• What is Food Culture in Antiquity?
  • What is Food Culture in Antiquity?
  • What is Food Culture in Antiquity?
  • What is Food Culture in Antiquity?
  • What is Food Culture in Antiquity?
  • What is Food Culture in Antiquity?
  • What is Food Culture in Antiquity?
  • What is Food Culture in Antiquity?
  • What is Food Culture in Antiquity?
  • What is Food Culture in Antiquity?

Hesiodes, one of the famous poets of the ancient period who came after Homer, gives advice to his brother Perses about farm works in his work titled “Erga kai Hemerai” translated into Turkish as “Works and Days”.2 Some of these advices are as follows; Drink a lot at the opening and the..

What is Food Culture in Antiquity?
Ekin Orakçal 1930202016
Advisor: Assoc. Dr. B. Ayça Polat Becks
Since ancient times, life has been based on air, water and food. Reaching food, like many living things, goes through a number of struggles within humans. Man, who has been struggling to find food since the first ages, differs from other living things with some of his inventions. He cooked his food by lighting a fire, began to store and produce; Thus, it has been able to benefit more from nature in terms of both the amount of food and its diversity. 
However, after a while, the diversity in Food History led to taste rather than filling the stomach. Geographical factors did not play a major role in the prepared dishes, and with it, regional / regional "cuisines" emerged.
The resources that introduce the side of cuisine and table culture peculiar to ancient Greek and Roman societies are rich. Almost every writer has touched on this subject directly or indirectly. The information given by Homer is important for the practices in the last periods of Greek civilization;1
When there is happiness among all people; when the rows of guests in the houses are filled with bread and meat on the tables next to them, they can listen to a bard and bring wine from full bowls and fill their glasses; this is the best in my heart.
From Odysseus to his host Alkinoos, HOMEROS, Odyssey 9
Hesiodes, one of the famous poets of the ancient period who came after Homer, gives advice to his brother Perses about farm works in his work titled “Erga kai Hemerai” translated into Turkish as “Works and Days”.2 Some of these advices are as follows;
“Call the one who loves you to your table, not the one who doesn't love you”3
“Drink a lot at the opening and the end of the barrel, but be frugal in the middle.
It is absurd to spare the barrel that has found its bottom.”4
“Do not frown at joint-cost feasts: The greater the pleasure, the less you cost.”5
Hesiod also mentions in his work titled Works and Days that they ate the fruits they cultivated at their feasts. However, he did not mention what kind of fruits other than grapes were grown.
“They eat their fruits abundantly at the feasts of their gardens, which they cultivate with care. The soil offers them a fertile life, On the mountain the top of the oak is filled with acorns”6
Although not as descriptive as the ancient writers, it gives some information about nutrition in the inscriptions. Lists that report the foods consumed by the Greek and Roman society and the prices of the foods take the first place in this regard. In addition, the inscriptions shed light on the supply and control functions of the state in the delivery of food to the public, especially the feast and food distribution activities during the Roman Imperial Period.
The most concrete and direct archaeological finds are the surviving remains of nutrients. Especially the examples of the Campania region are important. Because as a result of the eruption of Mount Vesuvius, the ashes covering the surrounding settlements such as Pompeii and Herculaneum ensured the preservation of nutrients (Picture 1). On the other hand, among the finds belonging to the ancient period, the kitchen, oven, winery and the tools and vessels used in these places are of primary importance.7
Another source group on nutrition has been art products. Greek vase paintings depict the sale of food, the preparation of food, and feasting.
Still lifes and scenes from daily life depicted in wall paintings and mosaics (Picture 2) start from the Hellenistic Period and last until the end of the Roman Imperial Period. Grave reliefs, dead dinner scenes and scenes showing the dead at work provide enlightening information on this subject.8 With the help of all these sources, the dietary habits of Greek and Roman societies, despite their deficiencies, are revealed in detail.
It is very difficult for us today to visualize the kitchens of ancient times. Difficult as it is, it helps us visualize both archaeological remains and early literature. The most influential documents come from Pompeii, where many household kitchens in the city can still be seen. For this reason, the kitchen layout I will talk about focuses on Roman cuisine.
The dominant element of the kitchen was the waist-high stove made of brick and tile. It has a pit for burning charcoal in the middle and a raised tiled edge. The arched trench at the bottom was used to store coal. A grill stood on the coals, and earthenware and metal pans for cooking were placed on top of it (Picture 3). The oven, usually a low dome filled with hot coals, stood apart, being mixed and cleaned before food was put into it.9 
In addition to portable kilns, remains of earthen lids used in baking works were found. These were used instead of mini-ovens that could stand atop a high hearth or a traditional floor-level hearth. Bread or cake was placed on a tile, an earthen lid was placed on it, and a very useful oven was created by placing hot coals on the top and sides.
Stone pillars in the center of the room carried wooden or stone tables for preparing food. Besides these, there were large mixing bowls and tripods on which the mortars were placed. Sandstone was sprinkled inside the mortars to break up the ingredients10 before cooking.
A very modern-looking metal pan was found in Roman Britain: it is a pan with concentric, turned-turned rings at the bottom that provides even heat distribution without burning (Picture 4). Inwardly worked colanders with punched holes, fish frying pans, roasting plates are common kitchen utensils of Roman settlements11 (Picture 5).
A functioning kitchen, however modern, cannot escape steam and heat. The heat must have been unbearable at times, as the ventilation system in those days was nothing more than a hole in the ceiling above the hearth. Food was stocked on open shelves, herbs and cured meats hung from rafters, amphorae filled with sauces and wine stood inside the room12.
While the rich people enjoyed luxurious meals, the poor lived in houses that did not even have a kitchen, and sometimes they fed in tabernas (Picture 6) or street vendors. The multi-storey wooden buildings they already lived in prevented them from cooking at home. Because lighting a fire here would apparently mean burning down the house13. Among the peasant people of the ancient countryside, cooking was a shared task. Again, this job was mostly done by the lady of the house.
Antique cuisine has no secrets in terms of the items used. However, it has undergone a significant change over the centuries. Kitchen tools consisting of simple clay vessels in the Archaic period began to be made from precious metals such as gold and silver in the Hellenistic period. The Romans, on the other hand, brought new forms to kitchen utensils to be used in daily work14. In the light of this information, I will try to examine Greek and Roman kitchenware and culinary culture in the following parts of the article.
Unless dining with aristocrats, food in Ancient Greece consisted entirely of basic and informal meals. Meat is very expensive and the poor could only eat it during religious ceremonies. Dinner or banquet parties defined as “sympozion” are very common among the aristocratic class. The guests lie down on the couches and enjoy the meal15.
In ancient Greek society, women prepared all food. The cooking process is done over wood fire and in bronze or clay pots. Bread, porridge, olives, dried figs and cheese made from goat's milk are common foods. It is possible to find cheap and fresh fish in coastal towns (Picture 7-8).
Information about nutrition in the early ages is Homer's epics. According to these epics, the heroes used to cook fatty pork, goat, sheep and veal meat on skewers (Picture 9) and drink bread and diluted wine at the feasts.
The main menu of ancient Greek society was “maza”. Maza is a dough made from water, milk and barley flour. This dough is dried and softened by soaking when eaten (Picture 10). The poor people usually kept onions, garlic and sometimes olives with the maza16. On the table of the rich, various meats and seafood were considered the usual dishes. In later times, meat ceased to be a luxury.
Eating with forks, spoons and knives was not known at that time. Usually the meat was cut by hand or with a knife. Other dishes were also eaten with tools used as hands or spoons.
Culinary culture in Ancient Greece emphasizes simplicity and agricultural inadequacy of the period. In this period, dietary habits were based on wheat, olive oil and wine, which are the three main elements of Mediterranean cuisine17.
* (?κρατισμ / akratismós): Breakfast; Barley bread dipped in wine,
* (?κρατος / ákratos): Type of breakfast sometimes complemented with figs or olives;
* (?ριστον / ariston): Lunch eaten at midday or shortly after;
* (δε?πνον / deipnon): The most important meal of the day; dinner was usually eaten when it started to get dark.
* In addition to the main meals, sometimes a snack called (?σπ?ρισμα / espérisma) was served in the afternoon.
Greeks usually ate their meals sitting at tables. Tables would be high for casual meals and low for banquets. Although the meals were consumed as if they were placed on a plate between bread or in thick breads, bowls and plates made of terracotta or metal were much more widely used18.
3.1 Bread:
Cereals were the main elements of the (σ?τος / sitos) nutritional culture. Two of the most important grains were wheat and barley. These were softened by soaking in water, softened and then either made into porridge or ground into flour. The flour was then kneaded with water to make loaf or flat bread and mixed with cheese or honey to bake (Picture 11). Dough leavening methods were known, but stone oven types were not known until the Roman period19.
Barley was an easy food to produce, but making bread from barley was a difficult task. It had nutritional value, but bread made from barley would be too heavy. For this reason, barley was fried before being ground into flour. This flour was used to make μ?ζα / mãza, a traditional dish in Ancient Greece. There are many sources that give a description of Maza. According to them, madza could be served both cooked and raw. It can be made into small pieces, rolled out like phyllo, cheese etc., like wheat bread. It could be sweetened by adding fillings20.
3.2 Fruits and Vegetables:
Cereals were generally served with what is called ψον / ópson. This word was first used to describe all kinds of food cooked on fire, but over time it began to be used to describe foods consumed with bread. The term Ópson was used only to mean meat in the Iliad, and fish meat was included in the Odyssey21.
In the classical period, it started to cover all the vegetables used in soups such as cabbage, beans, onions, and lentils.
These soups, which are generally called ?τνος (étnos, "bean soup"), were eaten by adding olive oil, vinegar and γ?ρον/gáron (a type of fish) (Picture 12).
Both dried and fresh fruits and nuts were eaten at the end of the meal instead of dessert. The most important fruits were figs, pomegranates and raisins. Dried figs were also eaten as a pre-drink or added to wine22.
3.3 Meat and Fish:
Fish and meat consumption varied depending on which part of the country the family lived in and how wealthy they were. Hunting allowed large consumption of birds and hares. Villagers also raised enough geese and chickens to make a living on their farms23. Wealthy people could be seen raising sheep, goats, and pigs as well. In the city centres, the prices of meat types other than pork were quite high.
Eating fresh meat often took place during religious ceremonies where sacrifices were made to the gods (Picture 13). Salted and preserved meat consumed without a prayer had a large market share.
Fresh fish and other seafood (such as squid, octopus, and shellfish) were widely consumed in the Greek Islands and coastal provinces. As they were consumed locally, they were also marketed to inland regions and non-sea areas24.
Expensive and respectable foods such as tuna and eel were bought and eaten by the nobility. These fish were mined from lakes Boeotia and Kopais.
3.4 Drinks:
The most consumed beverage in ancient Greek societies was water. In addition to water, milk obtained from domestic goats (Picture 14) has also been a frequently consumed beverage25.
Containers called “skyphos” made of metal, terracotta or wood were one of the commonly used beverage containers. The most commonly used type of vessel for drinking was the "kylix". In banquets, footless vessels in the form of human or animal heads called “kantharos” or “rhyton” were used26.
3.5 Wine:
In ancient Greek society, wine was the only drink. Therefore, great importance was attached to viticulture and wine production. The Greeks crush the grapes with their feet and leave the juice they have obtained to ferment in pithos (Picture 15). 
Pithos lids were rubbed with pine cones and spicy herbs to give the wine a pleasant taste and smell. Pithoi were opened every thirty-six days and their contents were checked, the foams accumulated on the surface of the must were collected, and molasses was sometimes added to the must before the fermentation was completed. Thus, the wine gains weight and the alcohol content increases. After the wine was ripe, it was stored in pointed-bottom amphora27.
Wine was one of the most important trade goods in ancient times. In addition to written sources, amphorae unearthed in excavations and underwater surveys indicate that wine was exported on a large scale28.
The Greeks always drink wine by mixing it half and half with water. Hesiod recommends mixing dense Byblos wine with twenty parts of water. The mixing ratio is dependent on the type, period, location of the wine and, of course, optional29
3.6 Feast:
The feast, which is at the peak of the Greek eating and drinking traditions and reflects the table traditions in the best way, is expressed with the word "syposion", which means "meal eaten together" or "drinking together"30.
Invitation for private feasts in ancient Greek society was often made orally. The number of attendees varies from seven to thirty-six. According to Greek tradition, the feast is a meeting of men and there is no room for women. Only women, musicians and acrobats, and belly dancers, who made the men have a good time, were allowed31.
A special room was reserved for feasts in Greek houses from the 5th century BC. In andron, whose name means “men's place”, the man of the house welcomes his guests. Andron is the most flamboyant place in the house.
Before the guests who are invited to the feast settle in the klines, the slaves of the house help them wash their hands and then serve during the meal (Picture 16). As great feasts offer a wide variety of food, guests are handed a menu. Although a written list is not always required, the feast menus are rich: a pre-course consisting of plates such as pickled olives and spiced fish, main courses consisting of fish and meat plates, a second table made of cheese, doughnuts, desserts and fruits32.
When the main meals are finished, the slaves clean the tables, bring warm water, towels and perfume to the guests to clean, and wreaths to wear on their heads. Because with the second table, the wine feast, that is, the real “symposion” will begin. Conversation was a very important element at the liquor festivities. In addition, mime, theater, acrobatic performances, more commonly music, dance and games are enjoyed (Picture 17). As the feast ends late, the host presents his guests with gifts such as a symposion wreath and a perfume bottle33.
3.7 Tableware and Kitchenware:
Most of the kitchen utensils left by the ancient Greeks today are mixing vessels (crater types, dinos), cooling vessels, transfer vessels (oinochoe varieties, mugs), strainers (Picture 18) and wine bowls, which are within the scope of symposion. Towards the end of the 5th century BC, those shaped from noble metals, especially silver, became widespread34 (Picture 19).
On the Greek table, there are bowls in different sizes and forms, deep and flat plates, trays, lekythos and askos as olive oil pitchers. Large forks and knives are only used to serve meat, as meals are eaten by hand at the Greek table. Juicy dishes were eaten with a big spoon called glossa35.
Archaeological data on Greek cuisine indicate that the hearth inside the megaron served, among other functions, for cooking. Although there was a fixed hearth in the Geometric and Archaic Period houses, barbecue was also used. Cooking utensils that are frequently encountered in the mentioned houses are the tripod pot and the pot-base pair (Picture 20).
Fixed quarries were not encountered in the Classical Period. Stove-barbecue, oven and grills (Picture 21) and other kitchen utensils have the feature of portability. The portability of kitchen utensils indicates that there is no separate kitchen in the residences. 
It is thought that the meals were cooked in the courtyard or oikos, which had many functions36.
Among the kitchen utensils, there are khytra (Picture 22) for cooking juicy dishes, smaller sized pots with lids, flat pans, trays and vessels with a saute function. Hydria and Kalpis, which are used to carry water, types of jugs in the form of buckets, and various containers for storing dry or liquid nutrients are also included in the scope of "kitchen". Kitchen tools consist of a hand grinder, mortar, sieve, grater (Picture 23), strainer, line, meat hook and knives37.
Nutrition in Roman civilization shows a development depending on the ancient Greek society. There is a development in every field from food to table customs. 4th century BC. We can say that grain types were the main food source in . Vegetables abound. Cucumbers, onions, leeks and zucchini were grown in almost every home garden. These were probably consumed by boiling in water. On the other hand, the Romans used wild celery as much as parsley used today38.
The most commonly used spices are coriander, mint, dill and fennel. In addition, the spice called silphium, which was also used by the Greeks, had a very important place in the Roman culinary culture. In fact, it was hidden in the treasury. Although the varieties of fruits are few, it is known that figs, apples and medlar are consumed. At the Roman table, mostly plant foods were consumed and therefore they had a healthy food consumption.
Meat, on the other hand, was a food eaten at festivities. Usually white meat was consumed. They also benefited from the eggs of some birds. Hunting had an important place in meat consumption. Most of the time, a meat feast was held after hunting. Like the Greeks, the Romans preferred sheep's and goat's milk, but they mostly used it for making cream and cheese39.
The Romans were making many different types of cheese. Columella, a Roman historian of agriculture and livestock, has this to say about cheese making: one denarius weight of rennet should be added to a gallon of milk. This mixture was heated and when it started to coagulate, it was filtered and hardened with the help of salt.
BC 2nd century In the end, noble and wealthy people tend to luxury in nutrition, as in other matters, with the influence of their wealth and the Hellenistic world with which they are now in close relationship. As a result, there is diversity in food. This diversity must of course depend on trade. Various cities of the ancient world learned the diversity of food from each other through the barter method.
Fish sauce and olive oil (Picture 24), which were also used in Greek societies, were used as sauces in dishes. The animals were fed in the shelters for a while and then eaten. Thus, the animals were more fattened and more meat could be obtained from them40.
As time progressed, bakeries emerged and leavened breads appealing to all segments were sold here (Picture 25). Except in poor circles, vegetables fall out of favor in the field of consumption. But the artichoke was too luxurious for a vegetable and was usually consumed by the nobility, but lentils and peas were found in every home41.
Mushrooms were also an important source of consumption for the Romans (Picture 26). Meat and fish gain importance in Roman cuisine. Sausages and sausages were produced from various animals, and pools were created in order to raise fish in the coastal villas. Fish grown in these ponds must be grilled for later presentation. In addition, cuttlefish, oysters and squid have an important place in Roman cuisine42.
Another ingredient in recipes reported by ancient sources is honey. Honey was an aphrodisiac ingredient used in both desserts and sauces. Based on this, we can say that the Romans mixed various types and created mixed flavors43.
4.1 Wine:
The main drink of the Romans was wine. From a regional point of view, it is said that the most popular wines in the Republican period were produced in the "Campania" region. Falernia wine is especially famous44.
In wine production techniques learned from the Greeks were used, but the grapes were no longer crushed by feet but by presses. The Romans believed that the best wine was without additives (Picture 27). Ancient writers also give useful information about the production of quality wine and especially its maturation. For example, it is recommended to ripen weak wine by burying it in the ground, and to keep strong wine in an airy place45.
In order for the wine to continue to ferment and not spoil, it was inevitable to apply some additional processes or additives. A common additional process is to boil the wort reserved for winemaking. In addition, spices such as cinnamon, black pepper and cardamom were used, thus prolonging the life of the wine, while also obtaining different flavored drinks. Black pepper wine called “conditum” was very popular46.
A drink, which is also considered in the wine class, is made from raisins. It is formed by keeping a mixture of must, vinegar, dark molasses, fresh water and sea salt in certain proportions. This drink can be considered as a kind of artificial wine. Learning about viticulture and winemaking from the Greeks, the Romans always diluted their dark wines47.
4.2 Tableware:
Romans also have three meals. The main meal called “Cena” coincides with noon. While the dinner in most houses consisted of some kind of meal, the nobles went to extremes and decorated their tables with a wide variety of dishes48.
While eating was sitting down at the beginning, it was started to be eaten lying down at one point in the Republican Period. Unlike the Greeks, women also took their places on these klines49.
Unlike the Greek kline for one or two people, the Roman mattress called “lectus” allows three people to lie diagonally, leaning on their left elbows and extending their feet back. Large mattresses called “Triclinium” (Picture 28) surround the table in the middle in the shape of a horseshoe. Over time, three mattresses were fused, eventually a single crescent-shaped mattress became fashionable.
4.3 Dining Room:
The Romans, who used to eat in the courtyard-like “atrium” that used to form the center of the house, established a triple arrangement with lectus in a separate dining room, and they named this place “triclinium”50.
In his handbook on architecture, Vitruvius lists some principles for the triclinium, while describing the characteristics of Roman houses51;
• According to Vitruvius, the length of the dining rooms should be twice their width.
• The height of rectangular rooms should be calculated by adding up the length and width measurements and taking half of the result.
• For spring and autumn dining rooms should face east; If the windows are in that direction, the sun directed towards the west keeps these rooms at the appropriate temperature.
• Summer dining rooms should face north, because that direction is not on the path of the sun, so it will not be scorched by the heat.
However, it is seen that the examples that have survived to the present day lack Vitruvian principles. In most houses, the location of the dining rooms called triclinium did not matter much, even the houses with one dining room are in the majority. Roman writers speak of special feasting rooms called oecus in the homes of the wealthy. These rooms were mostly used for crowded guests and witnessed various drinking feasts52.
4.4 Feast:
Unlike the Greeks, the Romans sent written invitations to the feast, and unlike the Greeks, Roman women also attended the feast with their spouses. For Romans, mattresses have hierarchical value and meaning (Picture 29). The triclinium of honor is the mat in the middle, the most respectable corner of which is the right head. Second place is taken by the left mattress. The landlord and his relatives have to make do with the one on the right53.
As is done before all meals, offerings and invocations are made to the gods at the beginning of the feast. Only after that, service slaves could bring the food to the accompaniment of a chef54.
In the feasts, first salads, then main courses, and then fruits and nuts were eaten, and after that the feast of drinks would begin. Romans who ate food with their hands often had to wash their hands with the help of slaves.
At the wine feast, perfumes that will change the mood of the room are sprinkled around, and the heads and ankles of the guests are adorned with wreaths of flowers. They elect a president among themselves. The president determines the rate at which the wine is mixed with water, how much and how to drink it during the feast. Wine is usually drunk in turns. The most important thing is to finish one's wine in one gulp after raising a glass with wishes of well-being and health55.
In order for the guests to have a good time, the host primarily benefited from music and brought instrumentalists, singers and belly dancers. Part of the fun was clowns and mime masters. However, written sources especially draw attention to the importance of conversation for a nice feast, regardless of the segment. The feast should never lose its purpose of giving pleasant hours to everyone56.
4.5 Tableware:
When generalizing to the tableware used by the Romans for daily meals and feasts, the dominance of terracotta tableware in all houses in the early periods, and later only in poor circles, draws attention57.
After the 2nd century BC, metal, especially silver tableware became widespread (Picture 30). Wine-related vessels constitute an important group among Roman tableware. Wine and water were mixed in a large crater, and large bowls were used for the same purpose. Wine bowls and cups show various forms58 (Picture 31).
The same is true for food-related containers. Serving trays and plates, flat and deep plates, bowls and bowls (Picture 32), sauce bowls, oil pitcher, bottles have survived in many variations. There are also small vessels such as salt shakers (salinum) and pepper shakers (piperatoria) on the table. The salt shaker has never been missing on the Roman table. From an early age, care was taken to have salt shakers on the tables59.
There are large knives and ladles for serving food. Since the Romans ate their food with their hands, they did not need forks and knives, but two-sized spoons were used for juicy dishes60 (Picture 33).
In the early period, the Roman table was covered with a cloth. In the Imperial Period, tablecloths were rarely used. But napkin (mappa) is common. Besides its current function, it also has a different function; The guest brings his own napkin to a feast, and on his way home, he wraps it with one of the donuts or sweets he likes61.
4.6 Kitchen and Furniture:
It is interesting that although the large kitchens in the residences of the distinguished Romans are mentioned in the written sources, the examples that have survived to the present day have this feature. Most kitchens do not exceed 3 x 4 m dimensions. The kitchen is randomly placed so as not to disturb the layout of the other sections. We see the best examples in Pompeii and Heracleum62 (Picture 34). Next to the kitchen, a supply room can sometimes be found. If there is a kitchen, it is observed that it opens either to the service area or to a small corridor63.
In spaces that can be defined as kitchens, the main element is the stove (Picture 35). The hearth is in the form of a rectangular ledge in front of one of the walls and is usually made of tiles.
The fire is lit on the upper surface of this protrusion, pots, pots and cauldrons are placed on the protrusions or trivets on the surface. The recess under the hearth is used as a fuel tank. There is no chimney to allow smoke to escape in the space. However, the high ceiling of the kitchen and the opening of a window directly above the stove allow smoke to come out. Sometimes, next to the hearth, there is an oven built of bricks in the form of a beehive64.
The fixed counter is not one of the standard items of the kitchen, with a few exceptions. It is understood that wooden benches are used. Shelves made of wood complete the kitchen, and some utensils and tools are hung on nails lined up on the stove.
The lack of a fixed-equipped kitchen necessitated the use of portable hobs and ovens. Various types of braziers made of copper, bronze or terracotta are common (Picture 36). In addition to metal furnaces, hemispherical vessels with similar functions are found. Cooked food is placed under these pots and charcoal is piled on top of them65.
Kitchen utensils are made of terracotta, stone, zinc, copper, iron, bronze and glass. Among the bronze vessels are cauldrons, pots and pans of various sizes (Picture 37). It is understood that the most work is on the bottom of the kitchen tools. Other tools encountered among the finds are sieves, ladles, spoons, knives, rows and skewers66.
The Hellenes and Romans had a growing and developing interest in food. As a result, they are open to new foods and experiences. As cooking has become a profession, both cooking and presentation tools are in constant change and development.
The wealthy people did not find cooking very suitable for their lifestyle, but the necessary environment for the training of professionals must have been provided with the support of cooking schools and cookbooks. Rich tableware covered with jewellery, gold and silver was made for them. Those who had a private dining room in their home, and lavish klines and various furniture in their dining halls were always the same group.
In short, the development of food culture in Antiquity developed thanks to the fact that the wealthy gave importance to this work and did not pay much attention to the suggestions of philosophers.
Bober, PP, (2003), Food Culture in Antiquity and the Middle Ages Art, Culture and Cuisine (70 Recipes from Ancient Times), Kitap Publishing House, Istanbul.
Basalak, M., (2017-2018), Social and Economic Structure in Antiquity Lecture Notes, Burdur.
Dalby, A. – Grainger, S., (2001), Ancient Food and Food Culture, Homer Publishing House, Istanbul.
Delemen, İ., (2001), Nutrition in Antiquity, Institute of Ancient Sciences Publications, Istanbul.
Güveloğlu, A., (2018), Nutrition and Taste in Antiquity, Pinhan Publishing, Istanbul.
Güveloğlu, A., (2019), Antique Culinary Dictionary, Pinhan Publishing, Istanbul.
Hesiod, (1977), Works and Days, Turkish Historical Society Press, Istanbul.
Yıldırım, YS, (2010), Hellenistic-Roman Culinary Culture in Western Anatolia in the Light of Metropolis Finds, Dokuz Eylül University Social Sciences Institute Archeology Department PhD Thesis, İzmir.
1 İnci Delemen, Nutrition in Antiquity, Institute of Ancient Sciences Publications, Istanbul, 2001, p.2.
2 Yaşar Serkal Yıldırım, Hellenistic-Roman Culinary Culture in Western Anatolia in the Light of Metropolis Finds, Dokuz Eylül University Social Sciences Institute Archeology Department Doctoral Thesis, İzmir, 2010, p.5-6.
3 Hesiod, “Works and Days”, His Work and Sources, trans. A. Erhat- A. Kadir, Turkish Historical Society Press, Ankara, 1977, 342.
4 Hesiod, 1977: 368, 369.
5 Hesiod, 1977: 722.
6 Hesiod, 1977: 231–233. 7 Delemen, 2001:3.
8 Delemen, 2001: 4.
9 Andrew Dalby and Sally Grainger, Ancient Food and Food Culture, Homer Bookstore, Istanbul, 2001, p. 12-13.
10 Dalby and Grainger, 2001: 13.
11 Dalby and Grainger: 2001: 13.
12 Dalby and Grainger, 2001: 14.
13 Ali Güveloğlu, Nutrition and Taste in Antiquity, Pinhan Publishing, Istanbul, 2018, p.42. 14 Güveloloğlu, 2018: 231.
15 Mehmet Basalak, 2017-2018 Lecture Notes. 
16 Mehmet Basalak, 2017-2018 Lecture Notes. 
17 Mehmet Basalak, 2017-2018 Lecture Notes.
18 Mehmet Basalak, 2017-2018 Lecture Notes. 
19 Mehmet Basalak, 2017-2018 Lecture Notes. 
20 Mehmet Basalak, 2017-2018 Lecture Notes.
21 Mehmet Basalak, 2017-2018 Lecture Notes. 
22 Mehmet Basalak, 2017-2018 Lecture Notes. 
23 Mehmet Basalak, 2017-2018 Lecture Notes. 
24 Mehmet Basalak, 2017-2018 Lecture Notes.
25 Mehmet Basalak, 2017-2018 Lecture Notes. 
26 Mehmet Basalak, 2017-2018 Lecture Notes. 
27 Delemen, 2001: 10-11.
28 Delemen, 2001: 11.
29 Delemen, 2001: 12.
30 Delemen, 2001: 14.
31 Delemen, 2001: 14.
32 Delemen, 2001: 15.
33 Delemen, 2001: 15-16.
34 Delemen, 2001: 17.
35 Delemen, 2001: 17.
36 Delemen, 2001: 18-19. 
37 Delemen, 2001: 19-20.
38 Delemen, 2001: 21-22. 
39 Delemen, 2001: 22.
40 Delemen, 2001: 31.
41 Delemen, 2001: 25.
42 Delemen, 2001: 25-26. 
43 Delemen, 2001: 31-35. 
44 Delemen, 2001: 36-37. 
45 Delemen, 2001: 37-38.
46 Delemen, 2001: 38. 
47 Delemen, 2001: 39. 
48 Delemen, 2001: 39. 
49 Delemen, 2001: 40.
50 Delemen, 2001: 40.
51 Delemen, 2001: 40.
52 Delemen, 2001: 40-42. 
53 Delemen, 2001: 42-43.
54 Delemen, 2001: 44.
55 Delemen, 2001: 45.
A type of comedy that aims to imitate life and customs in ancient Greece and Rome. 
56 Delemen, 2001: 45-46.
57 Delemen, 2001: 46.
58 Delemen, 2001: 46-47.
59 Delemen, 2001: 47-48. 
60 Delemen, 2001: 48.
61 Delemen, 2001: 49.
62 Delemen, 2001: 49.
63 Delemen, 2001: 49.
64 Delemen, 2001: 50. 
65 Delemen, 2001: 53. 
66 Delemen, 2001: 53.
As Has Chef Ahmet Özdemir, I see the source:
Ms. About Ekin Orakçal "What is Food Culture in Antiquity?" I sincerely thank them for their academic studies and wish them success in their professional life. It will definitely be considered as an example by those who need it in professional kitchens and the gastronomy and culinary community.
The original text, which is accepted as a source, is as follows. Google translation was used for the necessary language change.
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