• Sherbet in Ottoman Culture
  • Sherbet in Ottoman Culture
  • Sherbet in Ottoman Culture
  • Sherbet in Ottoman Culture
  • Sherbet in Ottoman Culture
  • Sherbet in Ottoman Culture
  • Sherbet in Ottoman Culture
  • Sherbet in Ottoman Culture
  • Sherbet in Ottoman Culture

clove sherbet, clove Gole sherbet, clove grape sherbet, November day sherbet, kiji (a type of watercress) sherbet, fir sherbet, vermicelli sherbet, dried black grape sherbet, mubtecel sherbet, mumessek ( musk ) and mu'amber ( anber -smelling) molasses sherbet..

Sherbet in Ottoman Culture
Arif Bilgin
It was possible to encounter sherbet in every aspect of daily life in Ottoman society. It is noteworthy that sherbet, a beverage that appeals to various segments of society, has become an important consumption item in some Sufi institutions, government offices and even in Turkish baths, thanks to the fact that it can be produced in homes, consumed in sherbet shops, and even by mobile sherbet sellers who sell to coffee houses and taverns.
Today , it is not surprising that the consumption of food and beverages has become widespread in a limited period of time at the points where they cross the continents . Because the developments in transportation and communication technology since the 19th century allow some local products to spread rapidly and even become universal. In this context, clothing, eating and drinking, architecture, music etc. Numerous examples can be presented in the fields. However, sherbet is an exceptional beverage that spread to most of the world in pre-modern times . With this aspect, it can be said that it has a wider effect and usage area than any food.
played an active role in the spread of this drink throughout the world . This was not just because the Ottoman Empire was spread over large lands or was bordered by European countries . The Ottomans established a very high culture of sherbet, and sherbet consumption was not as common in any of the former Turkish states as in the Ottomans. Especially the deliciousness of the sherbets produced attracted the attention of foreigners who set foot in the Ottoman lands; Foreigners, who mostly did not like the food because they came from different cultural backgrounds, showed a high interest in sherbet. Thus, sherbet entered the consumption lists as an interesting product , especially in European countries , as an important part of the exotic life of the East/Ottomans.
spread of sherbet to the West mostly took place during the Ottoman Empire. For this reason, in the Western world , it was called with names derived from the word sherbet used by the Ottomans . The word sherbet, which was transferred to Italian in the 16th century , later took the name " sorbetto " and continued its existence in Italian cuisine. The Italians ' decision on the word sorbetto may have been inspired by sherbet or, in accordance with Davidson 's claim, may have been inspired by the verb sorbire in their own language, which means to sip .
This name ( sorbetto ), which the Italians gave to sherbet, also influenced the names in other countries ; From the words sorbetto in French sorbet and Spanish sorbete derived . However, it should be noted right away that both in the 17th century and today Sorbet or sorbetto is quite different from sherbet. in a 17th century dictionary While it is stated that sorbet is a drink made with sugar and lemon paste, a contemporary encyclopedia ( Larousse Gastronomique ) defines it as a type of iced dessert that is softer than ice cream, non- dairy and lumpy .
Looking at the pictures today It will be easily noticed that the sorbet is as described in the encyclopedia. The Germans called sherbet sorbet just like the French , the Serbs and Croats called it šérbe , and the Portuguese called it sorvete . It is understood that the spread of sherbet, which is known by similar names in other European countries , in Europe has taken place very quickly. In this context , it should be noted that it was not unusual to encounter sherbet vendors on the streets of Paris and London in the 17th century. In the same century, sherbet was served alongside coffee, chocolate and tea in English coffee houses.
It is understood that the sherbet culture, which is thought to have its origins in the Eastern Mediterranean, spread from the Arabian basin to the East. Sherbet, which was accepted quickly in Iran, India-Pakistan and Mongolian geographies, probably extended to China through Muslim Arab expeditions and trade. It is accepted that the Arabs made a serious contribution to the formation of a new culture related to the preparation and presentation of sherbet in these geographies.
is seen that the names derived from the Arabic verb sherbet were used in the eastern journey of the sherbet, which was called with names similar to the Arabic name while spreading to Europe . The drink called sherbet in the Iranian basin was defined as shelipa ( sheli-pie ) in China during the Mongol rule.
This name, which seems to be completely different, is actually the Mongolian equivalent of the Arabic verb sherbe . Lemon juice/sherbet was the most consumed type of sherbet known to have entered China during the Yu -an dynasty (1279-1368) dominated by the Mongols . In fact, the fondness for lemon sorbet was so high that many lemon trees were planted in the country. Even a special officer was employed in the residences of the elite for this drink, which was also loved by the Mongol rulers.
assigned to the Chinese palace and called the shelipac , is Mar Sergius , one of the Nestorian Christians whom Marco Polo also met . Sergius , summoned to Beijing by Kublai Khan in 1268 , agreed to undertake the task and for years produced sherbets made from lemon, grape, quince and citrus/orange juices, believed to be medicinal.
of sherbet, which has been a part of life in Iran since early times, even in the Safiyyüddin Tomb in Erdebil, the center of Safavidism . A sherbet house was built here during the construction of the tomb . Sheikh Safiyyüddin himself loved sherbet very much; He used to break his fast with sherbet during Ramadan. Vizier Reşidüddin , who knew this feature of the sheikh, Fazlullah was sending sherbet to him from the imperial sherbet in Tabriz .
It can be easily said that sherbet culture reached its peak in the Ottomans. It was the Ottoman palaces that represented this culture at a high level. Apart from daily consumption, sherbet, which was widely preferred on special occasions, was consumed by all courtiers as a refreshing and refreshing beverage. In this context, sherbet was an important element of the tables, although the ambassadors wrote in their travel notes that they preferred alcoholic beverages instead of sherbet at the banquets given to the ambassadors.
The Palace Halvahanesi, as an important unit of the Ottoman palace cuisine, was a workshop where sherbets were prepared as well as compotes and jams during the classical period (from the beginning to the 19th century). In the 19th century, the " Tatlihane " unit , which was created instead of the Helvahane in the newly established palaces, served the same function.
Palace in Helvahane , special sherbets were coming from various parts of the empire, some only to the Sultan (perhaps other members of the dynasty), and some to the palace elite. Every year, fevers from Egypt ( sorrel: Rumex acetosella L.), reybas from Damascus ( Isgin : Rheum ) ribes L.), anberbaris brought from Yanbolu- Islimye (Womansalt: Berberis ) vulgaris L.) and pomegranate sherbet sent from Bursa were flavors that ordinary people could not taste, appealing to the tastes of the courtiers and the well-off.
Helvahane , which produced sherbet in the palace , syrups and sherbets to be used as medicine were also produced in addition to the sherbets with their refreshing and cooling properties. It is possible to see the list of them and the contents of an important part of them in a published Helvahane Book. In this notebook prepared by Arslan Terzioğlu, the medicinal properties of some sherbets or the diseases they are directly beneficial for are also stated.
Pharmaceutical production was carried out in darüşşifas outside the palace. Each darüşşifa had a sherbet maker who was well versed in sherbet production (and therefore partly knew Ottoman medicine). Ottoman people had the opportunity to procure/drink sherbet from different sources other than those produced as medicine. It can be said that the Ottomans met some of their sherbet needs, although not constantly, with the production in their private kitchens. On the other hand, sherbet shops, which were the most important points of sherbet production, were among the frequent places of ordinary or elite segments. Ottoman documents show us that these shops could also be used as brewing places.
Evliya Çelebi states that the sherbet tradesmen in Istanbul in the 17th century were 500 people and they had 300 shops. The third source that can be used to drink sherbet is the group of artisans, which Evliya defines as “ Şerbetçiyan -ı piyade ” and archival documents as “ Sherbet sellers on foot”. As the name suggests, these are street sherbet vendors selling sherbet in pitchers on their backs.
Evliya reports that their number is 300 together with the cüllabcılar ( çüllab : rose water). If we add the second group of 300 people, which the traveler named as “steamy and spicy hops shopkeepers”, the number of street hops reaches 600. However, two documents belonging to the third quarter of the 18th century show that the aforementioned group of tradesmen consisted of 121 people. Moreover, these two documents inform us that 81 of them are Muslim, 21 are Christian, and 19 are Jewish.
Therefore, it is possible to say that sherbet culture was formed in a wide spectrum, not limited to Muslims, in Ottoman society. Evliya also counts the types of sherbet consumed by the people of Istanbul in the 17th century: Reybas , anberbaris , rose lemon (or rose and lemon), hummas (lamb's ear), lotus, zûfa ( zulfa grass: Hyssopus ) officinalis L.), tamarind ( Tamarindus ) indica L.) and sour cherry juice. We can also add badyan (star anise), fisfis (zerdali) and honey sherbets.
The types of sherbet that the traveler encounters in other cities are quite fluffy:
Amber sherbet, Athenian honey sherbet, avşıla (Indian cucumber: Aegle marmelos ) sherbet, quince perverde ( perverde : fruit pulp in the consistency of solid marmalade) sherbet, spicy sherbet, hemlock sherbet (hemlock: Laserpitium glaucum ), Persian sukker sherbet, molasses sherbet, violet sherbet, berberis sherbet, biyan root / raceusus ( liquorice ) sherbet , tea sherbet, haji sherbet with cinnamon (cinnamon Haci sherbet), mulberry sherbet ( ? emlec- i Kâbulî ( emlec : helile , L. Phyllanthus emblica , tropical fruit native to India), emrud sherbet (pear sherbet), grape sherbet, redbud sherbet, rose sherbet (cherry or sour cherry), hardaliye sherbet, Hortas honey sherbet, date molasses sherbet, date sherbet , Imam Hormuz syrup sherbet, inebü'd-dibs (grape molasses) sherbet,
clove sherbet, clove Gole sherbet, clove grape sherbet, November day sherbet, kiji (a type of watercress) sherbet, fir sherbet, vermicelli sherbet, dried black grape sherbet, mubtecel sherbet, mumessek ( musk ) and mu'amber ( anber -smelling) molasses sherbet, pomegranate/ rumman sherbet, reybas sherbet, basil sherbet, sandalwood sherbet, sükker /sugar sherbet,1 shiraz shirbet and finally shiraz sükker Thanksgiving sherbet distributed on the 10th. Evliya also sheds light on different aspects of sherbet culture by mentioning the tradesmen who were famous for their sherbet in his own time.
For example, the Beddavi Sherbet in Mahmutpaşa in Istanbul is a “ master - i - kamil” that is unique in Greek and Persian languages, and it is impossible to pass by customers in its shop. Moreover, even the viziers and the other polite state are enamored with the sherbet of this shop: “... cemî ' vüzera ve ayan -i kibâra Sherbet is carried with nice bin sim- i pure dispositions.” Evliya, emphasizing the reputation of the sherbet he produces in Bulbul Armenian's shop in Tahtakale, reports that this sherbet will make the man nightingale.
The testimonies of not only Evliya but also foreign travelers reveal the fondness of the Ottoman and Eastern societies in general to sherbet. However, the emphasis of the travelers wandering in the Ottoman lands towards sherbet is sharper. Travelers emphasize sherbet either to express the interestingness of the beverage they taste or because they are surprised that it is sold/consumed so much. Some travelers probably gave the recipe of the sherbet they liked.
Although there are a limited number of observers giving the recipe, the number of those who emphasize sherbet is quite high. In fact, there is hardly a traveler who enters Ottoman lands and does not mention a lemonade in Izmir or the 19th century sherbet. Many travelers emphasize that the trio of coffee, sherbet and sticks was something that the Ottomans had not stayed with since the offering, which can be seen in engravings as well. Tea was added to this trio in the 19th century, especially in eastern Anatolia and Iran. Based on the information obtained from the travelers, it is understood that the three sherbets consumed the most by the Eastern peoples, including the Ottomans, are honey sherbet, lemon sherbet ( âb -ı limon ve limonata) and pomegranate sherbet.
Another point to be considered is the quality of the material to be used in the production of sherbet. Writing on syrup making, Dr. Celal Pasha emphasizes that the sugar to be used in sherbet production should be carefully selected. Although, Celal Pasha's choice is English bounty sugar or the strongest of the existing sugars, but since the former is not available today, it is the choice of strong sugars as an alternative. Pasha also states what is meant by strong: “A strong sugar can be easily understood anyway.
First of all, it is hard to break. As it is broken in seconds, there are shiny bright crystallized pieces inside.” In fact, the sugar that the pasha insisted on is, unfortunately, head sugar, which is not easy to find everywhere today. Another point that the Pasha carefully emphasized is that the sugar to be used in the production of sherbet should definitely be pounded in a mortar and turned into powder. On the other hand, archive documents show that sherbet has been filtered. Especially cheesecloth was used to strain the syrup; There is a record of buying cheesecloth in many archival documents.
with information indicating what kind of businesses the sherbethanes , which are understood to have been opened for the first time in the 18th century . When I came across the first documents reporting about sherbet shops , I thought that these places were purely sherbet drinking places. In some documents that I reached later, it was ordered that some sherbet shops be closed because alcoholic beverages were consumed and these places were created later. With this aspect , sherbets were generally seen as places where sherbet production and consumption was carried out, but in some, alcoholic beverages were served due to the preference of the operators.
fact, it is stated in a document that sherbethanes were established to meet the brewing needs of the Greek and Armenian nations. In the document, it was emphasized that 89 sherbethanes and armchairs were opened in Deraliyye (Istanbul) as the brewing places of two different non-Muslim groups , the number of these was fixed, and it was forbidden to open more. In addition, another thing that is admonished in the document is that the sherbet makers (shops of the sherbet) do not interfere with the liquor coming from outside the city, and they are distributed directly to the sherbet shops . Therefore, the sherbethanes , which the state later attempted to close, are those that were created later. In the 19th century, it is understood from the following statements taken from the Mühimme notebook that some sherbethanes lost their function completely and became nests of mischief :
in Dereağzı fishermen 's chambers and hammam - i deaf on the edge in other places and this retaliation prostitute Bîkar rooms and medina - i mezbûre Campus on the edge case 'two pieces Yehûdhâne and deep inside to be a sherbethane porter other mechûlu'l -ahvâl erâzil and bîkar from the bandit mob taife be calm and in the depths , prostitute awrets, fisk u misadventures and many good irz hatuns from mahall- i mezkûr murûr u ubûr merkúmun while ider bîpervâ meleine nasda coercion and hell in front of him with his majesty come out and bring them to their rooms obedience when the people of the people of irz and their officers are at their will do not push slaughter with the intent al- i harble attack How many murderous souls and hetk - i irz from what they have done and their precedent corruption appear because from the aforementioned mahall- i zâbitân other ehl -i ırz kimasnes murûr On the other hand, sherbet shops, whose existence has been known since ancient times, had a considerable place in the tradesmen's organization.
It should be noted that the internal audit is high enough in the sherbet shopkeepers, who are a group of cooks and are even seen as their apprentices. For this reason, the shopkeepers of sherbet, whose inner workings were calm enough , fought hard with the branches of tradesmen close to them, such as Akideci and Attar (Aktar) in the 18th century .
The 18th century was a period in which various tradesmen's unions struggled with each other for production and sales privileges. Artisan groups such as attar , şerbetçi , akide maker, sugar sherbet maker have constantly interfered with each other's areas. The reason for the fight between these artisan groups was the sharing of sugar coming to the city. Various edicts have been issued over the century to solve the problem. On the other hand , it is noteworthy that there is an endless conflict between the aqidahists and the sherbetists. Akideists were producing only hard and cheese sugar.
sükkeriyât called confectionery , Rahatü'l-hulkum (Turkish delight) and katr - ı nebât ( watch candy). Sometimes , disagreements arose because the aqidahists tried to produce and sell them as well. Even III. Selim was so disturbed by the fact that the issue was constantly coming to him that he specifically warned that the issue should not be brought up to him again: “ Kaimmakam Pasha, how much harassment have I suffered for this issue. Lines that are in the hands of even both parties are handled and sentence records let you leave In my father's time, whatever the order was established and how it was treated, follow the motto . Let not a genius be presented to me ” (HAT 249/14103) .
In Ottoman society, it was possible to come across sherbet in every aspect of daily life. It is quite remarkable that sherbet, which is a beverage that appeals to various segments of society, thanks to the fact that it can be produced in homes, consumed in sherbet shops and can be found in every street, even in coffee houses and taverns, has become an important consumption item in some Sufi institutions, government offices and even baths. At the end of the 18th century, serving sherbet, coffee, gulab (rose water), napkins, macrame and dyeing to visitors in government offices in Istanbul reached a level that would put the state in trouble, and this would lead to an order to abolish this habit.
Lord Byron defined Ottoman baths as “marble palaces for sherbet and sodomy.”2 Byron's words are exaggerated but reflective of men's efforts to relax after bathing. lady Montegu points out that sherbet and coffee are two indispensable drinks for women after the bath.
An issue that is taken into consideration during the presentation of sherbet is cooling the beverage with snow or ice during periods of high air temperature. The habit of consuming cold drinks goes back a long way; It is known that the first ice houses were established on the edge of the Euphrates in Mesopotamia. Many travelers emphasize the relationship between sherbet and snow-ice; It is stated that not only the Ottomans but also all Eastern societies consumed sherbet by cooling it.
As a matter of fact, the tradesmen who sold snow and ice in the Ottomans were mainly serving for the compote and sherbet tradesmen. Snow is supplied from streams or mountains; ice was obtained either from puddles in the high mountains or from lakes. For example, the snow supply areas for Istanbul were the creeks in the city and south of the Marmara Sea, and Mount Katırlı . The snow obtained from these places was collected either in the region where it was collected or in the snow in the city. The ice, on the other hand, was cut directly from the lakes in Uludağ and transported to Istanbul. Sherbets, which are usually stored in bottles, are presented in üsküre/ sükür (ceramic bowls made of earth), goblets or much more valuable fağfurî bowls.
Archival documents containing sherbet lists show that, in addition to sherbets, lu'âb (jam made from fruit pulp ), jam, and some yeast and soap were produced both in the dessert shops, which were a part of the palaces established in the 19th century, and in the sherbet shops in the city. It is understood that the hops in the city took the permission to produce most of the sugar, jam, luab and confectionery type products, leaving only the production of hard sugar and cheese sugar to the confectioners.
At least some of the sherbet consumed by the courtiers was produced as syrup in Tatlıhane . Since syrup is a product with a thicker consistency than sherbet, it was consumed after being diluted and turned into sherbet. The main purpose of syrup production is to keep this fruit extract for a long time without spoiling.
Among the syrups, there are those made from fruits, as well as those made from flowers and some leaves. Some, such as orange and pineapple syrup, are 19th-century products not seen during the Ottoman classical period. It is understood from some records that tree strawberry (raspberry) syrup was preferred during the feasts as well as served to the sultans.
On the other hand, some archival documents reflect the production of hops in the city, and therefore what kind of sherbet the people can choose from. Varieties such as salep sherbet, tea sherbet, lotus sherbet and bowl sherbet are not included in the lists of the courtiers while the people of Istanbul taste it. On the other hand, it is understood that hummas sherbet and anberbaris sherbet, which are very popular with the elite, are also consumed among the people.
Undoubtedly, no article on sherbet will have the opportunity to reflect this culture in a holistic way. Since the studies on sherbet culture are limited, each new research will contribute to the field in one dimension.
dishes are somehow kept alive in certain geographies of the empire, whereas sherbets seem to be overwhelmed by the pressure of other drinks. We keep the culture of compote (truth is pleasant - nice water) and coffee, which are the most prominent elements of the Ottoman beverage culture, relatively alive . We even made tea, which was started to be consumed in the 19th century, an authentic element of Turkish culture.
Today, it is the most consumed beverage in Turkey. We kept sherbets, which did not lose its feature of being our main drink before and after coffee, until the middle of the 20th century, but since this period, the sherbet culture has gradually disappeared with the pressure of carbonated drinks and persistent resistances in a few parts of Turkey . For this reason, I believe that if we are going to search for a revival/revival of the Ottoman eating and drinking culture, we should start with sherbets. Unfortunately, we have been witnessing attempts to rediscover this culture by groping, as our experience based on the master-apprentice relationship has also disappeared in a period of more than half a century.
of sherbet has disappeared and acidic and additive drinks have become widespread . However, this traditional drink is very suitable, useful and natural for the human body . Let's put a small note in history by putting a motto in line with the spirit of the time at the end of this article, which is prepared in these days when the pressure of the pandemic is felt and most of us are trying to discover new things in the kitchen : Stay at home, consume healthy drinks!
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As the head chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR, I see the source:
Mr. I sincerely thank ARİF BİLGİN for his academic studies titled "Sherbet in Ottoman Culture" and wish him success in his professional life. It will definitely be considered as an example by those who need it in professional kitchens and the culinary community.
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The original text, which is accepted as a source, is as follows. Google translation was used for the necessary language change .