealing with oil trade went to Kefe to collect and store oil from the public. Meanwhile, it is understood that there is an oil shortage in Istanbul as well. This problem was stated in the sent provision, and the administrators were asked to do their best to load the oils they bought on the ships and send them to Istanbul as soon as possible, without allowing the wholesalers to stock up. Again, in the provision, it was also requested to record how much oil was loaded on the ships and to give the registration documents (contact paper) to the merchants. The relevant provision on the subject is as follows:
Turkish-Cuisine-Chefs-Turkish-Chef-Restaurant-Consultancy-Kitchen-ConsultancyIt was decreed to the Bey of Kefe, its Kadi and its Minister, that some drillers arrived at the pre-existing moment, collected oil from the re'aya and made it into the cellar, and I had a negotiation on the subject of oil in Mahruse-i Istanbul, I said, In this chapter, each of you is a mukayyed and does not let the oil makers like him in the cellar, but even has them taken to the ships for trade, even if they are loaded to the ships, and they write that oil is taken to each ship, and they will not die. send it. The matter mentioned is the place of care. 
According to him, you should not add minutes in order to be mukayyed and send wâfir and mustevfi oil. Fî 4 Dhul-Hijjah 967/26 August 1560.”234
Sultan III. When we examine a decree written to Kefe Beylerbeyi and his qadi on 18 March 1592 during the reign of Murad II, information is obtained both about the kilogram prices of oil in the economy of the period and about a developed livestock sector of the region subject to the Crimean Khanate, as mentioned above. 
At the mentioned date, both the Ottoman Empire and the Crimean Khanate were experiencing their most magnificent periods as political and military power. Following this, it should be noted that; A livestock sector capable of meeting the oil needs of Istanbul and the palace requires a large agricultural land, a developed economy and a competent administration to manage them. The Crimean Khanate includes these features in terms of both the size of the land and the above-mentioned issues.
Considering the full text of the judgment below, the following points draw attention:
-There are 2,800 overalls of oil available in Kefe at that time, which shows that there is a large amount of stock for the conditions of that day.
-The unit price of an ounce of oil is 12 akce.
-The importance of the oil supplied from the region is understood from the Ottoman Sultan's writing Name-i Hümâyûn to the Khan of Crimea. So much so that the XVI. The most powerful sultan of the century made a special request for oil.
-The Ottoman Sultan wants to take measures in this regard, fearing that the increase in the price of oil will put the poor in a difficult situation by paying high prices to the merchants. This is a remarkable example in terms of showing the Sultan's sensitivity to his subjects.
The transcript of the said provision is as follows:
Provision written to Kefe beylerbegi to send oil to Istanbul
It was decreed to Kefe beylerbeği and kadı that there are actually two thousand eight hundred bags of oil in the Haliyâ province Kefe, that the old oils were not from the ammunition sent to my Âsitane-i Saademy, whatever the current price is until now, the two thousand eight hundred still available. The edict of being a bey'oun was sent to the governor of the Crimea Khan, the state nisab, the namei Hümâyûnum, even to Gazi Giray Khan damet maalihiü. 
I said that when we arrived, even you should not mind more than one coin to be the lord of twelve akçes in Istanbul, and the two thousand eight hundred bagpipe oil mentioned in this chapter, as required, and never delay and commit to ships with time and time. You can't be bothered to send a courier to the mahmiye-i Istanbul.
Galata oil and Istanbul honey trap merchants had promised in advance how much and what kind of grain they would bring from the production areas, either in the presence of the kadi or by applying to the Court with a petition. Thus, what kind of grain the Kapan merchant would bring was determined in advance and a kind of specialization was provided. For example, the merchant who brought tallow and chervil oil could not bring butter and honey. In addition, it was determined from which places the snare merchants would buy grain. It was forbidden for the merchants to go to each other's quarters and make trades.
The plain, tallow and chervish oils purchased by the traders of Kapan were made possible by the celebs called "surekçi", who collected cattle and small cattle and had them slaughtered in slaughterhouses. In certain seasons, the continuators brought their flocks to certain places and cut them, and they sold the frost, chervil and ghee to the snare merchant.236
Where Did Baklava Flour Come From?
In the Ottoman Empire, wheat flour was used to make baklava. The unique needs of the Ottoman palace were met from the Southern Marmara. With the flour obtained from the wheat grown on the fertile land starting from Bursa and extending to Balıkesir, special bread was made for the consumption of high-level palace members. The group of simit makers affiliated with the kitchen in Bursa was responsible for the regular supply of wheat to the Istanbul palace. Wheat was also purchased from Balıkesir, although not regularly.238
Wheat from which flour is obtained, XV. At the end of the century, it was obtained from Bursa and the Istanbul market. XVI. In the 19th century, raw wheat was supplied almost entirely from Bursa and its surroundings, and fodula wheat239 was supplied mostly from the Balkans, Southern Marmara, Thrace and in some periods from the Southern Black Sea Region. When the portion of the raw wheat coming from the air was insufficient, it was applied to the Istanbul market. Even when the amount of fodula wheat coming from Havalat was insufficient, additional purchases were always made from the Istanbul market. Pure wheat was collected in barns in Bursa and brought to Istanbul after being ground in the mills in the city. On the other hand, fodula wheat was brought to Istanbul without grinding and was gradually ground in the mills in Istanbul.240
In the meantime, from the Byzantine period in Istanbul, XIX. Until the middle of the century, small district mills were also working, which were rotated by horse-drawn horses. However, the flour requirement of the city was mostly met with flour brought from Thrace and Anatolia and distributed in Unkapanı. Primitive horse mills peculiar to Istanbul gradually lost their function after 1870, and the last one was closed in the 1940s.
There was no tradition of water mills in Istanbul and its environs, as there were no streams strong enough to turn a mill, and small streams were connected to dams and aqueducts. The mills located on Eyüp, Galata, Üsküdar and Kadıköy Yeldeğirmeni ridges were also far from meeting the needs of densely populated Istanbul. Meanwhile, it is determined that flour is regularly shipped to Istanbul from Thrace, Wallachia, Moldavia, and Mediterranean ports by caravans or ships. At the same time, it is known that most of the flour milled in Çorlu, Lüleburgaz, Vize and Marmara-Ereğlisi mills is also sent to Istanbul. 
However, just as the people of Istanbul were grinding bulgur, baklava and pastry flour, etc., in the horse-driven mills in the city and Bilad-ı Selase, the bakers were grinding flour for bread in their own mills behind their workplaces. The Ottoman administration wanted the bakeries and the affiliated mills to work without interruption, and also tried to ensure that there would be no shortage of bread in the city by not collecting taxes from the pilgrims who brought flour and grain from outside.241
So much so that the flour shipment to Istanbul was shaped according to the need. It was allowed to bring flour to Istanbul in times when the need for grain was high, otherwise the import of flour was prohibited. Although flour is brought to Istanbul from different parts of the country, Tekirdağ is the place where the most flour comes from. Then comes Silivri. In the years when the need for grain was low, flour import was limited. The first reason for this was not to cause the mills in Istanbul to be idle, and the second was to prevent the production of flour from mixed grains. In fact, the general practice was that the transportation of flour to Istanbul was prohibited. 
Desserts and Baklava Prepared in Ottoman Cuisine
But when there was a shortage of flour and grain in Istanbul, this ban was temporarily lifted. In this period, even countless mills were being built on many piers. Since many mills and bakeries were damaged, especially after the big fires in Istanbul, the import of flour became obligatory in this case. 
So much so that, after many mills were burned in the fire in Istanbul in 1756, the state even asked Yalova to send surplus flour to Istanbul. In addition, until the burned mills were rebuilt, they were ordered to give some flour from the mills in Değirmendere and Kazıklı piers, which were allocated to the fodula ovens of the Saray-ı Hümâyûn, Dergâh-ı Âli Janissaries and Selatin mosques and Imaret-i Âmire, to Istanbul bakers.
Again in 1782, in a great fire in Istanbul, many mills and bakeries were burned, and the people were in shortage of bread. Thereupon, the Ottoman administration demanded that the flour available in the towns and villages connected to the Tekirdağ pier be sent to Istanbul immediately.
In the periods when flour import to Istanbul was prohibited, if illegal flour was shipped to Istanbul and this was detected by the state, the stones of the mills that were more than necessary in the regions where flour was imported were crushed and closed. So much so that in 1801, 14 millstones in Silivri, which sent illegal flour to Istanbul, were broken, and 10 mills in Tekirdağ and 2 mills in Büyükçekmece were closed. Again, when it was determined that smuggled flour was coming from Tekirdağ, it was requested that the grain found in the warehouses of the mills in this region be immediately sent to Istanbul.242
To summarize, the supply of wheat, flour, etc. necessary for the daily bread needs of the people living in Istanbul was one of the most important works of the state. Wheat was stored in state-owned warehouses, and the sale price was determined by the state. The flour needed by the soup kitchens, ulema, barracks and city bakeries was supplied from Unkapanı.243
XVII. In his book History of Istanbul in the Century, Kömürciyan wrote about bread, baklava, etc. It gives the following information about the supply of flour used in its production:
“Ships loaded with wheat from Kefe, Crimea, Varna, Constanta, Kili, Akkirman, İbrail, İsmail, Beştepe, Karaharman, Sünker, Kızılca, Balçık, Arnavud Galas, Tulça, Kavarna, Burgaz, Tuzla and Gelagra used to unload their cargo at the Unkapanı pier. . People's bread is baked in one hundred and ten ovens with flour made from this wheat. In addition, donuts, kata, kadayif, baklava, bagels, crispy, rusks, lavash, pebble fodula, Aleppo and Damascus pastries, pancakes, baked goods, and oily and non-oily fresh and dry bites were also made. In short, bread wheat was procured from Unkapanı, apart from the wheat of the Sultan's special bread, which was made for big mansions, old and new sultan's palaces.”244.
The famous Greek thinker Skarlatos Vizantios, who lived in Istanbul for many years, writes in his three-volume work called Konstantinupolis (1851-1867) that there are flour mills around Fethiye Mosque on both sides of the road. He states that the flour warehouses around Unkapanı send 10,000 kilos of flour to Istanbul bakeries every day to meet the daily need. Moreover, he states that bakers have to keep the flour necessary for at least one month's bread production in their warehouses.245
Every year, the state gave wood to the Janissaries to cook Baklava.
As it is known, the Ottoman Sultan made it a tradition to serve baklava to the soldiers. Naturally, many ingredients were needed to prepare thousands of trays of baklava. One of these needs was the supply of the necessary wood in the furnaces.
During the Ottoman period, the Istanbul Agha was responsible for meeting the wood needs of the palace. The novice boys used to cut wood from the forests around Istanbul under the supervision of the Istanbul Agha when needed.
Although the Novice Corps in Istanbul was attached to the Janissary aghas, the person who was the chief and responsible person, that is, the agha of the hearth, was called the aghas of Istanbul. When the janissary agha and the sekban-başı went on an expedition, he was also busy with the security of Istanbul. During this duty, he went out with his recruits from time to time, inspected the horse ships and Öküzambarı that came to Eminönü, and participated in the council meeting under the chairmanship of the Istanbul district governor. It would take place under his authority and responsibility.
The wood needed by the Palace and Matbah-ı Âmire in summer and winter was cut from the surrounding forests and brought to Istanbul by ships by tradesmen and traders, and some of these woods were purchased for a fixed price (narh). The remaining wood was also distributed to the people. Some of the soldiers employed by the Istanbul Aghas were in the old rooms, some were in the Yalı Mansion and Sepetçiler Summer Palace in the palace, and a third part was in the building in Karaköy. Those in the Topkapı Palace were employed in the transport of wood either brought by the Istanbul Aghas or bought from the merchant. The duty of those in Karaköy was to meet the ships loaded with wood in the Bosphorus, to jump into them, to bring them to Karaköy and to separate the wood necessary for the palace and the printing press.248
The Istanbul agha, who was below the sekban chief and above the zağarcıbaşı in terms of rank, was directly responsible to the janissary agha. His place in the Ağa Divan was below the sekbanbaşı. He used to sit at the table where the sekbanbaşı, zağarcıbaşı, turnacıbaşı and the imam of the hearth were present, both during the usual meal to be eaten after the meetings of the Dîvân-ı Hümâyun and at the iftar given by the grand vizier to the notables of the janissaries on the twentieth evening of Ramadan. After the abolition of the Janissary Corps, the title of the chief of Istanbul was changed to "Hatab Emini", and after a while, this officer was replaced by the Minister of Specialization.249
As stated above, in order to supply the wood needed for cooking the baklava to be distributed to the Janissaries, correspondence was made between the relevant units on a regular basis every year and permission was requested to obtain the necessary wood. Moreover, how much wood to buy was tied to a standard. 25 checks (approximately 225 kg each check) ie approximately 5,650 kg for baking baklava to be distributed by the Janissaries. wood was taken.
It is possible to see information on this subject in archive documents. For example, archival documents related to the wood demand for the years 1717,250 1736,251 1740,252 1760,253 1762,254 1764,255 1773,256 1776,257 1780,258 1789,259 1797260 and 1803261 can be given as an example.
In these documents, it is seen that it is customary to cook baklava in every Ramadan, that is, it has become a tradition, the baklava is distributed to the Janissaries and other firemen, and the wood needed for this is provided by the Istanbul Aghas. It is understood that the correspondence on the subject was also made under the control of the palace chef. The translation of the document dated 24 November 1776 is as follows:
What is baklava in Ottoman?
It is my possessions that
As it is known that twenty-five checks are given by the chief of Istanbul, Hatab, for the need for baklava, which is exported every year in Ramadan-i sheriff, with the request to be happy even this year, due to the blessedness of the state. We were ordered to be registered in the head accounting office to be given a check as much as possible, and to give a copy.
Thanks to my stateful, merciful, merciful Sultan
Every year during Ramadan, the janissary convent was given to the Matbah-ı Âmir to be treated to baklava, which was given to the slaves of the Janissary convent to be treated as ancient baklava. In order to give a copy to the landlord of Istanbul, the command ü ferman belongs to my sultan, the state and happiness.
Me too
Al-hacc Mehmed Sertabbahin-i hassa
In vech-i meşrûh ber vech-i mu'tad every year in Ramadan, this is the reason why dergâh-i âli janissaries need to prepare baklavas? Hatab is the mukayyed that it was given to mumâileyh (....) in the historical note given by the aghas of Istanbul. The edict belongs to His Lordship, the graceful sultan. Fî 1190.262
Turkish-Cuisine-Chefs-Turkish-Chef-Restaurant-Consultancy-Kitchen-ConsultancyWhere Did Baklava's Ingredients Come From?
Almond, one of the filling materials of baklava, was grown in Anatolia and some islands. The almonds grown here could not meet the country's consumption. In this period, Aleppo pistachios were too expensive for everyone to buy. Pistachio from Anatolia and Damascus was very popular in Istanbul. Meals, delicious candies and sweets were made from them.263 In addition, all kinds of nuts such as peanuts, almonds, hazelnuts and walnuts were procured from more than 100 shops located inside the Yemiş Pier.264
For example, in an archival document of 1768/1769, products such as sugar and almonds were mentioned in the Janissary baklava mortar.265
The subsistence of the Ottoman Palace was generally met from Istanbul and the provinces. The purchases made from the Istanbul market are; They were procured from markets, grocery stores, traps and producers in the immediate vicinity.266 Both highways and waterways (river and sea) were used to transport goods purchased from almost the entire Ottoman geography to Istanbul and the palace. The vehicles used in road transport varied from region to region, depending on the condition of the roads and land. 
While cars were used on the wide and cobblestone road between Edirne and Istanbul, while goods from many other regions were brought to Istanbul, horses, mules and camels were preferred. Since road transportation was costly, the Ottoman Empire was careful to supply the goods that could not be substituted from places where waterway transportation was not possible, namely, qualified goods such as musk apple from Amasya and pickled kebere from Osmancık.267
In the cookbook "Tatlıcıbaşı", which was written by Hadiye Fahriye, who grew up in the last period of the Ottoman Empire, and published in Ottoman Turkish, there is very good and detailed information about the ingredients of baklava under the title of "Drink for Dough Desserts". Namely:
“It is walnut, hazelnut, almond, pistachio, cream, meadow cheese, milk pudding to be added to baklava and pastries of this type. The name of the baklava to be made is determined according to the stuffing used. For example, walnut baklava, hazelnut baklava, almond baklava, pistachio baklava, creamy baklava.
Their dough is kneaded in the same way. The yufka is opened in the same way. The same goes for placing it on the tray. It is separated from the genus only because it is placed in the middle of the phyllo dough. Other than the creamy baklava, the yufkas are placed on the tray while they are being laid. In baklava with cream, it is added after cooking, which will be discussed later. It is not difficult to prepare the stuffing that is thought to be put in the baklava.”
Walnut Interior:
It is made by beating a sufficient amount of walnuts with a little sugar in a mortar and adding a little ground cinnamon if desired. For example, if it is desired to make baklava with twenty phyllo dough, it is sprinkled on the inner tenth phyllo and other phyllo dough is placed on top.
Whether or not the inside of the baklava is plentiful can be adjusted as desired. The amount of walnuts to be placed can vary according to the desire. However, it is sufficient to add sugar to ten dirhams of walnuts with one dirham of sugar, which is to give an additional flavor to the drink. Otherwise, it is not necessary to add sugar, as the syrup poured on the baklava is sufficient.
Hazelnut Inside:
It is more convenient to soak the hazelnut kernels in warm water for five to ten minutes and remove the thin shells. Because the thin shells of the hazelnuts are thicker than the walnuts, it may spoil the inner flavor a little. It is both easy and delicious to use the hazelnut kernels, whose thin shells have been removed by roasting. After adding two dirhams of sugar for ten dirhams, it is thoroughly crushed in a mortar, and if desired, a little crushed cinnamon is added and mixed, and then it is spread between the dough like walnuts.
Desserts and Baklava Prepared in Ottoman Cuisine
Almond Interior:
It is necessary to soak the almonds in warm water for ten minutes and remove their thin peels. Because the inner shell of the almond is thicker and harder than the nut shell. It is used by adding two dirhams of sugar and a little cinnamon for ten dirhams, and then crushing well in a mortar.
Pistachio Inside:
If there is no pistachio, the pine nut is crushed as described above with the addition of sugar and cinnamon and laid out between the phyllo dough.
Meadow Cheese Interior:
If things like fresh meadow cheese, curd cheese, curd cheese are desired to be made into baklava, enough amount is taken and two dirhams of granulated sugar is added for ten dirhams and crushed well. Sometimes, an egg is broken inside, mixed well and laid out between the phyllo sheets in the thickness of a little finger. Then, other phyllo dough is put on it, cut, cooked and sugar boiled.
Liar Creamy Interior:
Sometimes cream is not available or very expensive. When cream is not found at all, fake cream is made as the inside of baklava.
Making the fake cream, half an ounce of milk is taken and cooked in a clean bowl. After boiling for a while, a little of it is taken into a tea cup, ten dirhams of fine rice flour and two dirhams of coke are poured into it and mashed with this milk. Then, the ingredients in the cup are added slowly by mixing the milk on the fire.
Fifty dirhams of sugar are added, boiled for a while and taken from the fire. In this way, a custard with milk and sugar is made. Instead of creaming this pudding, it is necessary to spread it on the phyllo dough with the thickness of a finger, put the other phyllo on top, cut it and put it in the oven. Then, as described above, sugar is boiled and eaten.268
Baking Baklava and Catering Ceremonies
In Turkish society, baklava could be cooked in four places like other traditional oven dishes. It is the home oven, the neighborhood oven, the stoves in the houses and the tandoor.
When the baklava, which the household is waiting for, is ready to be cooked, it is given to the oven in the garden by the lady of the house. Naturally, the kiln is pre-burned with oak wood, and the baklava is brought to the most suitable temperature for cooking. The trays are placed in the oven and the lid is closed. In the meantime, the children excitedly wait at the oven for the magnificent blessing that will come out. As the lady of the house opens the lid to check it from time to time, the melted cream and the crispy fried phyllo are the harbingers of the taste that will come soon.
The excitement is more intense in neighborhood bakeries. Each of the ladies of the neighborhood dive into a deep conversation while waiting for the trays they have prepared with great dexterity to bake in the oven. These bakeries are also important gathering places in social life. Here, the troubles, illnesses and worries of the residents of the neighborhood are shared. Sweet memories such as baking baklava come to life, joy and good news are also the subject of conversation. Brides tug at their mother-in-laws, and mother-in-laws seek a suitable fortune for their single son or daughter. While all this is happening, the trays in the oven continue to brown.
According to Mary Isin, XVI and XVII. In the manuscript of the 19th century, the method of cooking on the stove is described as follows: “The tray is covered with a lid and put on the fire on a trivet, and it is shaken from time to time until the bottom is browned, then the other side is cooked by turning it”.269
Let's give an example of baking baklava in a tandoor from Evliya Çelebi :
“Ta'rif-i ni'met-i me'kulât: From the sentence, baklava is famous in Belgrade Greek and Arab u Persian, who at the feasts of sur-i azîm a thousand layers of rosemary as much as a bloody car wheel, and a bowl of pure flour dough with butter and almonds. A day is baklava, they are cooked on the ground in a tandoor. It is so big that whoever can't fit in the fur and three hundred people can't get enough of a baklava. This level is big, delicious and thick, but if you leave a penez coin on it, it will sink into the baklava. At this level, it becomes a baklava. And delicious cherries with almonds and mints and cloves and glory cannot be found in a land”.270
The serving of baklava, which we briefly mentioned about the preparation stages above, was also subject to a ceremony worthy of its taste and glory. Although we witnessed that baklava was prepared only for households from time to time, this delicious dessert was usually a treat for special days and nights.
In the Turkish-Islamic culture, which has thousands of years of experience, there are many religious and national special days and nights. Nevruz, 271 hidirellez, 272 Ramadan nights, Ramadan and sacrifice feasts, holy three months and oil lamp nights can be counted among them. Baklava takes the first place in the ceremonies held on these days and nights, as well as halva, simit, dried fruits, etc. was also served.
Among them, it is known that the conversations of the people of the neighborhood in the tradition of halva, which they make for entertainment in winter nights , are also held only among women, as well as in large gatherings attended by all the people of the neighborhood. The expenses of these conversations were borne by the organizer of the entertainment, and sometimes they were arranged in alternation, similar to the days between women.
Sometimes only flax halva or veterans' halva is served in these entertainments, sometimes sweet and salty dishes, stuffed turkey, pastries, pancakes, revani, kadaifs, baklavas, Tokaloğlu apricots with cream and almonds are eaten, sherbet and a winter drink in Istanbul. Boza was drunk.273
In addition to these halva conversations organized by the public, the halva conversations attended by the Ottoman Palace dignitaries were also very famous. For example, Sultan III. During the reign of Ahmet III, the sultan himself held halva conversations in the palace and met with the statesmen at these feasts. In these meetings, conversations were held while eating halvah served on silver trays. The most famous poets of the period were especially invited to these halva conversations, while the poets presented their most beautiful poems to the guests.
Desserts and Baklava Prepared in Ottoman Cuisine
Before the month of Ramadan, the rich and poor people of Istanbul used to prepare for iftar meals. Tableware and trays were handled and made ready for the guests. For example, during the reign of Sultan Abdülmecid, iftar tables were set in Selamlık. However, all the supplies are given from the harem, and even the iftar tray is taken out of the harem at big events. Although there were different types of iftars, the simple and beautiful ones were preferred because the lack of things was monolithic.275
Iftar meal consisted of two parts. In the first part, a kind of breakfast was eaten. There were jujube, orange, fig, rose jams, balkan cheddar, dirty lady, tongue cheese, fish roe, pastrami, sausage in small copper vessels called iftariye. After breaking the fast with zamzam or dates, iftar meals were eaten and removed from the table, and evening prayers were started. After the prayer, the main meals began. Soup was drunk first . Since the people of old Istanbul loved to drink tripe soup during Ramadan, many people would queue in front of the tripe seller with big bowls in their hands before iftar. After the soup, eggs with bacon, then a meat dish, two kinds of vegetables, rice, pastry, and finally a woman's belly or baklava, the meal was finished.
The most important dessert that ended the iftar meals in old Istanbul was gullaç with cream, which is essentially a type of baklava. Güllaç produced between Mevlanakapı and Silivrikapı were brought to Yemiş İskelesi or Asmaaltı and sold by wrapping in colored paper.
Baklava was also served to some tradesmen in Ramadan. Flattery and flatterers, which have a negative meaning today, were a tradesman's group in the period before the Tanzimat. In the archives of Topkapı Palace, a petition belonging to the reign of Mahmut the First, whose address is unknown, was found, in which the sycophants state that every year when Ramadan-i Sharif comes, they are offered various treats and even eat baklava with cream. Namely:
Stateful, gracious, merciful sir,
The orphaned sycophant is the wish of your servants: Every year when Ramadan comes, we go to iftars in Istanbul without invitation; We eat and drink various delicious meals, sherbets , various kinds of jams, chicken breasts, diamond parees , halvah, baklavas with cream, bread kadaifs, strained ashura, compotes at the tables of the ulema, the dignitary state and other elders and dignitaries; On top of it, we are served with navel tobacco and coffee. However, there are some rude people among us and our benefactors offend our masters with their behavior and attitudes that do not comply with good manners, and their harm touches all of us. 
It is obvious that our sentence will die of hunger if flattery is not connected to a solid order. We pray that Şakir Ağa, whose demeanor and actions are acceptable to all of us, will be appointed as our steward, and that a continent will be granted a license informing him that he is a civil servant. Orders and edicts belong to my gracious master, my sultan, with a state. Submissive servants.277
The secret of the Ottoman Empire's rule on four continents for centuries is the size of the state's economic, political and military power. However, there is another secret that makes the Ottoman Empire great and makes its glory known to the seven worlds, which is that every poor, orphan, widow, etc. living in the state, regardless of religion, language, gender, nationality, sect, lineage. It is to protect the rights of the orphans and to receive their blessings. For this purpose, rare foundation institutions in the world were established by the wealthy, state officials and their relatives.
Turkish-Cuisine-Chefs-Turkish-Chef-Restaurant-Consultancy-Kitchen-ConsultancyFor example, in the Imarethane, which was established by Mehmed the Conqueror, food was cooked for all the students of the madrasa, his teachers, the staff in the mosque, the hospital in the hospital, all kinds of janitors here, those staying in the hospital and the hospital, those staying in the caravanserai, and in short, everyone including the complex. Besides, anyone could eat here, regardless of poor enjoyment. Their meals were soup, meat, vegetables and rice. For dessert, burka and sour soup were served. These were sweets made of dried fruit, sugar, starch and rice. He brought out börek and baklava or other dumplings during Ramadan, festivities and oil lamps. 
Zucchini time - because it opened the mind, the student would cook zucchini with meat for forty days. The promise of zucchini taste remains from this. Instead of bread, a kind of pita called fodla, made from seedless flour, was served. In some Imarets, rice pilaf with meat (grain), zerde, zırbaç (zerva), compote, pickles, yogurt, baklava, various fruits according to the season are served on special days, Ramadan and Eid. From time to time, lamb's trotters are prepared instead of soup.278
Today, the tradition of eating baklava, especially on religious days and celebrations, is dynamically alive among our compatriots living in Bulgaria.
Baklava production starts a week in advance, especially before Eid al-Fitr. It is sent to special ovens for cooking. Bakeries are very crowded these days. In order not to interfere with the trays, signs are put on them and names are written on them.
After the Eid prayer, those who come to visit their elders, close relatives and neighbors are offered baklava. Even non-Muslim Bulgarian neighbors are served baklava. It happens that familiar Bulgarians living far away come to eat baklava on feast days.279
The order of meals for special occasions is as follows: Soup, meat with vegetables, topping, pastry, dessert (revani, milk and yoghurt dessert, woman's belly, baklava), stuffed leaf wrap with minced meat, yoghurt, and the famous Turkish Coffee.280
Desserts and Baklava Prepared in Ottoman Cuisine
The phrase, which became Turkish from the Greek word “allagion” (maiyet soldier)281, was also used in the sense of ceremony in the Ottoman Empire. Official processions held in Istanbul, the capital of the Ottoman Empire; religious, military and folkloric nature. These processions were also public ceremonies. So much so that the “greeting procession” or “alay-ı Hümâyûn” in which the sultan participated; “mocking”, which are parades; the "artisan procession", which are the demonstrations of the trades; “Alay-ı azîm”, which is the ceremonies of the expedition, are a few of them. After the conquest of Istanbul, some new ceremonies were entered into the protocol as part of the processions. These; Culus (ascension) ceremony, culus tip and applause processions.
The first great procession organized in Istanbul during the Ottoman Empire was the day after the conquest (30 May 1453) II. It is the victory procession on the occasion of Mehmed's entry to Istanbul. In the meantime, the principles and protocol of the regiments to be held in Istanbul were determined for the first time in the time of Fatih Sultan Mehmet. At the same time, the Ramadan282 and Sacrifice Feasts, which were perceived as a religious duty, were later transformed into programs that reflected the magnificence and power of the palace and the sultan.
XVI. By the turn of the century, the procession tradition gradually settled and included many other activities. This process XVII. and XVIII. continued with some innovations and changes throughout the century. The regiments, which were implemented with the participation of different cadres according to their qualifications and allowed to be watched by the people of Istanbul, were the focus of the sultan and had religious, military and political purposes.
These; The Selamlık procession, also called the Selamlık resm-i alisi, held every week on Fridays, the mawlid procession held on holy days and nights, the sultans leaving the palace once a week with the magnificent ceremonial units called "positionb-i Hümayun" and performing Friday prayers twice a year. The feast procession held on the 15th day of Ramadan, the visit to the Cardigan-i Saadet, the sword procession organized for the enthroned sultan to gird on the sword at Eyüb Sultan Tomb, the power procession held on holy days and nights, the surre procession held on the 12th day of the month of Rajab every year, the sanjak The ceremony held for the delivery of the sheriff from the palace to the grand vizier who went to war, 
It is possible to count as the ceremonies held on the way from Istanbul to Edirne or on the expedition, and on the way back from the expedition.
The official aspect of the Ottoman Empire was in second place, and there were also special ceremonies. These; The processions shown by the ambassadors, who were allowed to watch the above-mentioned processions, the "mother of the sultan" when the mother of the sultan came to the throne from the Old Palace to the New Palace (Topkapı) with a ceremony, the "device procession" applied when the sultan's daughter or sister got married and went to the groom's palace. or "bride procession", "cradle procession" when the sultan's child was born, "funeral procession" for the deceased sultan.
The third level regiments, which are less relevant to the public, are the ceremonies held for the armed and rikabdar aghas who left the palace and went abroad, with the so-called alay-ı yevm-i sâlis, where the grand vizier went to the Eyüb Sultan Mosque with a ceremony on the third day of the feast, visits to the new grand vizier, and went abroad. and the janissaries' baklava procession. These regiments were short-programmed.
An interesting aspect of the teasing was the "applause". In recent times, this tradition, which is also called “clapper”, was not applause, but prayer. A choir of applause led by a chief cook according to the type of regiment, at certain points, for example, while the sultan is getting on, dismounting, leaving the mosque, Aleyke avnullah, for the sake of ikbalin efzun, long live my sultan's state!
Mashallah, don't be proud, my sultan, there is a God greater than you!
May your cause be good, may your age be long, God Almighty, give life to our Lord. Long live your state! etc. would repeat the prayers.
These regiments attracted the attention of people from all walks of life. This interest was not unique to Ottoman citizens. Some foreign nationals in Istanbul also wanted to join and watch the processions. For example, on November 8, 1856, some foreigners requested permission to participate in the mawlid procession.
Baklava Procession
The baklava procession, which is included in the third level regiments that are less relevant to the public,286 is an event that causes the applause and reputation of the sultanate and the soldier in the eyes of the people in a pompous manner. Moreover, it is one of the parades where the people of Istanbul, who love shows and entertainment, run to watch in the middle of Ramadan. Cevdet Pasha, in his work "Tarih-i Askerî-i Osmanî", describes its emergence in the XVII century. the end of the century and even the XVIII. specifies the century.287
The holy relics of Yavuz Sultan Selim, captured during the 1516-1517 Syria-Egypt campaign, were brought to Istanbul. These were stored in the Harem Chamber for a while, then put in Hasoda. Among these, the cardigan (cardigan) that the Prophet Muhammad gifted to Ka'b bin Zuhayr was accepted as the "symbol of being the prophet's caliph" and was kept in a special drawer. It also began to be visited every year with an interior ceremony peculiar to the palace.
Special attention was paid to the visit to the Hırka-i Şerif. In the documents related to this subject, the term "custom-i mustahsene", that is, very beautiful customs, was used for this ceremony. The ceremony program was carefully prepared and implemented. For example, the petition for permission submitted for the visit of Hırka-i Şerif on April 2, 1860 (11 Ramadan 1276) and the will of the sultan were as follows:
His Excellency Atifatlu
Desserts and Baklava Prepared in Ottoman Cuisine
As it is customary, the visit to this city on the fifteenth Saturday of the Ramadan-i sharif's cardigan-i sheriff-i hazret-i risalet penahi was drawn up with a memorandum regarding the investigation of the execution of the ba-saaadet-i resm-i ali. Although the manzur-i maal-i mevfur was presented in order to be commanded by the Almighty, I left the tadkire-i senaver with the statement that if the commandment is the commandment of hadrat-i maal-i-mawfur, it will be executed in all respects, sir. 
fi 10 ramadan year 1276
Ma'rûz-ı çâker-i kemines, which is Hâm-i pirây-i honor, the memorandum and compass mentioned with these tezkire-i samiye-i Sadâretpenâhîs were commanded in the manzur-i ali hadrat-i mumukanah and I have the official ali-i As a member of the will-i-seniyye-i Cenâb-ı tacdari muktezayi, the commandment, which was commanded to be carried out with respect and honor in the five o'clock decisions in the i ta'ala yewm-i-mentioned decision, the lethal declaration warrant and the compass were again ordered to be returned to the savb-i sami-i asafhanes. fermân is hadrat-i men lehu'l command. fi 11 ramadan year 76
For this purpose, on the 12th day of Ramadan every year, the people of Hasoda, saying takbir and salat, carried the sarcophagus containing the Hırka-i Saadet to the Revan Mansion, wiped Hasoda with rose water for two days, burned incense, and polished the poles of the apartment. .289 The night before the ceremony, the sultan used sponges to wipe the sarcophagus and cabinets containing the Hırka-i Saadet. On the 14th day of Ramadan, the holy relics were brought here again.
In accordance with the notebook sent by the Şeyhülislam, biographies were written to the judges of Istanbul, the ulema, the Nakibü'l-Eşrafa and the Sheikhs of Selatin, from the pen of the letter, and these biographies were sent by the sergeants of the Divan-ı Hümâyûn.
For example, Sultan II. From the Hatt-ı Hümâyûn about the visit to the Hırka-i Şerif in 1815 during the reign of Mahmud, it is emphasized that the tradition of distributing baklava to the people of the hearth during these visits is a very old tradition. Cardigan-i Sharif, which is one of the important visits in Ramadan, was carried out according to a certain method. 
Distributing baklava to the people of the hearth was one of the important rituals of this ceremony. On the 15th day, the sultan would perform the morning prayer in the Hırka-i Saâdet chamber.292 High-ranking kadis with the rank of Şeyhulislam, Reisülküttab, Kaptan Pasha, Grand Vizier, Istanbul, Ocaklı Ağas, etc. would be invited. The guests come to Babüssaade after performing the noon prayer in the Hagia Sophia mosque. After their arrival was announced to the palace by Baltacılar Kethüdası293 and Karakulağ Bostan Ağası294, the Sultan and his entourage would come to the Hırka-i Saadet Office and the ceremony would begin. During the Hırka-i Şerif visit and during the visit, it was stated how the baklava would be served. Namely:
I have been manzûr
May Allah honor the sentence with its precedent, which is performed in the aforementioned ceremony in accordance with the certificate of attendance.
As in the reign of the Re'b-i dirin sultanate, on the fifteenth Monday of Ramadan, this city was performed by the mubeyyin, with the usual baklava distribution and the ceremony of the visit to the cardigan of the hadrat fahru'l enam. It is the exported compass.
The visit to the cardigan on the fifteenth day of the Mah-i Ramazan-i sharif, the distribution of baklava to its servants, and the fact that its i'ta is from the official dirin-i sultaniye, on the fifteenth Monday of this Mah-i Ramazan-i sheriff. and if the administration of the caliphate will result in the bestowal of baklava to his servants and servants of the hearth, the vech-i mutad semahatlu sheikh'l Islam Efendi, with the succession of his servants, and the blessed captain pasha and the sudur-ı izam and Istanbul Even though they were present in the Hagia Sophia, even though they were present in the Hagia Sophia, the Grand Vizier's servants and the servants of the Grand Vizier after the aforementioned presence and the tone of salati'z-zuhrWhen the axemen's kethüda and karakulag orchard agha servants informed that the bi'l sentence med'u was present in babu's-saade, musharun ileyha hadr-i sadr-i ali and Cenâb-ı fatva penahi immediately act ve bi'l maiyye palace-ı valayi When it is commanded that they will allow the visit of the cardigan-i bliss in the event of azimet and license-i seniyye-i sultan, in any case, it is edict men lehü'l command.
Again, nine years later, a similar ceremony was held in 1824. Here, too, it was stated that he would come to the Hagia Sophia Mosque with the Grand Vizier's entourage, perform the noon prayer, and then go to the palace. Namely:
In accordance with the origin compass from this ceremony, the rusum-ı mu'tade shall be performed in the aforementioned yevm-i mu'tade.
This is the compass for which baklava is exported to its servants, upon a visit to the cardigan, on the fifteenth Tuesday of this Ramadan-i sharif, in accordance with the re'bi dirin-i sultanate-i-seniyyah i men lehu'l is your command.
On the fifteenth day of Ramadan, with his visit to the cardigan-i sharif, the honor of baklava to his servants is from the custom of the kadime-i sultanate-i saniyyah, so the Prophet ta'ala did not honor this mah-i muğafferet-i engagement even on the fifteenth Tuesday of the aforementioned official day. If the will of Hazrat-i Cihandari is responsible for its execution, the ber vech-i mutad semahatlu sheikh al-islam lord Reisü'l-Küttab Efendi is the governor of the Bosphorus and Hudavendigar and Kocaili sanjaks, the governor of the Bosphorus, the Bosphorus Guard, and the water. and Mevali-i Feham Efendis, who presented the rank of Istanbul, and Mehmet Pasha from Mir-i Miran, and the Treasurer of Şükk-ı First, and Şekağık Efendi and Ocaklar Ağavatı servants, were invited with the accompanying publication and recited the sentence with the state grand vizier team even though they were present in the Hagia Sophia. mosque-i şerif-i mezkûrehonor and salat-i zuhr ba'del eda axemen's kethüda and black ear orchard notification, act immediately and visit Enderun-ı Hümâyûn-ı shahâhane with the appearance of zeal and license-i seniyye-i hazret-i şahinşahi. When the mahat-i ilm-i alis is commanded, the emru edict belongs to hadrat-i veliyyü'l amr ve'l ihsan.296
After the sultan, his entourage and other invited guests came to the Hırka-i Saâdet297 Office, silver-gilt chests were opened with a golden key. The strips of the bundles embroidered with solid thread and pearls on seven layers of silk velvet were untied. After that, the second enclosure was opened with the golden key next to the sultan. In the meantime, gunsmiths, çuhadar, rikabdar, dülbendar aghas, key and peşgir aghas, hasoda people, palace imams were also present. At the opening of the Hırka-i Saadet sarcophagus, the well-voiced muezzins and sergeants would recite the Qur'an and provide a special spiritual pleasure to the visitors.
After the Hırka-i Saadet sarcophagus was opened, the “burde-i bliss” in it was taken out. First, a new or collar button of the burden (cardigan) was symbolically washed by the sultan in a golden bowl with zamzam and dried with amber fire. After that, it was placed on an embroidered pillow and those in the protocol were taken inside. After 1825, the custom of soaking a part of the cardigan and putting the cardigan on the face was abandoned. 
Desserts and Baklava Prepared in Ottoman Cuisine
The cardigan is not made with a face-up pole, but prepared beforehand and on it, which belongs to Sayyid Şeyhülislam Arif Hikmet Bey, “The Cardigan-i hadrat-i Fahr-i resüle/Atlas-ı çerh cannot be a share endâz/By applying a face to its zeyline/Kil chiefî'-i Ümeme supply-i niyâz.”300 The cheesecloths on which the couplets were written were made by covering the cardigan with the cardigan.301 Thus, further battering of the cardigan was prevented. Kissed cheesecloths were also distributed to the visitors to commemorate the day. 302 
On the day of the visit, after the state protocol left the palace, the people of the harem would visit the Hırka-i Saadet under the leadership of the Valide Sultan. The sultan would also supervise this visit. The sultan himself would lock the sarcophagus when the ceremony was over. 303
After this ceremony, which has a religious side; Baklava trays, which were prepared in the palace kitchens and prepared for every ten soldiers of the Kapıkulu furnaces such as janissaries, sipahi, artillery and cebeci, were lined up in the portico in front of Matbah-ı Âmire, wrapped in their futa. Karakullukists carrying trays in baklava regiments do not wrap themselves around their waists.
They would wrap a pusi belt over it.305
first tray; After being handed over to Silahdar Ağa and his entourage on behalf of the sultan, the number one janissary, by Paludecibaşı,306 two soldiers from each center would come and pass the baklava trays of their own divisions to the green painted poles from the knot of their futa. After all the soldiers took their baklava, the signal was pointed out, the Middle Gate was opened, and the baklava trays on green poles were brought out. There, each division's (middle) master, goldsmith, trustee, chamberlain, and flag-bearer would fall in front of the division, and baklava makers would come from behind and go to their barracks with a loud and festive procession among the people lined up on both sides of the street along Divanyolu, shouting cries of applause. This ceremony was called the baklava procession. Empty trays and futas were returned the next day.
This practice was first started during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, by giving a feast to the army, which returned victorious from the wars, with dishes such as rice, zerde and stew. Later, these feasts, which were given to encourage the soldiers to gas, continued during the time of the other sultans. Thus, on the fifteenth day of Ramadan, it became customary to offer a tray of baklava to every ten soldiers in Istanbul.
In the Ottoman Empire, Baklava Processions were traditionally held on the fifteenth of Ramadan every year. However, as can be understood from the text below, the day of the baklava procession could change in exceptional cases. In the document dated September 20, 1789, due to the fact that the payrolls did not arrive before Ramadan, the payment of salaries was delayed and the payment of salaries coincided with Ramadan. It was requested to withdraw a week before the payment was due, since Tuesday was also a Sunday. However, since there would be a visit to the Cardigan-i Şerif and a baklava procession on this date, it was demanded that the visit of the cardigan and the baklava procession be delayed one day and the salaries paid on Tuesday. Namely:
District Governor Pasha
Monday Cardigan-i sharif visit and yevm-i Tuesday ulûfe
My majestic benefactor, my lord,
While the conciseness of a caste-i mawâjib from the army was being progressed, the ijmalat that was mentioned was recorded on the sides of the hearths. -i ber caste presents a thousand four hundred and two rumi purse, and most of them were collected, but it is known that the amount of it was given to the galleons who made concessions from this, muma-ileyh his servants, by presenting a continent to the atabe-i ulâlyâ was done.
Here, four hundred rumi purse akçe, which has been given concessions to the akdem ba irâde-i aliye galleons, is available from these coins. Upon request, it was stated in the mint that that the amount of money could not be fully recovered from the mint, and that fifty thousand kurus would be given in any case, even three hundred purse of coins were appointed by the appointment of some zimamat rulers. With due care, the zimemat-i mezkûre is collected, and the mevâcib-i mezkûre coin is replenished.
Since the salifü'z-zikr icmals do not precede Ramadan, it is necessary to be exported on a Tuesday before the aforementioned Tuesday, as this next Tuesday is Sunday. It is Tuesday, the fifth of which is Tuesday, and since the cardigan-i sheriff visit and baklava export pictures will be carried out in accordance with the kaide-i dirine-i sultanate-i seniyye, the export of the cardigan will be an official day on a Monday. Even if it is performed, we have been informed that it would be possible to perform the mawâcib export Divan-ı Hümâyûn rusûm-ı even on Tuesday, and in this respect, both a visit to the cardigan and the export of the cardigan would be performed within two days. If the will-i-seniyyes are commanded accordingly, emru edictIt belongs to His Excellency, my majestic, gracious, mighty benefactor, my sultan.”309
The baklava procession, which was a small part of the donations and donations of the Ottoman Empire, which ruled for six hundred years with justice and benevolence and worked for the salvation and welfare of humanity, continued until the abolition of the Janissaries. It was made a month and a half before the quarry was removed. A story is told about that day. Namely:
Desserts and Baklava Prepared in Ottoman Cuisine
“An old man, holding the hand of his seven-eight-year-old son, came to the palace square to make a procession. A few of the Janissaries: "Savul man, don't stay on the road!" they pulled him by the collar and slapped him. The old man had extraordinary power: "He wanted this child so I brought him, who would want to leave the mosque on such a blessed day and see these makruh abominations deserving of Allah's wrath, I wish you to remove this people from the face of the world with their team, and do not bring up the next Ramadan to a sheriff!" he cursed”. 311
Here, the baklava procession, one of the original ceremonies of old Istanbul life, has recently become a buzz. Janissary officers and their aces did not return the sin and futas by pushing the audience. The fact that the baklava was so delicious that we even ate the pans and futas” was written by some writers of the period, especially when the Kapıkulu furnaces were abolished. 313
Sultan III. A Thousand Trays of Baklava Was Distributed During the Selim Period
“Why is baklava served instead of another food in the baklava treat from the palace to the soldiers?” The question naturally comes to mind. The answer to this question is related to our tradition of sharing our joy by offering sweets to our friends when we are happy, which has been going on for thousands of years in Turkish-Islamic culture and is still alive today. The proverb "let's eat sweet, talk sweetly" in our beautiful Turkish was said to explain this issue. The Ottoman Sultan, on the one hand, kept the relationship of the soldier with the government warm by offering baklava, and on the other hand, he laid the groundwork for a sweet friendship between the soldiers.
In the document given below, the amount of baklava, which became a custom to be distributed from Enderun to various quarries on the fifteenth of Ramadan, was quite remarkable. Each hearth was given a different number of baklava trays according to the number of soldiers. Sultan III. During the reign of Selim, in 1793, a request was made to increase the number of baklava trays from some ovens and this demand was accepted. As a result, on the same date, 602 were sent to the Janissaries, 40 to the Cebehane, 20 to the Tophane, 5 to Ser-Acemyan, 15 to Arabahane, 20 to the Mehterhane, 100 to other state dignitaries in Enderun, and to some other Hearths. A total of 1,000 trays of baklava, including 198 trays, were distributed. 
When these figures are carefully considered, it can be seen that; In the social life of that day, there is a technical infrastructure that can serve a thousand trays of baklava at once. Aside from the personnel employed and the materials used, the number of bakeries that can offer a thousand trays of baklava on the same day, under the conditions of that day, is worthy of attention. Today, even with all kinds of technical possibilities, it is argued that a middle-class province in Anatolia has the infrastructure to produce a thousand trays of baklava on the same day. Another remarkable point is that the number of soldiers employed in the center of Istanbul alone is around ten to fifteen thousand. The transcript of the relevant documents is as follows:
On the fifteenth day of Ramadan, when it was ordered to baklava from Enderun-ı Hümâyûn to the ovens, twenty trays of baklava were brought to the tophane-i âmire furnace, the chief of the artillery, Mesmu Çakeri, who was one of his servants, but because of the fact that it was by the armory society, twenty trays of baklava were given from the ancients. If even thirty trays pays forty-fifty trays with an increase in price, according to him, the number of the tray belongs to the blessed sultan of the state with the order to inform the armory, so that they can take the aforementioned death.
Saâdetlü matbah-i âmire emini agha
Thirty trays of baklava, which was customarily given to the stoves from the past, with an increase of thirty trays. If the escapist tray for the sum is checked and its addition is in vain.
Ma'ruz-i is my own
Based on his faithful orders, baklava, which was commanded in the ber mu'tad ramadan-ı şerif, was expelled from the chief cook's clerk master servants' ceride, and as it was verified, the janissary dervish lodge six hundred and two trays and The cebehane forty, the armory twenty, the seracemyana five, the carhouse fifteen, and the mehterhane twenty Rickal-i Devlet-i Aliye enderun-ı Hümâyûn, one hundred trays to the retail stoves, and other badafter one hundred and ninety-eight trays of muctem thousand trays and the favor of those who are known to have been given the order. No matter what commandments are commanded, in any case, the edict belongs to my gracious, gracious Sultan.
The number of trays for baklava, which is customary in Ramadan, was expelled from the chief cook's agha clerk, and as he investigated, six hundred and two to the janissary corps, forty to the cebehane corps, twenty to the armory corps, five to the military recruits, fifteen to the mehterhane, twenty to the mehterhane, and twenty to the mehterhane. and Enderun-ı Hümâyûn, one hundred and other retail furnaces, one hundred and ninety-eight trays of cem'an one thousand trays of baklava and i'lamdir that it is distributed, and the tabhane-i âmire in accordance with its vech-i mücerred Thirty trays of raising and six trays of food curry on the twenty trays delivered to the hearth were recorded in the chief cook's clerk's book and certified to the tabhane-i Âmire stove, addressing emin-i muma. it belongs to my sultan.
Its cost is recorded in the noodle pen, and the tezkire is minted every year.316
The original text, which is accepted as a source, is as follows. Google translation was used for the necessary language change.
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