• Traditional Turkish Taste
  • Traditional Turkish Taste
  • Traditional Turkish Taste
  • Traditional Turkish Taste
  • Traditional Turkish Taste
  • Traditional Turkish Taste
  • Traditional Turkish Taste
  • Traditional Turkish Taste
  • Traditional Turkish Taste

Turkey is located on the most favorable climatic zone in the world for viticulture. In addition to being the gene center of the vine, it also has an extremely old and deep-rooted viticulture culture. The history of viticulture culture in Anatolia is quite old. From the archeological excavations, it is possible..

Traditional Turkish Taste "Pekmez"
*UÇAR, Asli
Molasses, which has been widely produced in Turkey for years, is a form of evaluation unique to our country. It is a good source of carbohydrates and energy due to the high sugar it contains and is one of the most important traditional foods produced in our country. Molasses meets most of the daily requirement of calcium, iron, potassium and magnesium. Due to the high mineral content and high absorption rates, it is recommended to include in the diet of pregnant and lactating people and people who are in recovery period.
Throughout Food History, the Turkish nation has produced molasses from everything that contains sugar. However, the most common practice in the past and today is the production of molasses from grapes. In addition, molasses is produced from fruits such as apple, mulberry, apricot, plum, watermelon, fig and carob. The production of molasses traditionally has a history of thousands of years in Turkey. There are customs, conversations and legends that occupy a large place in our folklore, such as cooking molasses and making halva.
In this study, it is aimed to give information about the history, production methods, effects on human health and usage areas of molasses, which has traditionally been of great importance but whose consumption is gradually decreasing.
1. Introduction
Turkey is located on the most favorable climatic zone in the world for viticulture. In addition to being the gene center of the vine, it also has an extremely old and deep-rooted viticulture culture. The history of viticulture culture in Anatolia is quite old. From the archeological excavations, it is possible to find out that the viticulture culture in Anatolia BC. It has been determined that it dates back to 3500 years (Anonymous, 2007b). Anatolia has been famous for its vineyards and grape varieties throughout history, and viticulture spread all over the world during the Turkish civilizations. During the time of the Ottoman Empire, it lived a brighter period than before (Batu, 2006: 9).
The Turkish written literature on molasses began to be written only in 1940 with a research titled “technical research on grape molasses”. In the following years, the studies continued (Batu, 2001: 79). Molasses is one of our traditional foods, and producing molasses from some fruits is a form of evaluation unique to our country. Although it is possible to process almost any fruit with high sugar content into molasses, the most common practice in the past and today is the production of molasses from grapes (Batu, 2006: 9).
molasses developed by the Turks for food preservation; On the one hand, it ensures that perishable grapes and must are made durable, on the other hand, it helps to meet the need for sweets and sugar (Sürücüoğlu & Çelik, 2003: 20). Pekmez, which is very rich in nutrients, is a popular traditional food in Turkey. Molasses, which is a kind of concentrated fruit juice obtained from different fruits such as grapes, figs, mulberries and raisins, is also named according to the fruit from which it is obtained (such as grape molasses, mulberry molasses) (Karababa & Develi Isikli, 2005: 357).
2. History
According to archaeobotanical records, it is estimated that the regions where the vine was first cultivated were the Middle East and Aegean Regions. Traces of viticulture culture are found in settlements dated to the Early Bronze Age (first half of the 3rd millennium BC) in the east of the Mediterranean basin (Siyonmezoğlu, 2005: 2).
The presence of different reliefs related to grapes in historical artifacts unearthed from archaeological excavations in different regions of Turkey are the most important indicators pointing to the widespread viticulture culture in that region. Important artifacts from prehistoric times related to viticulture were found in excavations carried out in every region of our country (Anonymous, 2007b).
From the archaeological finds, vine and wine were of great importance during the Hittites in Anatolia, BC. It has been recorded that viticulture was very developed in the years 1800-1550, and grapes and wine were offered as offerings to the gods in religious ceremonies and social life (Anonymous, 2007b). In Hittites, one of the oldest inhabitants of Anatolia, special laws were applied for the development of viticulture. In one of these articles of law, there is the phrase 'If a person takes a vine from someone else's vineyard without permission, the person who takes it is obliged to return it to its owner' (Siyonmezoğlu, 2005: 8). 
From the excavations obtained in Yozgat Alişar, BC. The presence of a golden wine glass and wine jug dating back to 2300 BC, grapes, wine containers and amphora were featured on the coins minted in the regions where viticulture developed in the Aegean and Marmara regions (Lapseki, Çanakkale, Bergama, Aliağa and Dikili, Bozcaada, Çeşme, Karaburun and Seferihisar). It shows the importance given to viticulture and wine (Anonymous, 2007b). Hittites BC. XVI. Long before the century, viticulture was an art. B.C. In the texts written in the Old Assyrian dialect belonging to the Assyrian Trade Colonies era, which is the Early Hittite era, at the beginning of 2000, vintage is mentioned. 
In Hittite religious ceremonies, there were some grains, grapes, wine and beer as well as sacrificial animals. Farmers tended the land and vineyards around the temples, and miners worked in the vineyards during the harvest season. During the Konya-Karahöyük excavations, the remains of grape seeds were found on the 1st floor (around 1750 BC) belonging to the Early Hittite Age. In the excavations, vessels in the form of bunches of grapes were also unearthed. The most magnificent examples of these vessels were used as drinking vessels, and the examples consisting of many clusters around a large cluster were used as lamps (S Söylemezoğlu, 2005: 8, 10).
Historical researches of the Uighurs IX. He reveals that he has grown grapes in Turkestan in the 16th century. Both molasses and wine, which are produced from grapes, are expressed under the name Bor. The Turkish people, who brought the molasses tradition from Central Asia, combined with this settled culture in Anatolia and revealed a way of life (Altıntaş, 1999: 4).
Grape, which is a Turkish word, begins with the Uighur age in Turkish written documents. In the medical books of the Uighur Turks, raisins, that is, raisins, were recommended as a medicine for some diseases. Since Turks had a viticulture culture before they came to Anatolia, they also increased the number of grape varieties after they came to Anatolia. During the Seljuk period, grape production occupied the most important place in fruit growing. Among the fruits, they dried the most grapes. Drying a nutrient too much is the best proof that its production is abundant and it is also an indicator of winter food preparation (Sürücüoğlu & Çelik, 2005: 126-128). 
With the collapse of Byzantium and leaving its place to the Seljuks and then to the Ottomans, the wine culture began to fade, but it was stated that the vineyard culture preserved its status, and the viticulture, which had been going on for a long time, continued during the Ottoman Empire as well. 
Viticulture, especially during the Ottoman period, reached a brighter period than before. Because Turks used grape juice not as wine, but as molasses, bulama, fruit pulp, meatballs, sausage (orcik), bastik, tarhana, Turkish delight, and they mostly cultivated grapes for drying. 
During the Ottoman period, although Muslims were forbidden by law to make and drink wine, the Christian people were completely free to make and sell wine. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, strict measures were taken to prevent the people from making wine. It is known that Christian people make vinegar, pickles and molasses with some of their grapes. The edict sent by Kanuni to the Üsküdar judge in 1557 is very important. In this edict, instead of wine varieties, it was requested to grow table, molasses and dried varieties in old vineyards (Siyonmezoğlu, 2005: 18).
Desserts also have an important place in Turkish cuisine. Halvah is one of these desserts. There is a special halva section in Topkapi Palace. It is reported that there was such a section in the palace kitchen because Fatih Sultan Mehmet loved halva very much. In the yog tradition, which had an important place in the social life of the ancient Turks, compote, halva and sherbet had an important place among the Mevlud dishes. Before sugar, the sweeteners of Turkish desserts were honey and molasses. 
Molasses, kavut, millet, flour and starch halvahs made in Fatih's halvah were used as a sweetener. The saying "who has kavut adds molasses, who has wisdom takes advice" indicates the place of molasses in halva production (Baysal, 1997: 118). Kavut means “wheat flour added to oil or molasses and roasted” (Sürücüoğlu & Çelik, 2003: 26).
Molasses production, which has a history of thousands of years in Turkey, is mostly made in the form of family business and with local production techniques. Since ancient times, it has been believed that molasses has positive effects on human health (Şimşek et al., 2002: 1; Anonymous, 2007a). It is an ancient food dating back to the vineyard era of Anatolia. In our folklore, there are traditions, conversations and legends such as cooking molasses and making halva (Ünal, 1991: 34). Molasses was produced in order to meet the sugar need in the periods when the sugar industry was not sufficiently developed in our country (Şimşek et al., 2002: 2).
Although grape molasses is produced in almost every part of our country, production is more common in rural areas. Molasses, which was one of the basic nutritional requirements in previous years, has become a less consumed product in the changing world conditions (Batu, 2001: 78). Consumption of foods with high sugar content such as marmalade and jam is common instead of molasses. Therefore, molasses-rich composition elements are not sufficiently utilized in human nutrition (Şimşek et al., 2002: 1).
In the studies carried out; While it was stated that 37% of the fresh grapes produced in our country in the 1960s were processed into molasses, it was stated that this rate decreased to 35% in the 1970s and to 18% in the 1980s, according to DPT records (Batu, 2006: 10). In 2001, 31.2% of the total fruit production consisted of grapes and berry-like fruits. In the same year, 3 250 000 tons of grapes, 13 500 tons of carob, 55 000 tons of mulberry were produced (Anonymous, 2002; 7, 28). 
According to 2005 data, while there was an increase in grape production (3 850 000 tons of grapes), carob production decreased and mulberry production remained the same (DIE, 2007). While 40% of the fresh grapes produced are used by drying, 35% is consumed directly fresh (Batu, 2006; 10).
In a research conducted; It has been revealed that 60% of the people living in residential areas do not consume molasses at all (Alpar & Saldamlı, 1985). In another study, it was determined that 61.6% of secondary school students, 66.3% of adults and 53.5% of pregnant women consumed molasses. 
It is also among the research findings that pregnant women consume molasses in order to prevent anemia problem that may occur during pregnancy. It has been determined that the season in which molasses is consumed the most is winter. The rate of those who consume molasses every day is 30.1% (Ayaz, 1996; 66). In another study, the rate of those who consume molasses every 15 days in 25-35 age group women is 13.3%, the rate of those who consume it once a month is 86.7%, the rate of those who consume it every 15 days in 3645 age group women is 6.7%, and the rate of those who consume it once a month is 86.8% (Şanlıer, 1995). ).
Although molasses production is made in every region with a vineyard area in our country, quality production takes place in the regions of Tokat (Zile), Amasya, Kırşehir, Kastamonu, Eskişehir (Sivrihisar), Balıkesir, Kayseri, Afyon, Kahramanmaraş, Gaziantep and Hatay. These molasses produced differ in terms of color, taste, smell, consistency, and durability, as well as being locally named. 
Solid and sweet molasses are called Zile molasses in Zile, Agda in Gaziantep, Bulama in Balıkesir, Play and Masara in Kırşehir, while the liquid ones (runny) of the sour molasses are called Nardenk, the solid ones are Ravenda in Maraş, and they are also called without boiling. Molasses thickened directly in the sun are called 'day honey' or honey (Ünal, 1991: 37: Şimşek et al., 2002: 1). Sour molasses; It is called molasses made without removing the acidity of the must with molasses soil. 
The ones that are not darkened or lightened are called “Nardenk”, and those that are lightened and solidified are called “Ravenda”. This sweet substance, similar to syrup and marmalade, obtained by boiling the ripe cones of a juniper tree species called “andız”, which grows especially in the Taurus Mountains in Southern Anatolia, is called “andız molasses” (Birer, 1983).
3. Molasses in Food Legislation
In our country, grape molasses standard numbered TS 3792 is valid until the Turkish Food Codex (TGK) grape molasses communiqué (Official Gazette dated 15.06.2007, numbered 26553) comes into effect (TSE, 1989), and with this communiqué, the aforementioned standard has been abolished. The workplaces that produce and sell the products within the scope of this communiqué are obliged to comply with the provisions of the communiqué within six months from the publication date of this communiqué (TGK, 2007).
In the grape molasses communiqué published by the Turkish Food Codex, grape molasses is defined as the consistency product obtained by thickening unfermented fresh or raisin extract under vacuum or in the open, in accordance with its technique, after reducing its acidity with appropriate methods and clarification (TGK, 2007).
Grape molasses; It is divided into two groups as sweet and sour molasses according to its taste, and two types as liquid or solid molasses according to its consistency. Solid grape molasses; Liquid grape molasses should have a color ranging from light yellow to light brown, a solid appearance, a structure that does not show phase separation and a fluid tendency, and a consistency and fluid structure ranging from light red brown to dark red brown (TGK, 2007).
While the grape must is boiled, HMF is formed by the burning of some sugar. 
This element gives molasses a burnt taste. Molasses with a maximum HMF content of 50 mg/kg was accepted as 1st class, and 150 mg/kg was accepted as 2nd class molasses. For solid molasses, only “Zile molasses” standard has been determined. The color of this molasses is light white, yellow-light brown and does not flow when cut (Baysal, 1997: 119).
4. Properties of Grape Molasses
The use of additives in grape molasses is not allowed. Seasonings (sesame, peanuts, hazelnuts, pistachios, walnuts, almonds, etc.) are allowed to be used only in solid molasses and it is stipulated that the rate of use should not be less than 5%. In terms of contaminants, pesticide residues and microbiological criteria, grape molasses should comply with the relevant communiqués of the TGK (TGK, 2007).
Table 1. Chemical properties of grape molasses (TGK, 2007)


liquid molasses

solid molasses

Water-soluble solids (min, %)



Hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) (max, mg/kg)


one hundred

Total ash (max, %)




For sweet molasses




For the sour molasses



Sucrose (max, %)



fructose/glucose ratio



commercial glucose

should not be found

C13 ( 0 % ) per thousand

Must be more negative than -23.5


fumaric acid

should not be found


organic acids

oxalic acid

should not be found


Isobutyric acid

should not be found

The amount of iron (Fe) (max. mg/kg) in molasses is 25, the amount of copper (Cu) (max. mg/kg) is 5, arsenic (As) (max. mg/kg) amount is 0.2, lead (Pb) (max. mg/kg) amount should be 0.3 and zinc (Zn) (maximum mg/kg) amount should be 5 (TGK, 2007).
5. Making Molasses
Although molasses production in Turkey has been made in large quantities since ancient times, the production technique has not changed and the necessary technology has not been achieved throughout the country. For this, the must, which is extracted in various ways, is heated after adding molasses and then filtered and thickened over an open flame in boilers. 
The molasses obtained by this method is very clear and its color is very dark (Batu, 1991: 80). The brown color of molasses is due to the formation of caramelization as a result of the reaction of sugars and acids in its composition with some other substances as a result of boiling the must in an open boiler at high temperature (Batu, 2006: 13). Molasses is also produced from sugary products such as apples, plums, watermelons, sugar cane and sugar millet, in addition to fresh or dried grapes, mulberries, figs, carob (Şimşek and Now, 2002: 1).
5.1 Production of Liquid Molasses According to the Traditional Method
In the traditional method, the grapes are squeezed in various ways and the juice is obtained. The process of removing sourness is applied on this must. Sourness removal and clarification are generally done by using molasses soil containing 50-90% lime. The reason for adding molasses to the must is to clarify the must, to facilitate the straining and to reduce the sourness of the must (Anonymous, 2007a). Grounded must is heated at 50-60 0C for a certain period of time until the must partially foams (Batu, 2006: 11). 
The amount of soil to be added to the must varies between 1-5 kg ​​for 100 kg of grape must. The cut must is kept in the resting containers for at least 4-5 hours. At the end of this period, sediment forms at the bottom of the container. The clear part of the must is taken and poured into the boiling vessel. As the boiling process can be done in open, flat containers, light-colored molasses can be produced by thickening at a lower temperature in vacuum boilers (Anonymous, 2007a). The method of thickening the must or cooking molasses is almost the same in all regions, and the surfaces of the cauldrons used are quite wide and their depths are low. 
The reason for this is to shorten the boiling time as much as possible by ensuring that the water evaporates quickly during direct flame cooking. Thus, it is ensured that the must is processed into molasses without getting too dark. At the beginning of the molasses cooking, foams called kef form on the surface of the must, and these must be removed with wide ladles in order to provide a clear molasses appearance (Batu 2006: 12). As the boiling progresses, the must turns red from the inside, then the eyes become eyes and the unique smell of molasses spreads (Anonymous, 2007a). 
The adequacy of thickening can practically be understood by slowly pouring the sample taken from the thickened molasses with a wooden spoon and dripping from two places side by side rather than from one point, or it is understood that the molasses is cooked by the formation of large bubbles, which are defined as “oxeye” by the producers during boiling (Batu, 2006: 13). ).
5.2 Molasses Production According to the Modern Method
In the production of molasses according to the modern method, first of all, the grapes that come to the plant are washed, their stems are separated, and after the grains are crushed in the grape mill, they come to the press and the juice is extracted. The must, which is separated from the coarse residue by passing through the centrifuge, is taken into the resting boilers and waited by adding molasses soil. The rinsed must is filtered and taken to the vacuum vessel. Dry matter is checked with a refractometer and when it reaches the desired level, it is taken and packaged. Since the molasses produced in this way does not exceed 60-70 0C, caramelization does not occur. Burnt taste and smell are not felt, and the color of molasses is beautiful (Ünal, 1991: 37).
6. Its Importance in Human Health and Nutrition
Molasses is a good source of carbohydrates and energy due to its high sugar content (Anonymous, 2007b). The content of molasses varies according to the type, variety, production conditions and processing techniques of the fruit from which it is obtained. In general, the main carbohydrates in molasses are glucose and fructose, which are the main sources of energy. The amount of fructose and glucose in grape molasses is almost equal (Şimşek et al., 2002: 8, 10). These simple sugars do not need to be broken down in the digestive systems and pass into the blood by simple diffusion from the outside of the cell into the interior without the need for any energy. 
For this reason, it gives energy to the human body in about 30 minutes (Batu, 2006: 10). For this reason, it is a unique food item especially for growing children, workers, athletes, pregnant and lactating mothers. Two tablespoons of molasses (20 g) contains 2 mg of iron, 80 mg of calcium and 58 kcal of energy, which are very valuable for the human body (Baysal, 2007: 305).
Also, it contains minerals as intense. Molasses meets most of the calcium, iron, potassium and magnesium requirements. Due to the high amount of minerals and high absorption rates, it is recommended to be included in the diet of pregnant and lactating patients, patients with tuberculosis, and people in recovery (Anonymous, 2007b). Molasses contains +2 valuable iron, which can be used very comfortably in the body. The iron in grapes and molasses can be easily absorbed and 35% of the daily iron need can be met with molasses that can be taken daily (Batu, 2006: 10). 
Calcium is important for the development and health of bones. After milk and its derivatives, the best source of calcium is molasses. Although phosphorus is high in meat, eggs and cereals, calcium is low, molasses is used better in the body, as calcium is found at a higher rate as in milk. Although some of the vitamins C and B and carotenoids, which are the precursors of vitamin A, are found in the fruits from which molasses is made, molasses is not considered a suitable food in terms of vitamins, as there are significant losses in vitamins while the must is boiling. 
Since there is very little protein in molasses, it is appropriate to consume it with foods high in protein (tahini, sesame, walnut, poppy, egg, bread, etc.). In molasses, sodium is low and potassium is high. Potassium, together with calcium, is effective in regulating blood pressure. Therefore, molasses can be said to reduce the risk of high blood pressure. Since potassium loss should be replaced in the treatment of diarrheal diseases, individuals with diarrhea may be advised to drink salty buttermilk and molasses sherbet every few hours. Likewise, tea can be sweetened with molasses instead of sugar. Since the simple sugars in molasses mix into the blood quickly, individuals with high blood sugar should avoid molasses as well as sugar and honey (Baysal, 1997: 120).
In a study, the average amount of calcium was found to be between 369.46+16.30 mg/100 g, phosphorus 89.05+280 mg/100 g, magnesium 12.78+0.38 mg/100 g, and iron 7.31+055 mg/100 g in 30 grape molasses samples ( Ayaz, 1996; 62, 63). In another study, the average amount of iron in 108 grape molasses samples was found to be 26.32+24.38 mg/kg (Demirözü et al., 2002; 332). 
Şimşek and Now (2002; 4,6,10) The average iron content of 25 grape molasses samples is 14.55+0.67 mg/100g, the calcium amount is 132+4.17 mg/100g, the magnesium amount is 73+3.32 mg/100 g, the average of 25 mulberry molasses samples they determined the amount of iron as 0.93+0.03 mg/100g, the amount of calcium as 96+3.59 mg/100g, and the amount of magnesium as 67+3.36 mg/100 g. In the same study, it was determined that potassium was found in grape molasses at the highest rate among fig, grape, carob and mulberry molasses, and phosphorus was found in grape molasses, calcium, sodium and magnesium were higher in fig molasses than others.
7. Molasses Quality
A good molasses is not sugary. Among the main sensory properties of grape molasses are its unique taste and odor, homogeneous color and appearance. Within the microbiological properties, there should be no microorganisms that can multiply under normal storage conditions and no toxic substances of microbial origin. The fermentation test must be positive and must not contain artificial dyes. According to the TGK grape communiqué, the commercial, glucose, fructose, etc. of grape molasses. It is forbidden to produce with names such as fruit sugar syrup, grape dessert and grape molasses syrup by diluting and/or multiplying it with sugars (TGK, 2007).
8. Products Made from Molasses
With traditional methods, products such as bulama or zile molasses, fruit pulp, meatballs, walnut sausage, tahini halvah, jam are made (Baysal, 1997: 121). In Maraş, “grape jam” is made by mixing fresh grapes with molasses. Molasses can also be made with jam. Desserts made with a mixture of must, grape juice, starch and other substances in Gaziantep are fruit pulp, sausage, amulet, slice and tarhana (Birer, 1983: 110).
Zile Molasses:
In the production of Zile molasses, first of all, sweet liquid molasses is obtained by the traditional method. At this stage, for 45 liters of must, one egg white is mixed with some must in a bowl and whisked and mixed with the must in the basin. After that, the must is boiled continuously until it reaches the consistency of molasses. The foams formed on the surface are removed, and the molasses that reaches the desired consistency is removed from the stove. After that, the liquid molasses is whipped with a curved stick in the same direction and continuously. After a while, the color of molasses turns yellow and its consistency increases, it looks like leaked honey. While whisking continues, the yeast is prepared. 
Yeast helps the molasses to both solidify and lighten its color. In the preparation of yeast, dry yogurt, egg white, starch, powdered sugar and old Zile molasses are used in Zile. All or some of the items are used. After mixing with yeast, the bleaching and thickening of molasses is possible with continuous whisking. When the color of the molasses in the basin turns white as desired, whisking is stopped. Rest in a cool place until the next day. At the end of aging, molasses is mixed once more and then filled into packages and stored (Kaya et al., 2005; 1487: Batu, 2006: 19-21).
Pestil (Pressed):
Warm wort and crushed starch are added to the boiling wort at a rate of 5-12%, which is close to molasses, and it is cooked by mixing, spread on a clean cloth and dried. The back of the cloth is wetted and separated (Baysal, 1997: 121). The separated pulp is cut into pieces the size of a book page. These pieces are called "Bastik Shuka" in Gaziantep. These fruit pulp leaves are folded two or three times into a smaller shape and starched to prevent sticking. Pestil takes its name from whatever fruit it is made from (Birer, 1983: 110).
It is a type of dessert made by boiling molasses with flour until it turns into a jelly, pouring it on trays and freezing it in winter preparations in Kırşehir. For the meatballs made around Ankara, molasses, starch and water are first mixed and cooked to the consistency of pudding. Starch is sprinkled on a thin-sided tray, and the prepared mixture is poured on it. When it dries, it is cut into lozenges and stored in earthen pots. It can be eaten fresh and dry (Sürücüoğlu & Çelik, 2005: 139).
Walnut Sausage (Köme):
This dessert made with molasses and walnuts is produced in many parts of our country. In some regions, walnut sausage is also made with honey. Molasses, starch/flour, water are thoroughly mixed and cooked to the consistency of pudding. Fresh walnuts (which can also be made with almonds, peanuts or hazelnuts) are dipped into the prepared mixture in the consistency of pudding, if it is thin, it is dipped two more times and dried by hanging (Sürücüoğlu & Çelik, 2003: 39).
Tahini Halva:
It is made in Ermenek district of Karaman province. Molasses is used instead of sugar in making tahini halva. The color of this halva is light brown and tastes good. It is marketed in flat tin cans with lining (Baysal, 1997: 122).
Pistachio Molasses:
In Turkey, molasses production for commercial purposes is mostly made in Gaziantep region. Pistachio molasses is made from fresh or raisins. Molasses soil is added to the must obtained from fresh grapes to remove its acidity and the must is cut. After waiting for a certain time, the must is separated from the residue. The clear and sweet must is boiled on special stoves and brought to the desired consistency. After that, molasses is filled into big boats. They are covered and rested for 1-2 days. After that, the yeast is prepared. 
The yeast used in Gaziantep is composed of old molasses from a year ago. If old molasses is not available, honeycomb can be used for this purpose. To prepare yeast, 4 kg of old molasses is taken into a basin for 100 kg of fresh molasses. After it is thoroughly crushed, some fresh molasses is added to it and mixed well. When the basin is full, it is poured onto the fresh molasses in the tub and mixed thoroughly with a wooden shovel. The fermented molasses is filled into wooden boxes or tin cans. In these boxes, molasses becomes solid within 1-2 days (Kaya et al., 2005: 1488).
Tahini and Molasses: When molasses is mixed with tahini, a pleasant food with high nutritional value is obtained (Birer, 1983: 110).
Amulet: The pulp, which is peeled from the cloths and still wet, is cut into strips 4-5 cm wide and 2025 cm long. A mixture is obtained by grinding walnuts or pistachios, almonds, cloves, cinnamon and granulated sugar until they become powdered sugar. This mixture is sown inside the pulp strips. It is folded and wrapped in equilateral triangles. The ends of the wrapped amulets are glued with water so that they do not fall apart (Birer, 1983: 111).
9. Conclusion and Recommendations
Molasses, which was one of the basic food sources of people in the past, has become a less consumed product in the changing world conditions. More than half of the world's grape production is carried out in Europe. Italy, France, USA, Spain and Turkey are the main countries in world fresh grape production. 
While most of the world grape production is processed into wine, some of it is used for table and some for drying. USA, Turkey, Iran, Greece, South Africa, Chile and Afghanistan are important countries in dried grapes. Increasing the consumption of molasses, which is an important evaluation method, in these countries will only be possible with its promotion.
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As the head chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR, I see the source:
Ms. I sincerely thank Aslı UÇAR for her academic studies titled " Traditional Turkish Taste" Molasses and wish her success in her professional life. It will definitely be considered as an example by those who need it in professional kitchens, related research and in the world of gastronomy.
The original text, which is accepted as a source, is as follows. Google translation was used for the necessary language change.
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