• How Cookery Started in Europe
  • How Cookery Started in Europe
  • How Cookery Started in Europe
  • How Cookery Started in Europe
  • How Cookery Started in Europe

Cooking is the first chemical process. As soon as mankind discovered the effect of fire on food, it also determined the future of the art of cooking. As soon as fire became controllable, it inevitably brought communities together and bonded; because keeping the flames under control required...

How did Cooking start in Europe?
Mustafa AKSOY
Cooking is defined as a kind of art that also requires choosing, preparing, presenting and tasting good food. Butchers who slaughtered the sacrifices donated to the Temples in Ancient Greece were called “mageiros” and this word was later used for cooks. The increase in urbanization, the development of welfare and trade have created a need beyond hospitality, and facilities that offer paid accommodation in cities have emerged. As a result of this, Cooking Profession has become a professional profession in order to meet the food need. 
In this study, the emergence of cookery in Europe and its development process were examined in the light of Ancient Greek, Roman, Medieval, Gothic and Renaissance Periods, the Development of French Culinary Art and the effects of the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution on the Development of Culinary Art. 
Without history and culture, gastronomy is an accidental and borderless art, and the art of table delight is constantly evolving. The kitchen is not a dull art like painting or music. He follows the tastes of his culinary contemporaries and sometimes a little ahead of them (Larousse Gastronomique, 2005, p. 5). 
Cooking is the first chemical process. As soon as mankind discovered the effect of fire on food, it also determined the future of the art of cooking. As soon as fire became controllable, it inevitably brought communities together and bonded; because keeping the flames under control required a division of labor. Cooking has increased its power by adding nutrition to the social attractiveness of fire (Armesto, 2007, p. 23).  
The person who prepares, cooks, tastes and controls food and drinks in the kitchen is called a cook. Cooking is the art of preparing foods to be ready to be eaten by various methods. Cooking is an art as well as the expertise of selecting, preparing, cooking and presenting quality ingredients (Gürsoy, 2013, p. 79). Perhaps the first human also defined cooking as the most ordinary way of preparing food to meet their needs. 
How did Cooking start in Europe?
However, as time went on, it was always cooked in the same way, and eating the same thing led to disgust, which in turn led to curiosity, and later to experience and sensuality. By tasting, experimenting, changing, choosing; man has succeeded in transforming this simplest and most natural act into an art form. This spirit of experience, which is a tool specific to scientific enterprise, has contributed to making cooking an art (Spang, 2007, p. 69). Cooking has given a different meaning to food, not just for nutritional purposes, but has led to new possibilities. Meals turned into sacrificial ceremonies, banquets, rituals, and magical ceremonies that unite dissidents into a community with fire (Armesto, 2007, p. 25). 
The historical evolution of man in relation to food has been formed by eight important revolutions. The first revolution is the invention of cooking. With this invention, man comes to a different position from other living things. The next revolution is not only perceiving food as a necessary fuel to sustain life, but ritualizing the act of eating by making it a social phenomenon. The third revolution is the domestication of animals. The fourth revolution is the start of agriculture. 
The fifth revolution is the process of food becoming an instrument of social differentiation. The sixth revolution is the process of interaction and change arising from the cultural exchange that occurs with the transportation of foodstuffs to other places by traveling long distances. The seventh revolution is ecological and begins with the discovery of America. The last one is the process that started in the 19th century and still continues, where food has become an industrial product (Gürsoy, 2013: 15-16).  
In every period of history, eating and drinking has served as a template for examining the many facets of the human experience, religious and non-religious, personal or social, mythical and scientific. Recipes and cookbooks are the basic documents of culinary history (Bober, 2003: 23). But cooking theory does not consist of recipes alone. The pictures of planting, menus, and the transcripts of the offerings brought to the tombs and temple ceremonies in order to provide food in the next world, which stemmed from the belief in death in ancient Egypt, show the care required by a separate report for each food. 
When this mental attitude and the peculiar nature of the Egyptians' feelings towards nature came together, it inevitably affected the food that the cooks made by taking advantage of so much abundance, in other words, the aesthetics of their superior dishes (Bober, 2003, p. 50). The kitchen is considered soulless without its roots. The past is an integral part of culinary art. 
How did Cooking start in Europe?
To tell the history of the kitchen is to talk about the people who developed the kitchen by creating the building blocks of a civilization. As an art that creates instant pleasure and is consumed in a short time, the kitchen carries a skill that passes the filter of time from the past to the future. The evolution of the kitchen continues and this creates the need for a rework of the works. Like all forms of expression, the kitchen reflects the preferences of a period. (Larousse Gastronomique, 2005, p. 5).  
Although cooking has been one of the most talked about subjects since the Ancient Greek civilization, when it emerged as a professional profession, unfortunately it has not been one of the most written subjects on it. In this result, the fact that food is a constant part of daily life is effective. Anyone who adds flavor to the food, stirs it up, and has salt in the soup is more or less a cook. 
Cooking is an enjoyable daily life for some, a time-consuming and challenging occupation for others. However, no works or studies have been encountered in which professionals who have been specialized in transforming the act of eating into pleasure for thousands of years are considered as subjects. For this reason, the process starting from the Ancient Greek civilization to the industrial revolution is discussed in this study in order to open the door to a gastronomic history specific to cookery. 
Ancient Greek Period 
Ancient Greece, which entered the peace process in the 5th century BC, lived its golden age. Buildings, sculptures, etc., with the trained qualified manpower. They laid the foundations of western civilization by creating artistic works. The golden age inevitably gave birth to a wealthy class and caused divisions between rich and poor people, which had an impact on Greek cuisine (Civitello, 2004, p. 32).  
Ancient Greek cuisine inherited the legacy of Egyptian cuisine. As a result of their commercial relations with Egypt, the Greek sites brought the art of baking bread with yeast to their lands. Thus, bread became thinner and adopted by the public and became a very diverse product. However, the daily food of the people in Ancient Greece was cereal porridge called “maza” (Gürsoy, 2014, p. 3940). Cereal pastes, unleavened bread, some sheep and goat cheeses and olive oil formed the main diet of the poor people. 
How did Cooking start in Europe?
In addition, chickpeas, lentils, vetch, flax-sesame and poppy seeds [to the extent that they can be obtained from Greek lands] have been vegetable food sources. After the sacrificial ceremonies, the meat of animals belonging to the region, including dogs, were also eaten (Civitello, 2004, p. 32). Apart from this, salted fish is considered as a banquet meal on very special occasions. Because meat was expensive, it could only be eaten on religious days when sacrifices were made to the gods and at great feasts.
The butchers who cut the sacrifices donated to the temples were called "mageiros" and this word was later used for cooks (Gürsoy, 2014, pp. 39-41). The increase in urbanization, the development of prosperity and trade created a need beyond hospitality, and facilities offering paid accommodation in cities emerged. As a result of this, cooking has become a professional profession in order to meet the food need (Civitello, 2004, p. 32). 
The Greeks were the first to consider cooking seriously as one of the skills or arts of human life. BC (427-348) an anonymous medical writer, in a paragraph of a little-known poetic text, likened the cook's job to that of a musician. This paragraph constitutes a presentation for a compilation of ancient recipes: “Different melodies come from the same notes: From sharp, flat; they are all notes, but each has a different sound. The best harmony comes from many differences, the worst from few differences: if one always composes on the same note, it will not be enjoyable at all. 
The most daring, the most diverse arrays give the greatest pleasure. This is how cooks prepare food and drink for us by creating dishes from different and similar things. Sometimes they change the materials, sometimes they use the same things, but with a different effect'' (Dalby and Grainger, 2001, p. 7). Greek cooking is not as detailed as in Rome. However, Archestratos [who allegedly coined the word Gastronomy in its current meaning in recent years] is one of the known cooks in Greek history, although he does not have any written work. The reason for this is that he wrote too many poems about food (Civitello, 2004, p. 32). Archestratos is actually a poet. His poem “Gastronomy” is not accepted as a cookbook (Gürsoy, 2014, p. 39).  
In the ancient Greek world, the superiority in the art of eating and drinking originated from the famous chefs who grew up in Sicily. What mattered at that time was the experience of discerning cooks and taste buds as to where to find the best of everything. The lost cookbooks, which compiled the main principles to teach ordinary mortals the art of tableware, came from the hands of these masters. Their superiority comes from the nature of the material they use. The quality of the materials used is suitable climatic conditions and fertile soil as well as the fertility of the sea (Bober, 2003, p. 136).  
How did Cooking start in Europe?
Another factor that contributed significantly to the development of Greek cuisine and therefore the art of culinary was the conquests of Alexander the Great. Alexander the Great is from northern Greece, Macedonia. However, he admires Greek culture. Trained by Socrates' student Plato and his student Aristotle, Alexander the Great set himself the goal of conquering the known world. Conquering a region stretching as far as India and Africa, Alexander created a new culture consisting of Greek, Persian, Hindu and Egyptian cultures: Hellenism. New foods and new cooking techniques that came with this new culture also affected Greek cuisine (Civitello, 2004, p. 33).  
Ancient Roman Period    
In a wealthy house in Ancient Rome, cooks were chosen from among male slaves (Dalby and Grainger, 2001, p. 14). As a result of the cuisine, which has undergone social changes, a high-status cookery profession, sacred texts in which techniques are written, and a kitchen etiquette have emerged. The decline of the Roman Empire began with the lavishness of the feasts. Just then, the cook was freed from the status of a slave and gained prestige for the first time, and the action that was previously just service turned into art. Cooks have become "artists or performers" (Armesto, 2007, pp. 143-144). Since cooking was considered an art in Rome, a good cook increased the prestige of his master in society. 
The cook also benefited from this situation, and a cook who had a good savings with the money and gifts his master gave, came to a level where he could easily buy his freedom. When Markus Antonious met with Cleopatra in Tarsus, he gifted Cleopatra's cook first a house and then a whole city for the meals he prepared (Gürsoy, 2013, p. 28). 
The dominant flavors of Greek and Roman cuisine were silphium, honey, vinegar, garum and plenty of fresh and dried herbs and spices. Contrasting flavors began to be used in dishes, and sweetness was balanced with bitterness, sourness and unusual flavors. The Romans were extremely fond of sweet sauces. It is seen that honey and grape syrup are used in all of these sauces. Greek and Roman cuisines differ in the amount of seasonings used. The actual flavors are the same. Eastern cooks introduced the Roman elite to the flavors and new flavors of the eastern Mediterranean. 
BC In this new kitchen of the 200, silphium, honey, vinegar, garum, dry and sweet wine, cumin, coriander, thyme and many other herbs are expertly combined to create a simple culinary style that emphasizes the natural taste of meat or fish. The Romans, who quickly adopted the new cuisine, developed their own unique ideas. Some Romans, who forgot the rule of little decision, mostly harm, chose to choose extremely spicy dishes that did not suit everyone's taste, and this was a kind of wealth display behavior (Dalby and Grainger, 2001, p. 8). 
How did Cooking start in Europe?
During the Greek and Roman periods, silphium, a plant loved by historical taste buds, became the chief export product of the Greeks' Kyrene settlement in Libya (Bober, 2003, p. 109). The Romans and Greeks used the sap obtained from the stem and roots of Silphium, especially to season meat and fish, and its leaves were cooked like vegetables. 
In addition to being used in food, it has been seen as a rare plant known for its medicinal properties. Cultivated only in Kyrene (present-day Libya), this plant was so valuable that it was kept alongside gold and silver in the Roman state treasury.  
However, due to unknown reasons, it disappeared in the 1st century AD (Dalby and Grainger, 2001, pp. 17-18). The sauce called Garum or Liquamen is a very common and very sharp flavored condiment used in Ancient Greece, Anatolia's Black Sea Region and all Mediterranean dishes during the Ancient Roman period. Its high commercial value has made garum a favorite of ancient times. 
Garum is very difficult to prepare and smells bad. Small fish such as sardines, anchovies and tabby are rotted as a whole, and the internal organs of large fish such as mackerel, toric and moray eel are mixed with salt water and some spicy herbs in a large bowl and left to the sun for fermentation. It is kept in places far from cities because it releases a very bad and heavy odor during fermentation. 
Garum rot, which has matured well, is filtered through fabrics such as strainer and fine cheesecloth, and its water becomes clear. This sharp-smelling sauce is flavored with olive oil, honey, vinegar, wine and dried and ground spices. According to the first cookbook of Roman Apicius, 'De Re Coquinaria', garum sauce is an indispensable part of the cuisine (Civitello, 2004, p. 40; Gürsoy, 2014, p. 49-50; Foodinlife, 02.03.2016). 
The most important work of gourmet Marcus Gavius ​​Apicius, known as the first cookbook author of Ancient Rome and believed to have a noble taste; De Re Coquinaria (On Cooking). Known for his fondness for luxury and expensive food, Apicius poisoned himself when he saw that his wealth decreased due to kitchen expenses, fearing that he would no longer be able to eat as usual (Dalby and Grainger, 2001, p. 178). Apicius is also a cook experimenting. 
How did Cooking start in Europe?
If silphium grass was too expensive and not easy to obtain, he used devil's weed instead. He put this herb and pine nuts in a bowl and made the smell and taste of devil's weed pass into pine nuts. It has tried to obtain this taste and smell with a few pine nuts in the dishes. It can be said that he applies the taste transfer technique in today's molecular kitchen applications in this way. Despite the 10% minority, including Apicius, the rest of the Roman population consisted of poor and low-class people. 
The difference of this class, which has to live in houses with one room and no kitchen, has also shown itself in entertainment venues. While the rich people had fun in the Colosseum, the poor people were able to have fun in the circuses. The lack of kitchens in homes has led to the birth of a new industry: street food. Although there were times when bread was distributed free of charge, street vendors began to sell their basic foods, bread and cereal pastes, to the lower class. [Interesting dishes brought on by poverty are also found in taverns, which later started to sell food.] It can be described as the ancestor of today's gazpacho; A kind of dish consisting of mashed cucumber, vinegar and bread was added to street food (Civitello, 2004, pp. 45-46).
Due to the poor people's desire to imitate the rich tables, street food has diversified and cooking has turned into a profession that requires more skill. It is still a controversial issue in Roman cuisine that cooks and rich people increasingly use very strong sauces and too many spices to shade the main taste of the food. 
Some commentators have put forward the view that sauces and spices are used to eliminate bad odors caused by food not being stored in suitable conditions. According to other commentators, they agree that the water mains of Rome were made of lead pipes, the cooking pots were also made of lead, and therefore the people's sense of taste weakened, and therefore more sauce and spices were used than necessary (Gürsoy, 2014, p. 50).  
Medieval European Period        
Medieval refers to the time from the fall of the Roman Empire to the Renaissance period. Europe has become isolated due to the insecurity of the roads. The daily life of the people, who had to live with the feudal structure and the oppressive attitude of Christianity, was shaped around farms. On the other hand, the “liquids theory” put forward by Hippocrates in Ancient Greece formed the main principles of daily nutrition. 
How did Cooking start in Europe?
The fluids theory has also been associated with personality traits and illness. It was believed that diseases occur with the deterioration of the fluid balance in the body. For the treatment, the opposite of the disease-causing fluid was used. For example; The brain and tongue are cold and damp. In case of diseases, they should be treated with dry and hot spices (Civitello, 2004, p. 5556). 
In this period, spices and condiments were used together, especially to make medicine.  
The fact that the majority of the people lived in the countryside and the feudal structure was effective caused difficulties in accessing food. The way out of this was to live in the city. Living in the city as a professional has been a guarantee of a better life in a sense. Chefs were also included in this lucky group of professions: of course, provided that they were members of a guild (Civitello, 2004, p. 68).    
In the Middle Ages, food production services were carried out by certain craftsmen guilds. In the twelfth century, the Chaine des Rotisseurs (Grillers Guild) was founded in Paris. This guild continues its activities as a gourmet club with the same name today. Over time, these guilds have trained professional kitchen teams. These teams also formed the core of today's head chef and assistants group. Some of the professional culinary standards and traditions applied today have continued from that period to the 21st century. 
For example, the tradition of using the long hat by the chef and the short round hat by the apprentices has remained from that period. Later, black cap was used, but only cooks who were given the title of master chef by their colleagues could wear this hat. Black was a color symbolizing nobility in the Middle Ages. Today, an association operating in the USA with the name of Golden Toque (Golden Chef Hat) gives these hats to chefs who are selected as masters by their colleagues, as an honorary title, just like in Medieval France (Maviş, 2003, p. 5). 
Climate changes in medieval Europe affected not only economic life but also communities. After the period of abundance between 950-1300, there was a small ice age that lasted about 600 years. There is information that during this time many people wandered around Europe in search of food, and some were even eaten by other people. 
During this period, Europe was almost crushed by hunger and the diseases brought on by hunger. Despite this, it can be said that the cooking known today was first seen at the beginning of the mentioned ice age. A cook named Taillevent (real name Guillaume Tirel), who lived between 1312 and 1395, wrote his first cookbook and inspired those who wanted to become a chef. 
After his innovations in the kitchen, he spent the rest of his life with the King of France VI. He completed as head chef of Charles. Taillevent, who still has the rank of three pots and six roses on his tombstone, was the king of France VI. He was knighted by Charles. The cookbook he wrote influenced both the Middle East and Medieval Europe especially in terms of the use of spices (Civitello, 2004, pp. 71-73; Gürsoy, 2013, p. 34). 
How did Cooking start in Europe?
Cooked and raw sauces in the written texts of the Late Gothic period competed in numbers with Apicius' recipes and surpassed Apicius' recipes in the skill and number of spices used. Another aspect in the cuisine of the Late Gothic style, which is compatible with other arts, is the richness of texture and, most importantly, the richness of color. Vibrating transparent jellies were made, reddened with sandalwood or mullein, blue with valerian or mulberry, green with parsley and other herbs, yellowed with saffron (Bober, 2003, pp. 306-307). 
The artistic views and activities that marked the period also affected the art of cooking. During this period, the cooks in the mansions of the nobles gained prestige. There are even knights among them. In parallel with the developments in the branches of art during the Renaissance, the concept of "good food" entered daily life. In the field of food, “Rebirth” started in Italy and spread to France and entered a period of rise (Gürsoy, 2013, p. 34).  
The Renaissance period is known for all kinds of cultural progress, but one of the lesser-known innovations of this magnificent period is the invention of the concept of "famous chief". Bartolomeo Sacchi, better known under the pseudonym Platina, wrote in his bestselling cookbook, which included his friend's recipes, "O immortal Gods! What a wonderful cook you have given us with my friend Martino of Como! '' he wrote. Martino has worked for aristocrats in Milan and Naples. But his most prestigious assignment was when he came to Rome in the middle of the 15th century and took over the kitchens of Cardinal Ludovico Trevisan. 
Both Platina's popular book and Martino's earlier manuscripts witness a chef at the peak of his profession, creating a complex and sophisticated culinary culture using a variety of cooking methods and spices. Although the Italian culinary art of the Renaissance period did not invent the equivalent of perspective in the kitchen, it managed to show itself in the kitchens of Northern Europe (Krondl, 2014: 79-81). 
The Development of French Culinary Art 
In terms of cooking and decorating techniques, the art of cooking has traveled from China to the West over time, that is, from where the sun rises to the direction it sets. 
French chefs learned and adopted the new culinary culture quickly, and after a few generations laid the foundations for the developments that would create the now highly acclaimed French cuisine. 
IV. After Henry, the kings of France and court society continued to be more interested in good food service. Establishing quality tables, supporting the development of master chefs and kitchen staff and the creation of refined recipes began to be considered as an indicator of refinement. XII from the Bourbon dynasty in the 1600s. Louis and XV. Great importance was attached to the development of culinary art and the training of masters at Louis' tables. 
How did Cooking start in Europe?
XIV, known as the sublime because of his fondness for magnificence and luxury. Louis (1643-1715) pioneered the establishment of schools where masters and cooks would be trained (Maviş, 2003, p. 7). 1741 was the period when the star of French cooks shined. Their fame spread throughout Europe, the nobles of other countries either sent their cooks to the famous French chefs for training or transferred these famous masters for their own kitchens with high wages. However, the job of the cooks has not been easy. 
They had to prepare more than a hundred meals for dinner alone. This has accelerated the evolution of kitchen utensils. For example, pots and pans were started to be designed suitable for use, and charcoal barbecues were used to keep the cooked food warm until service. Towards the eighteenth century, cookers that could hold about twenty pots entered the kitchens (Gürsoy, 2013, p. 41). Gastronomy writer Brillat Savarin (1755-1826) is seen as an early practitioner of what is known as molecular gastronomy because of his genuine interest in food preparation. 
Molecular Gastronomy is the art of combining different flavors and aromas, obtained by doing chemical experiments on foods, on a plate. Molecular gastronomy, which turns a restaurant kitchen into a chemistry laboratory, can create wonderful tastes. Brillat Savarin's most important work is "The Physiology of Taste", which he worked on for 25 years (Thesis, 2012, p. 105). In the work, also known as the Physiology of Taste, all aspects of food and mouth taste were handled scientifically. This book brought him such fame that not only one type of cheese but also different egg, meat and chicken dishes were named BrillatSavarin. 
Considered the architect of the French cuisine, Marie Antonie Careme (1738-1833) started working in a kitchen at the age of 10 and soon became a good pastry maker. She had the opportunity to learn the basics of culinary art in this restaurant. At the age of 32 she managed to publish two books on pastry. The sauces that Careme has developed with a modular system are the greatest contribution it has made to the culinary world. 
Accordingly, the five main sauces are the basic building blocks. It paved the way to obtain hundreds of different sauces from five main sauces by adding wine, aromas, cheese and vegetables (Civitello, 2004, pp. 176-177). Careme's sense of perfection in detail and technique has led him to write important cookbooks, design new kitchen appliances and invent new dishes. Due to his interest in architecture, the use of ice sculptures and molded ornaments for decorative elements on the tables first started with him. 
Another visual contribution of Careme to today's kitchen was the chef's uniform. He designed the chef's hat used today. He designed a hundred pleats on the chef's hat, which he designed in white, and this symbolized that there is a way a good chef can make a hundred kinds of eggs. The chef's jacket was already two rows of buttons, as a custom from the military clothes of kings and cooks on the battlefield. Careme has introduced two more aesthetically pleasing changes to this traditional jacket: it has made its color white and its sleeve cuffs with a back slit. 
How did Cooking start in Europe?
Thus, instead of rolling up his sleeves while the chef is working, his cuff will be folded up to give a neat appearance. He made three changes to the trousers. He chose black and white gingham or striped patterns to cover up the stains that may be left by the oil splashing while working. In case of hot oil spills, which can happen frequently, he removed the doublets of the legs to prevent burning of the ankles, and thirdly, he used snap fasteners instead of zippers so that the trousers could be pulled out in a way that would cut off contact with the skin, in case of hot oil burns. Finally, he placed a scarf to wrap around his neck. 
It is also to wipe the sweat from time to time and to protect the vocal cords of the cook who is constantly running from hot to cold (Civitello, 2004, 175-177; Gürsoy, 2013, pp. 57-59). The last two volumes of the five-volume book named "The Art of the Kitchen" written by Careme, who died in 1833, were completed by his partner Plumarey. In this book, he explained the history and evolution of the 500-year-old cuisine. 
What is written in the book does not consist only of recipes; He explained all aspects of food preparation processes, Grande Cuisine, which is considered an art, and its strict principles (Maviş, 2003, p. 10). Escoffier, a student of Careme, mentioned in his book “Le Guide Culinaire” 202 ways to prepare eggs, apart from omelet recipes. Omelet recipes are 82 (Civitello, 2004, p. 175).  
One of the most famous chefs of the period was Georges Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935). The radical changes he brought to the organization of service and cuisine while managing Savoy hotels in London in the late nineteenth century were his greatest professional success. He is the creator of the kitchen team consisting of experts who undertake strictly defined tasks and the founder of the modern understanding in which meals are served in a planned order. The new kitchen trend designed by Escoffier started the haute cuisine "refined kitchen" era in the kitchen (Gürsoy, 2013, p. 63). 
Escoffier, known as the emperor of world cuisine, did not work as a cook for kings, princes and nobles like Careme; o Managed the best quality hotel restaurants in Europe. He has increased the value of "Grande Cuisine", which has reached perfection with Careme; made radical changes in the service and kitchen organization; It simplified the menus by giving importance to specialization in the kitchen and presented the dishes in a planned order. Since Escoffier simplified the dishes of the "Grande Cuisine" culinary period, he created a new kitchen style and this style became "Cuisine Clasique" and went down in history as the creator of classical cuisine in Escoffier. 
How did Cooking start in Europe?
Escoffier was awarded the Legion D'Honneur, the highest order of France, by Eduard Herriot, the prime minister of the time, in 1920, as the person who best introduced the French Culinary Art to the world and increased its value. In his most well-known book, The Guide to Cooking (Le Guide Culinaire), he included the recipes of more than 5000 dishes and side dishes related to classical culinary art; He gave information about cooking techniques, food preparation techniques and the materials used in the meal (Maviş, 2003, p. 10). 
The Effects of the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution on the Development of Culinary Art 
The French Revolution ended the development of French cuisine in the palaces and started the era of restaurants. First of all, with the abolition of guilds and privileges, the legal basis for the opening of new locales was established. The cooks of the big houses, who became unemployed after the revolution, had to find a new source of income in order to survive; This, in turn, led to the establishment of dining houses, that is, restaurants for the public (Le Cordon Bleu, Classic French Food, 1998, p. 11). The development of the restaurant business, which started late, developed rapidly in parallel with the periodical developments. 
The emergence of today's restaurants is based on the fact that people who came to France after the flamboyant period of Luis the 14th met their food needs in the rooms they stayed in, by ordering them from the places that serve food or in groups. The French Revolution that followed was an important event that affected the restaurant business. Famous chefs who became unemployed after the revolution immigrated to different countries and opened restaurants in order to continue their work, which is one of the important reasons for the spread of restaurants around the world (Maviş, 2003, p. 9). 
The first restaurants to open in Paris after the Revolution were usually gathered around the Palais Royal. After a while, new cooks who grew up in an atmosphere of freedom emerged, surpassing the cooks of the nobility in mastery. Moreover, some of them are not even Parisian. Its customers are no longer just choked people or foreign tourists. The tradition of business dinners emerged in this period, at the beginning of the 19th century. By 1804, the number of restaurants in Paris exceeded 500, and in 1825 the concept of restaurant was completely settled (Örs, 2005). Centuries before the restaurant was a place to eat, something to eat was referred to as a healing broth.
Since the 16th century, it is the name given to foods that generally fulfill human power and "restore" it. As a city-specific socialization space, the restaurant was born from this broth. The early restaurateurs didn't sell much solid food; In advertisements, they promoted their establishments as suitable places for those who cannot have dinner due to their delicate structures. Therefore, in its original form, a restaurant is not a place to eat, but a place to sit and sip slowly (Spang, 2007, p. 20). 
The concept of restaurant, on the other hand, was first used for the local called "La Marmite Perpetuelle" in the seventh volume of the "Gourmand Almanac" published in 1810 by Grimod de la Reyniere (Örs, 2005). Restaurants no longer specialize in catering to individual tastes, rather than painstakingly selling healthy soups to a delicate, lean-liver clientele. The use of a printed menu in restaurants, which allows each customer to choose their own meal, has been another distinctive innovation in service. 
How did Cooking start in Europe?
Before the birth of the restaurant, the menu was always referred to as a list of all the dishes to be served at a particular invitation. The tablet had no menu; no matter who, people and no matter what, food would come at the same time. However, restaurants have required the preparation of a ready-made food list, in which each customer makes his personal choices at the most appropriate moment, and a new menu understanding (Spang, 2007, pp. 94-95). For the first time, the restaurant made it possible to eat with others without sharing their meals (Spang, 2007, p. 98). In the following period, many types of restaurants have emerged according to the lifestyles of societies, social structures, climatic conditions, habits, beliefs, geographical characteristics, food serving styles and the way the food is eaten.
The beginning of the industrial revolution in England and its effect on the British society accelerated the developments in catering services in England. 
Gastronomy developed and became widespread in the kitchens of rulers, their close circles, religious leaders and great merchants. The common denominator of these groups is wealth, cultural accumulation and leisure time. Where these came together, food demands were created and creative cooks were funded and supported. Until the 1900s in Europe, good cooks were financed by rulers, the wealthy, and religious leaders, but especially after the years when motor vehicles entered the service of humanity, it was the hotel industry that gave this support (Gürsoy, 2013, p. 71). 
The industrial revolution coincided with the last years of the development of the understanding of cuisine in France and other European countries. Now that a new class of entrepreneurs, industrialists and bankers emerged on the stage of history, this rising class wanted their meals to be at least as refined as those of the nobles. Thus, important masters and kitchen staff entered the service of the new class. During this period, food service was started in private clubs for wealthy entrepreneurs. Not just for the wealthy entrepreneurs, but also for the lower-income middle class, who were now interested in "good food." 
Eating outside the home has become quite popular because it is an expense that can be met by the middle-income group, and a real food service industry has begun to form (Gürsoy, 2013, p. 69). The industrial revolution, along with the changes it brought about in the social production and consumption forms and relations, also affected the culinary arts. 
In the late 19th century, French journalist Marthe Distel started to use the term "cordon bleu" commercially with the food magazine La Cuisiniere Cordon Bleu, which she started to publish in 1895. Celebrity chefs from Paris began to write for this magazine, giving information on how to choose the best ingredients, excellent preparation methods, and the history or significance of a dish. In December 1895, Marthe Distel gave its subscribers the opportunity to see famous chefs at work. The first lecture was given at the Palais Royal in Paris on January 14, 1896, and thus Le Cordon Bleu was founded. 
In a very short time, the cuisines of Paris were revived and the history of food was once again determined by French chefs. Dubois, Appert, Duglere and Pellaprat developed innovations that formed the basis of contemporary French cuisine. Of these, Pellapart was one of the cooks who taught in the early years of Le Cordon Bleu in Paris. Le Cordon Bleu publications and lectures spread all over the world, and soon after, students in Russia, America, and Europe began to "roll" vegetables and whisk egg whites (Le Cordon Bleu, Classic French Cooking: 1998, p. 11).  
How did Cooking start in Europe?
There has always been a relationship between the concepts of nature and culture, cuisine and food preparation. In the discourses of famous thinkers and cooks in the past; They included statements that include that civilization owes everything to the art of cooking. It was also the art of the cook that saved humanity from primitivism and brought it to the level of civilized life with ingenious culinary inventions. Some of the stages in which traditions gain refinement; People coming together to form a community, the beginning of agricultural activities, the emergence of political groups and private property, religious rituals have made the concept of eating and cooking a social phenomenon. 
The art of fine dining has constantly struggled to secure a place for itself among other recognized forms of culture and to gain entry into the world of culture. However, this struggle has been very tough, especially wars, revolutions, political and philosophical views have led to positive and negative developments in this sense. While defining the culinary art; It can be accepted by everyone that it is a discipline that includes the processing and preservation of food, the use of beverages, table traditions and the rules and principles necessary to achieve perfect results, but the important thing is to give the culinary art the prestige of experimental and theoretical status and to be seen as a real art. The key element in this art is the cook! 
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Dalby, A. & Grainger, S. (2001). Antique Foods and Food Culture. Istanbul: Homer Bookstore. 
Gursoy, D. (2013). Gastronomy from Past to Present. (2nd Edition). Istanbul: Capricorn Publishing. 
Gursoy, D. (2014). Deniz Gürsoy's Gastronomy History. Istanbul: Capricorn Publishing. 
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Larousse Gastronomique The World's Largest Culinary Encyclopedia. (2005). Istanbul: Capricorn Publishing. 
Le Cordon Bleu (1998). Classic French Cookbook. (1st Edition). Ankara: Dost Bookstore. 
Maviş, F. (2003. Industrial Food Production. (1st Edition). Ankara: Detay Publishing. 
Ors, A. (2005) Freedom First, Then Food http://arsiv.sabah.com.tr/2005/05/16/cp/gur 101-20050306-102.html (accessed 05.03.2016). Spang, RL (2007). The Invention of the Restaurant. (1st Edition). Ankara: Dost Bookstore. Thesis, Z. (2012). The History of Taste. Istanbul: Hayykitap. 
As the head chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR, I see the source:
Mr. I sincerely thank Mustafa AKSOY, Nurhayat İFLAZOĞLU, Cihan CANBOLAT for their academic studies titled "How Cookery Started in Europe" and wish them success in their professional lives. It will definitely be considered as an example by those who need it in professional kitchens and the gastronomy and culinary community.
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The original text, which is accepted as a source, is as follows. Google translation was used for the necessary language change.