• Industrial Kitchen Planning
  • Industrial Kitchen Planning

Hotel and restaurant kitchen managers, a hotel manager who worked as a kitchen manager, kitchen coordinators and their assistants, as well as industrial kitchen project managers took part in the focus group discussions. Each focus group interview carried out affected the con...

Factors Influencing the Planning of Industrial Kitchens
* Adem ARMAN
** Hatice Ferhan NİZAMLIOĞLU 
In this research, the determination and role of criteria with limiting features in order to reveal the joint stakeholder planning and design process among the planning cluster actors aiming to create a functional industrial kitchen design are examined. In this context, in the research, the ideas of other actors involved in the planning process, especially industrial kitchen managers, were discussed together; It is aimed to examine  a more utilitarian and collaborative kitchen planning process.
Within the scope of the research, 3 focus group interviews were conducted with 22 participants. While the 1st and 3rd focus group discussions were held in Antalya, the 2nd focus group discussion was held in Istanbul. Hotel and restaurant kitchen managers, a hotel manager who worked as a kitchen manager, kitchen coordinators and their assistants, as well as industrial kitchen project managers took part in the focus group discussions. Each focus group interview carried out affected the content of the next focus group interview and divided the research into sub-layers. According to the results of the research, kitchen managers are not included in the planning processes of industrial kitchens. 
In Gastronomy Food and beverage businesses are forced to work in kitchens that are planned to be the same, even if they meet customer needs in different concepts ( What is Restaurant Concept ). Thus, kitchen managers, who cannot be involved in the project design process of commercial kitchens, go to redesign and planning in the service production process in order to have an effective production management and to dominate every stage of food production. The study is concluded with recommendations for practitioners and future research.
Mankind wanted to process many edible substances in nature to meet their nutritional needs, and this was one of the primary reasons that kept them in physical contact with the area where they were hunted. In this way, people who know their environment have started to use their creativity by noticing their expectations and needs. The physical space that he used to meet this real need caused it to evolve into a cultural phenomenon at a broad semantic level that deals with each person's relatives and living conditions in the following periods (Bozdayı, 2004; Curahoğlu, 2000; Mennel, Murcott, Otterloo & Sage, 1992). ; Yalçın, 2013).
The phenomenon of keeping the urge to consume and want new ones alive by creating new needs in the globalizing world has revealed the problem of keeping the production and consumption wheel working and meeting the demand for continuous consumption at a certain quality. Today, consumers' focus on taste and pleasure in the food consumption process and instantaneously following the innovations in the sector have pushed practitioners to search for new ones. 
These pursuits require, above all, a well-structured technical infrastructure and capacity, a high level of communication network, as well as advanced technologies including the necessary management and coordination systems ( Kitchen Management and Restaurant Management ). Industrial kitchens with existing technologies have their own units, sub-systems and fields of activity. 
Thus, the importance of organizing mass food service enterprises in terms of industrial kitchens within a certain planning is increasing day by day. As a matter of fact, while the planning of industrial kitchens refers to a long-term process, the design process, which includes the most suitable spatial equipment of the areas to be shaped by planning decisions, is making progress by following the planning process. The planning and design process increases the importance of interdisciplinary cooperation for planning with multidimensional approaches. Therefore, planning and design are physical planning processes that follow each other and require people from different disciplines, and these two phenomena should be handled separately (Korkut & Topal, 2015).
Literature Review
It can be stated that kitchens operating in out-of-home food production have emerged in order to adapt to the ever-changing social eating habits, to produce short-term and collective meals at certain standards without tiring their employees. Kitchens, which develop within themselves according to changing consumption behaviors, are called "Professional Kitchens, Commercial Kitchens and Industrial Kitchens" by taking the current developments in Kitchen Units to different dimensions over time, including ventilation technologies, convectional and thermal cooking equipment as well as technologies that define each other ( Kitchen Consultancy ). started to be mentioned. ( Gastronomy Consultancy )Schwarz, Lemme, Neumann and Wagner (2013) considered kitchens used in mass food production as “professional kitchens” and defined these kitchens as professional production facilities that perform fabricated food production based on a certain time. 
The main phenomenon that defines the professional kitchen; Since that kitchen changes according to whom, what and how it serves, the features used in this definition can be examined as the whole of the functions of the kitchen. Professional kitchens can be a residential kitchen due to the functional production areas it contains or its purpose, as well as areas where commercial enterprises produce food. For this reason, the first thing to be done in order to define the food production areas and therefore the kitchens of all mass food service enterprises is to explain the structure and job descriptions of the existing kitchens. 
In this context (Kitchen Consultancy), professional kitchens can be either a residential kitchen or smaller than this kitchen. In addition, these kitchens can be called professional kitchens due to the functional production compartments or the purpose they contain.
Another notable concept in the literature is commercial kitchens. It is possible to define these kitchens as all mass food service providers that continue their activities with economic concerns. The most important element in commercial kitchens, which represent the structure created to meet the ever-changing expectations of people, is customer demands and expectations.
Again in the literature, industrial kitchens, which can be separated from each other according to their types and tubes, regardless of whether they have commercial concerns; It can be defined as kitchens that plan the ventilation, sanitary area and energy systems related to the transportation, storage, cooking, service and waste processes from the entry of the raw material into the kitchen in accordance with mass food production. 
The tools and equipment used in these kitchens are also called “industrial tools and equipment”.
In the literature, studies on industrial kitchen design and planning, especially on designs to increase performance in the planning process (Asensio & Ubach, 2003; Beazley, 1999; Conran, 2005; Edic & Edic, 1999; Goldbeck, 1994; Grandjean, 1973; Jankowski, 2001; Lovett, 2006; Panero & Zelnik, 1979; Parrott, Beamish, Emmel & Lee, 2008; Rand & Perchuk, 1991; Salvendy, 1997; Stroozas, 2012) and studies on designs to increase production performance (Edic & Edic, 1999) ; Goldbeck, 1994; Hrovatin, Prekrat, Oblak, & Raynik, 2015; Indrojarwo, Nurmianto & Zulaikha, 2008; Kishtwaria, Mathur & Rana, 2007; Maguire, et al., 2014; McLellan, 2003) appears to be focused.
Studies focusing on the planning and design process in industrial kitchens; (i) physical planning criteria are discussed (Heiser, Windhauser & Loharikar, 1999; Howard, 2004; Katsigris & Thomas, 2009; Kern, Griner & Shin 2015; Lawson, 1994; Ninemeiler, 1998; Schwarz, et al., 2013; Stipanuk & Harold, 1992), (ii) the planning process in restaurant kitchens (Dereker & Peshave, 2016) ( Restaurant Consulting) and (iii) the compatibility of the equipment measures in the design process with the employees (Kotschevar & Terrell 1977).
When the related literature is examined, it is seen that different variables can be considered in the planning and design process of industrial kitchens in recent years. In this context, (i) kitchen workers(Stroozas, 2012), (ii) planning for the organizational structure in the kitchen (Konkol, 2013), (iii) the management and production process in kitchens can be taken as the basis (Rimmington, Smith & Hawkins, 2006; Rodgers, 2011; Taskinen). , Tuikenen, PerttiHarju & Deidre, 2007). In addition to these, Ghiselli, Almanza, and Ozaki (2006) state that the main criterion in industrial kitchen planning and design is kitchen size and type of operation, while Olsen and Aaslyng (2007) emphasize that models that support the process of transforming consumer needs into products should be developed during the design process. Similarly, Piotrowski (2016), 
Contrary to these studies, in the literature, it is seen that there is not enough information about the criteria that the kitchen design guides and guides published by the enterprises are prepared by considering the criteria, but it is seen that the studies that deal with the functional kitchen criteria are not at a sufficient level. In this context, in some studies (Dereker & Peshave 2016; Doğdubay & Karan, 2017), the scarcity of studies containing opinions and suggestions that can increase the functionality related to the design and planning of commercial industrial kitchens draws attention. In addition, studies for industrial kitchens (i) electricity consumption (Muide, Essah, Grandison & Felgate, 2016; Newborough, 1987), (ii) food safety and hygiene (Addo, Mensah, Bonsu & Akyehp 2007; Annor & Baiden, 2011) ; Darko, 2015),
Factors Influencing the Planning of Industrial Kitchens
Since stages such as renovation in industrial kitchens, correction and rebuilding in Kitchen Organization are among the concrete issues of planning, these reference points in planning are taken into account during the design process ( Restaurant Concept Design ). While planning is a process that involves associating food production with economic and technical possibilities, designing means making the necessary systems functional in order to ensure the sustainability of food production by facilitating the work of employees. In this context, kitchen design refers to a process that should be operated on the basis of planning criteria. For this reason, the factors to be taken into account while planning the kitchen are Aktaş and Özdemir (2012), the amount of food to be produced, the menu, ( Menu Consultancy).While expressing the service method as the budget of the business, Katsigris and Thomas (2009) emphasize the importance of the kitchen location in addition to this view. 
In similar studies, NFSMI (2002) draws attention to customer profile and service method, while Dareker and Peshave (2016) focus on menu flexibility and energy resources, Payne-Palacio and Theis (2016), environmental factors, employees, equipment placement and competition conditions, Campbell and Foskett (2012), official obligations, workflow, hygiene, purchasing and storage conditions, Öztaş and Uçan (2009), Türkan (2003) and Sarıışık et al. (2010) states that attention should be paid to storage facilities, operation area, land conditions, and operation concept. ( How to Open a Restaurant )
In addition to these, providing the highest benefit according to the size of the area (Küçükaslan, 2011), avoiding unnecessary details and redundancies in planning (Sarıışık, Çavuş & Karamustafa, 2010), seeing time as a resource like money in the planning process (Mignanelli, 2004) and planning Attention has also been drawn to managing the process in a way that will increase productivity and reduce the total cost (Sha & Chen, 2001). When these points are brought together, they form the process, and this process should include the work towards realizing the main purpose of the kitchen. In Installations ( How to install Restaurant Kitchen)The organization of the departments should be planned in a way that ensures a coordinated and continuous production flow in the process from receiving the products to the presentation. In this context, the positions of the functional sections involved in food production in the workflow can be created as follows (Figure 1):
Figure 1. Work Flow Chart in Industrial Kitchens
Work Flow Chart in Industrial Kitchens
The most important point in the planning of industrial kitchens is to ensure that the groups specified in the work flow chart (Fig.1) are connected with each other in a coordinated manner. Accordingly, planning a settlement that is as short as possible, straight, without intersections and turns with each other, directly affects the food production process. Because there are many departments in food service businesses that have to work in coordination with each other. Industrial kitchens have different service departments (My Service Areas )) has a rather complex structure in its integrated state. This complex structure makes it impossible to eliminate some intersections in the workflow process. As seen in the figure above, it is not possible to eliminate some intersecting flows such as the waste and cleaning line. Hotel business kitchens and restaurant kitchens are examples of this situation.
Before the initial planning is made in the food service facilities, the general functions of the "industrial kitchens" and the duties and characters of the sub-units related to these functions should be clearly defined. As a matter of fact, these units represent the process from the purchase of the raw material to the after-service. Below are the questions that need to be answered before starting the planning process of industrial kitchens:
* What is the type of food and beverage business that will serve? (E.g. city restaurant, hotel business, etc.)
* What is the content of the food production service to be offered? (Ex. Artisan restaurant, fast food restaurant, local restaurant or patisserie etc.)
* How many people and which age groups are planned to be served?
* What kind of energy source is planned to be used? The area occupied by the business is suitable for resources
Is the infrastructure available? (Ex: Is the electrical load allocated to the business in shopping centers sufficient?)
* What is the service format like? (E.g. Self service, buffet service, takeaway etc.)
* How is the price level? (Ex. High, medium, low)
* What are the opening - closing hours? (Ex.11:00-22:00, 11:00-24:00 etc.)
* What is the estimated number of customers in the short and long term that will be served food in the business?
* In which kitchen type will food production be carried out? (Ex. Service kitchen, open kitchen etc.)
* What is the planned kitchen production organization? (Will all production be done in a single kitchen or in multiple kitchens divided into lots)
* What is the production volume of the planned raw material?
Considering the above criteria, each part of the industrial kitchen should be planned separately and the need for industrial kitchen space should be determined according to the working conditions of the equipment to be used in production, the production methods and the number of personnel to be employed. On the other hand, some problems may be encountered in the planning process of industrial kitchens. Some of these problems are mentioned below (Raleigh & Roginsky 2012; Türksoy, 1997):
* High rate of increase in prices of the materials used,
* High turnover rate in warehouses,
* Diversity in customer profile,
* Existence of different service methods,
* The shelf life of finished food and beverages is short and their storage is generally difficult.
To the problems discussed above, the measures planned to be taken against the epidemics experienced recently can be added. Because the real trend in kitchen planning today is to design kitchens that take up as little space as possible but are as functional as possible. For this purpose, it is possible to allocate more space to customers within the framework of social distance rules. In addition to this situation, the limited budgets at hand and the desire to return the investment in a very short time pushes the investors to plan utilitarian and open kitchens that are relatively small and will make the customers feel safe by constantly monitoring the staff. However, making kitchen plans both increases the costs and covers a difficult process due to the above reasons. Because the kitchen
Purpose and Method
The main purpose of this study is to reveal a joint-stakeholder planning and design process among the actors of the planning cluster in order to provide a functional planning infrastructure in industrial kitchens, based on the basic components of industrial kitchen design. In the research, the determination and role of the criteria with limiting features for the planning of industrial kitchens are examined. In this context, the aim is to reveal the necessity of a more utilitarian and jointly participatory kitchen planning process in which the ideas of the actors who will be affected by the planning process are discussed together with the focus group method, based on the common benefit of knowledge and experience in the industrial kitchen planning process.
The reason why focus group interview technique, one of the qualitative research methods, was preferred in this study; In focus group discussions, it is possible to define the problem clearly, to examine approaches to its solution, to gather necessary information to produce alternative action plans, to form hypotheses for use in quantitative methods, and to provide interpretation of the results obtained from previous studies (Malhotra, 2007). In this context, 3 focus group meetings were held with 22 participants in total. The 1st and 3rd focus group discussions were held in Antalya, while the 2nd focus group discussions were held in Istanbul. The data were recorded in writing through the assistant interviewer. Each interview lasted between 80-95 minutes. 
In the interviews based on questions and answers, five questions were asked from general to specific. Care was taken to ensure that the questions were suitable for conversation and daily usage style. In order to understand the questions, a pre-test was conducted with a group of four people. Participants were made to sit in a U shape and a pen and paper were placed on the tables. In the introduction part, the purpose of the research was explained, and the interviews were started with the participants briefly introducing themselves. Hotel and restaurant kitchen managers, a hotel manager who worked as a kitchen manager, kitchen coordinators and their assistants, as well as industrial kitchen project managers took part in the focus group discussions. Each focus group discussion carried out influenced the content of the next focus group discussion and divided it into layers within itself.
Considering the basic planning processes suggested in the literature, the following stages were followed in the focus group discussion conducted in this study:
a. Preparation of research questions
b. Planning groups for focus group discussions c. Planning focus group discussions
D. Conducting focus group discussions
to. Summarizing the findings
The questions asked about the issues discussed during the focus group interviews were listed by taking into account the opinions of the participants, their approaches to current issues, their attitudes and behaviors. Accordingly, the responses of the participants, instant answers and examples along with the audio recordings in the obtained data were recorded by the reporter and were taken into account in the questions prepared in the next focus group interviews.
The sample of the study was determined by the maximum diversity sampling method. 
In this study, the way of choosing the participants in accordance with the purpose of the study was chosen. In the relevant literature, it is stated that homogeneous groups should be formed at the beginning of the points to be considered while determining the focus group participants (Morgan, 1997). At this point, it is possible to define in detail the perspectives of each participant, including the sample, and to identify common themes that may arise. The findings and results that can be obtained as a result of such a research will be more beneficial in terms of content compared to the results obtained by other methods (Patton, 1987). 
In the light of the information above, an effort was made to include the different perspectives of the participants in the planning process of industrial kitchens, who contributed to the research. As a matter of fact, in focus group discussions, it is stated that it will be advantageous to bring together actors from various fields of expertise in order to maximize the discovery of different ideas and suggestions in the group environment (Kitzinger, 1996).
Considering the questions prepared in this study and the number of participants, it was aimed to allow approximately 3 minutes for each participant to answer each question in order to provide data suitable for the purpose of the study. In focus group interviews, it is stated that audio and video recordings of the interviews should be made (Malhotra & Birks, 2007) in order to evaluate, classify and re-examine the data after the interview is completed. Considering the planned duration of the interview, the necessary arrangements for the video recordings were completed.
When the interviews conducted within the scope of the research are evaluated in general, "changing kitchen planning elements" is among the issues that are constantly emphasized. In this context, it is necessary to take into account the experiences of kitchen managers in order to dynamically follow the changing kitchen planning factors every day. Participants stated that the architectural and engineering programs used in industrial kitchen planning are insufficient in kitchen planning. 
These programs cannot measure the changing customer demands, developing equipment technology, differentiated service styles, "fashions" in food demand, and the "fashion equipment" and "trends" needed in parallel with these fashions, and that these processes cannot measure the change in the processing of raw materials, and that these processes are now used in kitchen planning. They stated that they identified the factors that need to be taken into account. During the three different focus group meetings, the participant groups expressed their opinions that kitchen managers rarely take part in the design stages of industrial kitchens and that the necessary importance is not given to industrial kitchens in this process, regardless of the comments of other groups. 
The participants stated that the layers arising from the sections formed by the production structure in an industrial kitchen, whose project was completed and whose construction was completed, negatively affect the production process. Accordingly, it has been stated that the kitchens planned on stereotyped rules are far from meeting many of today's food production functions. The most important issue that attracted attention during the interviews was that the participant groups constantly included the subject of "complex array formed by the sections in the industrial kitchens". 
According to the statements of the participants, the sections in the production kitchens form the layers of the kitchen. While the warehouses connected to these sections are located in a lower layer, the other units (fruit and vegetable washing, chocolate room, fermentation room, etc.) connected to the warehouses form different layers. Participants stated that in order for these layers to work in harmony with each other, many factors such as crossing routes, boundary walls, overlapping points and walking distances should be revised in accordance with the characteristics of the enterprise.
The codes for the participants who contributed to the research are shown in Table 1: Table 1. The codes for the participants who contributed to the research
Codings of Participants Contributing to the Research (Continued)
Table 1 . Codings of Participants Contributing to the Research (Continued)
Codings of Participants Contributing to the Research (Continued)
As the first theme, the opinions of the participants on the project design process of industrial kitchens were asked and the positive and negative aspects of this process were tried to be examined. The most important of the answers given were:
According to the participants, "distance from receiving goods to the central kitchen (A1)" is an important problem among the points to be considered in kitchen planning and arrangement. Accordingly, the current situation causes loss of time and more personnel work, especially for employees. Participants also stated that "the distance between the hot kitchen and patisserie sections will bring benefits in terms of the functioning of these two main sections (A3)".
According to the participants, among the questions to be answered in the industrial kitchen sequence and planning stage in their enterprises, "the location of the enterprise and the size of the operation and what the future development plans are (A4)" are the first questions to be answered. Accordingly, enterprises should design the production process by foreseeing both current and future services at the project stage. After that, "concept selection of the enterprise" is among the important questions. 
Issues such as "Service types such as fine dining or fast food, what time interval the establishment will serve (A2)" should also be answered. After these questions, the determination of the kitchen areas in the general location of the enterprise and the placement of the sections accordingly should be planned. While it was stated that "there is a gap between the production process targeted according to the current budget (A1)" is among the questions that need to be answered, it was emphasized that the question of "whether the feasibility studies developed in line with the production program were prepared in detail (A5)" is also among the questions that need to be answered.
Participants were asked to indicate the points to be considered about the feasibility process, which has an important place in the kitchen planning of hotel businesses. Accordingly, the participants stated that “planning the kitchen considering hygiene, working environment and efficiency is important in the feasibility process in the kitchen planning feasibility process (A4)”. In addition, it was stated that "the degree of processing of the raw material that will enter the kitchen directly affects the kitchen plan, there is a need for mutual exchange of ideas at the decision stage in this process, and a road map should be drawn by taking into account the estimated costs" (A2).
Among the feasibility issues that attracted the most attention by the participants regarding the feasibility stages in the industrial kitchen planning process, “material and equipment specifications should be prepared with a certain knowledge and experience, and besides receiving offers from more than one company, the requested products should be examined thoroughly because their appearance is similar to each other (B2). ” is highlighted. In addition to all these, the participants, who emphasized the "location, type and business concept of the kitchen (B4)", "type of service according to the business concept, personnel and purchasing strategies, ( Restaurant Menu )".) stated that the number of people to eat and the number of guests (B6)” were determined. One of the striking points in the feasibility process is the necessity of knowing the kitchen equipment well by the kitchen manager. Participants also stated that the sections in the kitchen should be placed in a way that facilitates cooperation between departments.
Participants were asked to examine the kitchen planning process in hotel businesses according to the processing levels of the products entering the kitchen. Accordingly, the participants stated that “processed foods included in production affect not only the planning process of industrial kitchens, but also the service production and the level of satisfaction depending on this production (B4)”. Accordingly, it was emphasized that the preparation section, which had a very important place in the industrial kitchen planning process, started to lose its former importance, and it was stated by the participants that it caused significant changes in the storage and cooking areas. The effect of processed products on the production process within the scope of the interview is another factor noted by the participants.
Participants were asked to define the topics that need the most attention regarding technical and detail applications in industrial kitchens. In this context, the participants in industrial kitchens "dishwashing room (B2)", "storage and garbage rooms (B4)" along with spatial areas such as "energy (B4)", "clean and waste water (B5)", "lighting (B1)", They stated that topics such as "ventilation (B1)", "exhaust systems (B1)", "cooling (B4)", "floor and wall properties (B5)" can be interpreted technically.
“What are the limiting factors for personnel in the working environments of industrial kitchens?” When the answers they gave to the question were examined, the participants stated that "it takes time for the personnel they work with to keep up with the technological developments, whereas the new generation is much more familiar with the technological developments (C1)". Participants also stated that the heat caused by the equipment and the ergonomically inadequate level of the equipment negatively affect the working conditions. They also stated in their opinion that "tools and equipment purchased from companies that are not competent in their field also lose their function in a short time and this affects their performance (C3)".
It was observed that the participants focused on the topics that were thought to be included in the material and equipment specifications, and they were asked to examine this issue in depth. In this context, the participants mentioned the quality of the installation materials, the characteristics of the equipment to be used in the kitchen and the importance of electricity-gas connections (C2). Participants also stated that “kitchen managers should be prepared for such expenses, taking into account the way the materials in the kitchen are manufactured and the external costs incurred in this process (C7)”.
“What is the perspective of kitchen managers on the technological developments in the planning and equipment of industrial kitchens?” When their answers to the question were examined, they stated that "it takes time for the personnel they work with to keep up with technological developments, whereas the new generation is much more familiar with technological developments (C2)". The participants stated that “their colleagues closely follow the technological developments, but this is not for constructive and self-development purposes, but with the concern of realizing a trend of that period (C1)”. Accordingly, they stated that “many of the purchased equipment was idle after being used for a short time and was not used again (C5)”.
Asked to the participants, “What are your views on electrical installation in the planning of industrial kitchens?” It is seen that security comes to the fore in the answers given to the question. Accordingly, accessibility of central electrical system control in emergencies and accessibility of the on-off switch of especially large-scale equipment are the topics emphasized. Participants also expressed suggestions such as planning the existing installation with the equipment to be purchased in the future, overload protection for weak feeds in old systems, and installing a main distributor unit only for the kitchen.
“Especially in humid rooms, the cables and installations should be laid in a concealed manner. As soon as it eats water somewhere, rot occurs and this is very dangerous. Equipment such as boiling boilers and steam ovens should be assigned to a separate circuit and connected to each other. (B7)”
“Your kitchen wiring may be old. For example, the electricity load of new generation devices may be high in the hotel established in 1990. If a good kitchen manager cannot overcome this problem, he should prioritize safety and have overload protection for weak feeds (B6)”
“The chef will understand electricity. It will act jointly with the technical service not only for the safety of the personnel but also for the progress of the work (B3)”
“In some enterprises, residual current relays are not installed for each line. Technician comes and connects it to residual current relay for all lines. If there is a problem in one place, the electricity in the entire kitchen goes out. We learned this much later. Our business is disrupted, the customer does not care about your electricity. A separate residual current relay must be connected to each line. Even if it is not connected, it should be warned and necessary action should be taken. (B7)”
“The masters didn't say it, but I'll point it out. The kitchen electricity supply should not be taken from any distribution panel, but directly from the low voltage distribution panel of the hotel. (B5)”
During the interview, it was also stated by the participants that, since industrial kitchens are generally humid environments, electrical installations are hidden, and that if electrical lines are laid on the ground, stainless steel circuits should be used and these circuits should be closed tightly. In this context, considering the types of electrical connections used in industrial kitchens, the total energy need in the kitchen and the periods during which this need may occur should be planned.
Conclusion and Recommendations
Although consumers are distant to current and technological trends, the effective production system implemented by multifunctional equipment for mass food production requires that industrial kitchens be planned and designed to save space and time. It is stated that the employment of sufficient equipment and the necessary number of manpower in these kitchens is not sufficient on their own to make businesses successful. As a matter of fact, for an effective production management, it is necessary to use deep-rooted knowledge and experience in cooperation in the project process and at every stage of food production. 
Food and beverage business planning is divided into operations and workflow planning. It has been stated that the operation planning phase includes a long-term planning and answers are sought to the questions of where, when, with whom, how and how the operation will be carried out, and kitchen managers are rarely involved in this process. It is stated that when the operation planning is completed, the work flow planning process begins and an answer is sought to the question of how food & beverage service can be provided. The biggest disadvantage of this situation is that with the end of the operation plan, not very large changes can be made in the industrial kitchen planning and the changes made cause huge costs.
The most important issue that is generally revealed in the research is that kitchen managers cannot take an active part in the planning process of industrial kitchens. In this context, starting from the basic components of industrial kitchen design, it can be suggested to create a platform where kitchen managers will reflect their experiences in the realization of the design process with joint participation between the actors of the planning cluster aiming at a functional planning. To put it more clearly, there is a need for a more pragmatic and participatory kitchen planning process in which theory and experience are handled together in the industrial kitchen planning process, and the ideas and thoughts of other actors, especially those working in industrial kitchens and kitchen managers, who will be affected by the process. 
According to the results of the research, an important part of the Restaurant Projects , which are taken as a reference in industrial kitchen planning , are drawn by the companies that produce industrial kitchen equipment operating in the field. According to this, businesses send a project for an industrial kitchen they need, by communicating various and limited variables (how many people it will serve, its location, etc.) to companies that produce industrial kitchen equipment, and they carry out the project on the basis of the obtained project proposal. On the basis of the problems experienced in the planning of the industrial kitchen in the enterprises that produce food, the business managers; developing technology, changing customer demands, differentiated service forms, the change in the processing of raw materials and the failure to take into account the future situation of the enterprise.
Unlike the subject discussed above in the research; It has been concluded that among the factors to be considered regarding the feasibility process of industrial kitchens (Restaurant Kitchen), factors such as the operation volume of the enterprise, budget, operation location, operation concept, production amount, energy consumption are important. In this context, industrial kitchens constitute an important part of the total floor area of ​​the facilities providing food & beverage services, but depending on the type of kitchen and service service, the following spatial sections can be located in separate areas or gathered in a single complex.
** Connections between spatial sections in industrial kitchens should be connected to each other with as few connection ways as possible.
** Work flow chart in kitchen planning should be arranged in a way to ensure a stable workflow from the acceptance of the raw material to the presentation of the processed product.
** Reasonable flow of raw material should be ensured without intersection and return flows from the shortest, straightest and alternative paths possible.
** If the intersections cannot be eliminated, it should be ensured that the production and service areas are located on the same service floor. If it is necessary to make a choice, the customer, service and dishwashing rooms should be located on the same service floor.
** Operational details should not be overlooked in kitchen space planning due to aesthetic and visual concerns. Today, stairs, technical rooms, columns and axles are included in the areas reserved for kitchens due to visual concerns, and the initially planned kitchen production capacity is limited. With this; It should not be forgotten that in kitchens of unnecessary size, it will cause extra costs on the basis of square meters in the future.
** Raw material acceptance and material transportation corridors should be planned wide. Doors should be spring-loaded, automatic or sliding. In order to prevent the materials from vibrating during transportation in the transportation corridors, preferably epoxy floors and walls with protected edges should be preferred to prevent crashes and breakages.
** In the work flow planning, the flow routes of dirty materials (dirty plates, pots, garbage, etc.) in the kitchen and in the service area should be separated from each other. 
** Raw material processing, preparation and production areas should be planned as wet areas. In these areas, preferably smooth and corrugated floors should be preferred. In these areas, ceramics and electrical installations should be protected and moisture-proof up to the ceiling.
** Ventilation and air conditioning conditions in industrial kitchens should be planned according to the number of personnel available, humidity and temperature levels created by hot and thermal devices. 
** Cold rooms should be planned close to the spatial sections in the kitchen to which they belong. If such a thing is not possible, the main cold store should be placed near the goods receiving department and operated with an integrated system in order to shorten the transportation process.
** In order to preserve the taste and quality of the processed products and to facilitate the workflow, the cooking line and the service line should be close to each other. In banquet services, an additional space should be planned between the production line and the service line to put the final touch on the food.
** If the warehouses and raw material reception area are located in a different building or floor, the elevators to be used for transportation must have sufficient capacity and power.
Within the scope of the research, it has been frequently emphasized that some criteria should be emphasized in the planning process in order for the workflow to be realized in a healthy and fast manner, and these criteria, which are accepted by industrial kitchen manufacturers today, are unfortunately not taken into account by many businesses. These criteria, confirmed by the participants, are listed below.
** Minimum section heights should be 3 meters in industrial kitchens.
** Industrial kitchens must have at least 15 cubic meters of air space for each staff member.
** Workbench spacing per person must be at least 70 cm, and corridors must be at least 1.5 meters wide.
** Natural lighting should be preferred in the main production areas in industrial kitchens and there should be a window facing out.
** Artificial lighting should be at least 500 lux, the outer part of the light should be covered with insulated snowed glass and it should have a non-dazzling lighting feature.
** Uniform lighting should not be used in every part of the kitchen. According to the needs, the types of lighting should also differ in the Kitchen Types .
** It should not be forgotten that the main purpose of kitchen lighting is to adjust the direction of the light and to prevent the formation of shadows.
** It should not be forgotten that the presentation of the food, as well as the production, is in the interest of the kitchen managers, and the display counter and open buffet lighting should be arranged with professional help.
** In ceiling lighting, plexiglass sheets with a frosted glass appearance should be used so that the light does not reflect on the counter.
** In cases where natural lighting cannot be used in industrial kitchens, a warm white light color should be chosen, which is the closest to natural lighting in the routine ambient light color.
** In industrial kitchens, there must be an oil separator in which oil-containing water is destroyed.
** In kitchens where high volume production is made, clean and waste water installations should be placed carefully. Water should be given to each section in the kitchen from a separate channel. ** The amount of salt and carbonate in the clean water installation given to the departments on the main production line should be measured regularly.
** Considering that the clean water system is worn out before the waste water system, this situation should be taken into account in the installation of the system and the clean water system should be installed in an accessible channel.
** Since pressurized water is constantly opened and closed in the dishwasher, it causes “hammer hammer” (noisy vibration). In order to prevent this situation, an air subpoena should be added in the installation or a 1% slope should be given to the pipes in the installation.
** Waste water installation should consist of pipes with an outer diameter of at least 141 mm in order to prevent blockages and to continue the normal flow in a routine manner.
** If the kitchen is located on the basement floor, the building pressure should be reduced by making a pillow with sand on the plumbing pipes.
** If the level of the kitchen waste water system is lower than the level of the sewer line, a sewage pit should be opened on the ground floor and flow to the city sewage should be provided from here with pumps.
** In industrial kitchens, most of the bacteria reproduce in the drainage channels. Drainage channels should be round, not sharp to prevent bacteria formation. Systems that separate oil and water should be used.
** Electrical installation should be planned considering that all appliances in the kitchen may be working at the same time during production. Since it cannot be determined which equipment will be used in the kitchen sections in the construction project , one type of installation should not be drawn. The estimated energy load should be planned.
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As Chief Chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR:
Mr. Adem ARMAN and Mr. I sincerely thank Hatice Ferhan NİZAMLIOĞLU for her academic studies and wish "Factors Influencing the Planning of Industrial Kitchens- Industrial Kitchen Planning" her success in her professional life. The study will definitely be considered as an example by those who need it in professional kitchens, gastronomy and tourism.