• The Cultural History of Food
  • The Cultural History of Food
  • The Cultural History of Food
  • The Cultural History of Food
  • The Cultural History of Food

He was born in 1951 in Nottingham, England. He graduated from the Department of Philosophy at York University in 1973. He settled in Turkey in 1973. He has been conducting research on Turkey's culinary culture since 1983. He presented papers related...

The Cultural History of Food from Hunting to GourmetThe Cultural History of Food from Hunting to Gourmet
This article takes a journey into the depths of culinary arts and gastronomy, shaped by the rich knowledge and experience of Chef Ahmet Özdemir. He believes that the history of cooking encompasses not only past recipes but also the social and cultural evolution of humanity. In this article, Ahmet Özdemir (2024 Restaurant Trends) covers a broad timeline, from hunting and gathering to modern gourmet kitchens, revealing how food culture has evolved and shaped our current understanding of gastronomy.
From Hunting to Agriculture
In the earliest periods of human history, hunting and gathering were the primary methods for sustaining life, with food seen merely as a necessity for survival. Over time, (Kitchen Trends) however, the discovery of agriculture and the transition to a settled life marked the beginning of a significant transformation in food culture.
The Birth of Culinary Arts
With the advent of agriculture, the cultivation of various grains, vegetables, and fruits became possible, leading to a diversity in cooking methods and the types of food consumed. (Cuisine ConsultancyThis also allowed for innovations in cooking techniques and kitchen utensils.
Gastronomy and Civilizations
Each civilization developed its unique culinary culture based on the geographical resources available to it, such as the use of spices in the Middle East or the prominence of rice and fresh vegetables in Asia. (2024 Food Trends) This diversity was further enriched over centuries through trade routes and cultural exchanges.
Modern Kitchen and Gourmet Understanding
The Industrial Revolution and technological advances revolutionized food production and distribution. These changes facilitated the discovery of innovative cooking methods and ingredients (2024 World Gastronomy) in the culinary arts. In modern times, gourmet dishes highlight not only taste and quality but also creativity and the art of presentation.
The Message of Chef Ahmet Özdemir
Chef Ahmet Özdemir emphasizes to the future chefs of Turkish Cuisine History the importance of respecting culinary history and the significance of academic knowledge in this field. Gastronomy is not just about cooking but also about conveying cultural heritage, history, and art. Özdemir underscores the importance of passing this rich heritage to future generations and enhancing the global recognition of Turkish cuisine.
This article reflects the deep knowledge and experience of Chef Ahmet Özdemir in the field of gastronomy. (Turkish Culinary Culture) By covering the evolution of food culture from hunting and gathering to gourmet kitchens in a broad perspective, it reminds us that cooking is not just a necessity but also an art form.
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Coord. Chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR
International And Intercontinental
Restaurant Consultant and Kitchen Consultant
World Ambassador of Ottoman and Turkish Cuisine
The Cultural History of Food, From Hunting to Gourmet* 
Salih SOSLU**a
Book Review
IŞIN, PM (2018). Cultural History of Food from Hunting to Gourmet, Yapı Kredi Publications, Istanbul.
Although culinary culture has a deep-rooted history, it is seen that Turkish literature studies within the scope of the field are not sufficient in terms of quality and quantity and more studies are needed. It is known that the studies so far are related to coffee, biodiversity and the culinary culture of Europe, and there are few studies and teachings on Anatolian and Turkish culinary culture. 
For this reason, the lack of resources in the literature is one of the problems faced by the related groups who receive education in the field of gastronomy. Our diagnosis on this issue was made while giving a lecture called "History of Gastronomy" at the university. As a matter of fact, it can be stated that the work examined in the following literary text, taking into account historical events and archaeological data, conveys the food culture of human beings in a homogeneous way, creates a necessary resource and makes an important contribution to the field of gastronomy.
He was born in 1951 in Nottingham, England. He graduated from the Department of Philosophy at York University in 1973. He settled in Turkey in 1973. He has been conducting research on Turkey's culinary culture since 1983. He presented papers related to his research fields at scientific meetings and wrote encyclopedia articles on culinary culture. 
He was interested in the issue of agricultural biodiversity in order to keep the Ottoman Era fruit varieties alive. The project titled Turkey Fruit Heritage Conservation and Database Creation Project, which he started in 2006 with Esin Alice Işın Taylor, was led by Dr. Fusun Ertug, Prof. Dr. It continued until 2010 with the participation of Neşe Bilgin and Elisabeth Tüzün. He won the World Book Magazine Golden Page Award in 2009 with his work "Gülbeşeker: History of Turkish Desserts", which deals with the cultural history of Turkish desserts. It was awarded the TÜMBIFED Gastronomy Award in 2019.
His works:1
Chef-An Ottoman Officer's Cookbook, A King's Confectioner in the Orient, Anatolian Bird Names Dictionary, Tercüme-i Kenzül'l-İştiha, Gülbeşeker: History of Turkish Sweets, Ottoman Culinary Dictionary, Sherbet and Spice: The Complete Story of Turkish Sweets and Desserts, Ottoman Cuisine Empire, Bountiful Empire: A History of Ottoman Cuisine.
Priscilla Mary IŞIN, The Cultural History of Food from Hunting to Gourmet, Yapı Kredi Publications, Istanbul, 2018, 422 pages, 325 figures, ISBN 978-975-08-4156-9.
What are the parts of the work named “Cultural History of Food from Hunting to Gourmet”?
In this work, Introduction (p. 7-8), 1. Paleolithic Age (2.500.00012.000/14,000 years ago) (pp. 11-22), 2. Neolithic Age (New Stone Age) (p. 23-36), 3 Mesopotamia: Sumerians, Akkadians, Assyrians, Babylonians (p. 37-43), 4. Ancient Egypt (p. 44-52), 5. First Anatolian Civilizations (p. 53-69), 6. Iran (p. 70) -87), 7. Central Asia (pp. 88-114), 8. Ancient Greece and Rome (pp. 115-133), 9. Byzantium (p. 134-147), 10. Medieval Arabian Cuisine (p. 148) -162), 11. China (pp. 163-180), 12. India (pp. 181-193),
13. Anatolian Seljuk State and Anatolian Principalities (pp. 194-210), 14. Ottoman Cuisine: Introduction (211 -220), 15. Early Ottoman Period (1299-1500), 16. Ottoman Classical Period (pp. 246-293), 17. Late Ottoman Period (pp. 1700-1923), 18. Medieval Europe (5th-15 th century) (p. 317-334), 19th Europe 1500-1700 (p. 335-358), 20th Europe 1700-1900 (p.359-381, with a total of 20 (twenty) chapters, Acknowledgments (p. 382-383), Bibliography (p. 384-411) and Index (p. 412-422).
What is being told to us in the work?
The work, starting from the Paleolithic Age, when human beings lived in the form of hunting-gathering and nomads, until the 19th century, when the concept of Industrial Revolution and Nationalism emerged, the food products, production and production processes of communities, kingdoms, states and nations that ruled in the cosmopolitan world. It examines the consumption relationship, eating-drinking habits, cooking techniques, table manners and kitchen utensils in the light of historical developments, in terms of theme and chronology, as a whole, around 20 chapters.
In the first part of the book , it has been mentioned that the food culture, which has been discussed since the Paleolithic Age, from which kinds of plants and hunted animals in nature, how the food was processed, the food started to be cooked with the use of fire and the food should be stored in accordance with the seasonal conditions.
In the Second Chapter , after giving the definition and settlements of the Neolithic Age, which was revolutionary in the socio-cultural life of human beings, the process of domestication of plants and animals, increasing the cooking techniques of food by expanding the usage areas of fire, ensuring the processing of food and improving the storage conditions, the Çatalhöyük settlement was mentioned to conceptualize the subject. focused on.
In the Third Chapter , the food cultures of the civilizations in Mesopotamia (Sumer, Akkad, Babylon, Elam and Assyria) were examined and the recipes of the dishes that were created in the form of literary texts were explained, the historical development of beer was explained and the table culture of the Sumerians was discussed in detail.
In the Fourth Chapter , Egypt's historical food culture and table manners are covered extensively, and food products, dishes, beverages (beer) and storage conditions of foods according to seasonal conditions are explained.
Fifth PartFood products, bakery products, dishes, drinks (beer and wine), banquet festivities, ceremonial feasts of the Urartians, found on the tablets and reliefs of the Hittites, by considering the food culture of the civilizations (Hittite, Urartu, Phrygian and Lydian) that make up the historical past of Anatolia in Turkey, aquatic products and beverages (wine and beer), the importance of bread, which was the leading product of bakery products in Hittite and Urartu civilizations, Phrygian food, beverages (grape wine, mead and beer) and the traditional dead food found in King Midas' tomb, Lydians' vegetal diversity Important explanations are given about food products, their meals and the fact that bread is a basic food as in the civilizations in Anatolia. While providing information on this subject,
Chapter SixElam, Persian, Sassanid and Safavid civilizations, which make up the historical past of today's Iran, are included in Elamites' sacrificial scenes and rooster taming, Persian dry foods and drinks (grape wine, date wine and beer), Sassanid meals, drinks (wine) with palace cuisine. , gulab -rose sherbet-, gulencubin -rose sherbet-, sikencübin -vinegar sherbet-, turnip juice), desserts and the dishes called sikbac and herise, the meat dish with vinegar that King Husrev loved so much, and the palace and the army, as Turkish is spoken in the palace.
Detailed information is presented about the Safavids, whose cuisine developed as a Turkish-Iranian synthesis, rice, büryan kebab, lavash, baklava, lemon and rose sherbets, and two cookbooks written during their rule.It has been mentioned that there are different kinds of rice such as saffron, garlic, mulberry, almond, pine nut, egg and cilav - non-oil rice boiled in water, with a special interest in the rice product, which is the main food source of the Chinese and Indian cultures of the Safavids.
In the Seventh Chapter , the food culture of the Central Asian societies (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, East Turkestan, Tibet and Mongolia) is discussed, such as milk, yogurt, kumiss, boza, sheep, rice, millet, barley and horse meat. products were introduced. 
Kurut, which is made from the precipitate that is formed by boiling the buttermilk left after the butter is removed from strained yoghurt or yoghurt churned in a churn, that is, dried yoghurt in Persian, butter or clarified butter, which is used by removing its water and foam, and stored for a long time, heated to make yoghurt. Cream obtained from the residue formed on the surface of the milk, tail fat produced from the tails of fatty sheep, bacon and dried meat, pastry, ravioli, handle, toğril -spicy meat stuffed into the intestine, stuffed mumbar-,
yörgamaç -shredded tripe stuffed into the intestine-, roasting, samsamrak -spices Head meat prepared with yogurt and yoghurt, buxsi - a meal made by pouring honey and milk on boiled wheat and almond kernels-, usbari -bread baked in ash is chopped into oil and sugar is poured on it,uwa -boiled rice mixed with sugar-, gullaç, kavut and uhut -it is a sweet that comes out because starch turns into sugar during germination. It has been shown among the important food products that have contributed to the world cuisine culture. 
In addition, mentioning table manners, it is a very gluttonous behavior to take out a knife and peel the bones at the table, eating the food with pleasure gives a sign of satisfaction to the owner of the meal, the refusal of the treat is not welcomed no matter how full it is, the need for the prepared banquet is welcomed with respect, it is condemned to interfere with someone else's bite, In order for the guests to be satisfied with the banquet, the importance of behaviors such as clean presentations was emphasized.
In the Eighth Chapter , Ancient Greek and Roman culinary cultures are explained with separate and detailed explanations. In ancient Greece, in the 8th and 5th centuries BC, the basic foods of the society consisted of cereals formed in the form of bread or slurry, fish, cheese, honey, olives, vegetables and fruits. imported spice types such as black pepper and long pepper were encountered. 
The types of food used once again showed the existence of status in society. Poor people are content with barley bread, acorns, pearls, olives, lentils, cheese, onions, garlic, mushrooms and wild herbs, while wealthy people have seafood, pith, chicken, goat, beef and pork, offal, vegetables, fruit and vegetables. It is known that they consume products such as sweets. There are olive oil and wine workshops. Garum, which they use as fish sauce, is among the indispensable kitchen products. A wide variety of products were encountered in the culinary culture of ancient Rome. 
The reason for this is the expansionist policy of the empire. Grain comes from Egypt, Sicily and England, black pepper, ginger and cinnamon from India, pickles from Spain, pomegranate from Libya and oysters from England. On the other hand, there are products that were popularized by the empire. These are apple, grape, fig, medlar, mulberry, chestnut, walnut, celery, turnip, cabbage, lettuce, garlic, onion, leek, dill, sage, thyme, coriander, bird tongue, pheasant, peacock, fallow deer and guinea fowl. Roman cuisine, influenced by Greek cuisine and the places it conquered, established a synthesis kitchen and formed the basis of today's culinary culture of Europe. 
In addition, it has a food culture in which heavy sauces are used, wine is added to the dishes and spices are preferred at a rate that will make the dishes lose their essence. Meals are eaten by hand. However, soups are consumed using a spoon and fork is rarely used. Dinner is the most important meal. The most common drinks are water with honey (hydromel), water with vinegar (oxymel) and wine. Bread was an important food in Ancient Rome as it was in Ancient Greece. There are important cookbook authors. However, only the entire work of the 5th century AD, Apicius De Re Quoquinaria, has survived.
In the Ninth Chapter , Byzantine cuisine is mentioned and it is explained that it is a culinary culture as a synthesis of ancient Greek and Roman and Anatolian civilizations. As an effect of Christianity, bread, fish and wine products are concentrated in the stalls of the shops in the city. The reason for this is that the bread Hz. It is the theology that Jesus has his body, wine his blood, and the fish his symbol.
In the tenth chapter , the culinary culture of the Arabs in the Middle Ages was discussed and its effect on the Ottoman and European cuisines was explained, and it was emphasized that they had a culinary culture consisting of basic foods such as barley, mutton and milk, camel meat and milk and dates. The influence of Mesopotamia, ancient Greek-Roman and Central Asian Turks, with Iran being the biggest factor, is seen in the shaping of Arab cuisine. The oldest Arabic cookbook is “Kitab el-Tabih” written by Ibn-i Seyyar el-Varrak in the 10th century.
In the Eleventh Chapter , while the culinary culture of China is conveyed, the ancient culture phase is explained, and then the culinary culture of the rulers (Han, Tang, Sung, Yuan, Ming, Qing) who played a role in the historical phase is included. Since the geographical and environmental conditions of the country are different from each other, two different cuisine cultures, northern and southern, have emerged until now, the northern cuisine culture is based on grains such as millet and wheat and mutton, and the southern cuisine culture includes rice, various vegetables and seafood. mentioned. It has been explained that the tea culture also spread from China to the world.
While the culinary culture of India is discussed in the Twelfth Chapter , the geographical and climatic conditions of the country, which are very different from the tropical climatic regions in the south to the steep mountains in the north, diversify the culinary culture, and the Iranian, Arab and Turkish cultures shape the Indian cuisine, and the Indian cuisine through trade activation. The effect of religious rites on food culture has been mentioned, as it affects Middle Eastern countries such as Yemen and Somalia and East African countries.
In the thirteenth chapter , the Anatolian Seljuk State and the culinary culture of the principalities established in Anatolia are discussed. It was mentioned that the effects of Central Asian, Iranian, Arabian and Byzantine cuisines were seen and that meat, cereals, dairy products, legumes, vegetables and fruits were used intensively. The works of Mevlana Celaleddin-i Rumi, which are related to the culinary culture of this period, Ibn Bibi's "el-Evamirü'l-'Ala'iyye fi'l-umuri'l-'Aha'iyye" and Ibn Battuta's work The "Travelbook" and the foundation documents are explained on the basis of reference.
In the Fourteenth Chapter , it is stated that the food culture of the Ottoman Empire was also influenced and varied by the local cuisine culture of Central Asia, Iran, Arab, Seljuk, Byzantine and Anatolia. 
In this context, Ottoman cuisine's stuffed pastries, pastries, baklava and wire kadayıf, as well as rice, bulgur, watermelon and apricot products spread over wide geographies, vegetables and fruits were grown abundantly, they influenced Western European cuisines in the 16th century, and Muslims and Christians formed a common kitchen. , where religious faculties determined the eating habits, the palace cuisine was developed, the cooks were specialized, the gardens and vineyards were turned into daily entertainment venues,
banquets were held on special occasions, the production area was created by growing the products brought from different countries, pumpkin in the 16th century, pumpkin in the 17th century. maize and turkey in the 18th century, the tomato, which was defined as the "Cherkin aubergine" in the 18th century, the potato in the 19th century,In addition to being a culinary culture shaped by the palace environment and the ruling class, when it is said that products such as yams and sunflowers enter and "Ottoman Cuisine" is a culinary culture, it sheds light on the political, military and socio-economic fields of all segments of the society, including table manners, kitchen utensils and customs related to food. It was emphasized that it should be defined as a kitchen that holds
In the Fifteenth Chapter , the cuisine of the Early Ottoman Period (1299-1500) is examined, the Ottoman Empire expanded the culinary culture with the conquests, fruit growing was made widespread, seafood was used, various products were bought from southeast Asia, India and Europe, Information about the food, beverages and desserts, the food culture and table manners of the sultans, the development of the palace cuisine and the sources of the Ottoman cuisine are given.
Sixteenth DivisionFood products, dishes (soup: yogurt, lentils, chicken, sour almonds, chestnut chicken, orange sour chicken, pomegranate syrup chicken, etc.) fresh broad beans, nardenk with sugar; pilaf: rice, saffron, green, red, vermicelli, vermicelli, pomegranate syrup, simit, meat, pepper, red raisin, helile, cabbage, fruit, garlic; meat dishes: pigeon stew, roast kebab, Rice with meat, meatballs, doner kebab; vegetable dishes: dolma, kalye/zucchini bastı, Arabian vaccine/aside, pickles -grape, turnip, fish-; salad: turnip, onion,
garlic, radish, cucumber, salt and vinegar mixtures; borek : market, chicken, minced meat, tatar), drinks (salep, coffee, sherbet, boza and wine) and desserts (mahmudiye, finger zelebiyye -zulbiye-, baklava, gullaç, pudding,While explanations are made about Ottoman cuisine by making use of zerde, jam), table manners, the food culture of the Christian people, the restaurant culture, the effect of Ottoman cuisine on European cuisine and Evliya Çelebi's book "Travel", writers such as Gelibolulu Mustafa Ali, Seyyid Hasan and Kömücüyan have a place in their name. A detailed explanation was given.
In the Seventeenth Chapter , it is pointed out that while there were power losses in the political and economic fields during the Late Ottoman Period (1700-1923), important developments were experienced in the culinary culture. It was stated that Ottoman cuisine was a cuisine open to innovations, and among these innovations were Hünkarbegendi, stuffed okra, stewed, puff pastry, melon baklava, Turkish delight, bread kadayıf, Circassian chicken and Uzbek pilaf. It has been observed that the products such as tomatoes, peppers, yams and potatoes originating from the Continental America are processed to make stuffed tomatoes, mashed potatoes and potato chips. 
It was emphasized that the westernization movements affected the Ottoman cuisine and that there were products such as English-style tea and Italian pasta in the 18th century. It is explained that the French cuisine gained momentum during the reign of the food enthusiast Abdulaziz by under the influence of the palace and its surroundings during the reign of Abdülmecid, and deeply affected the Ottoman palace cuisine. 
The revolts that started with Mahmud Nedim's statement that omelette was nothing but eggs with cheese and that local white cheese should be used instead of Gouda cheese in this cultural imperialism that started with westernization, in which French food culture was presented as a school in Ottoman cuisine in almost all of the banquets given by the Ottomans in the 19th century, gradually increased.
Swedish King Karl 12, who was defeated by Russia in 1709, took refuge in the Ottoman Empire by stating that the rebellion in the kitchen increased, the revolt in the kitchen continued with Ahmed Muhtar Hacı Beyzade's harsh appearance on the corruption in the kitchen, and the Ottoman cuisine affected the European cuisine. Stuffed cabbage, İzmir meatballs and almond sherbet are traditionally included in Swedish cuisine in the process that started withSubjects such as the examination of Ottoman cuisine by European cooks and the development of restaurant culture that started in the Ottoman Classical Period and all kinds of Ottoman cuisine dishes were discussed.
In the Eighteenth Chapter , while dealing with Medieval Europe (5.15th century), the effect of geographical conditions on the culinary culture was mentioned, in this regard, Southern Europe, which has a culinary culture based on products such as meat, butter and beer in Northern and Central Europe and has a connection with the Mediterranean. It is explained that bread, olive oil and wine products are widely used. It has been determined that Arab and Ottoman cuisines are effective on European cuisine, and accordingly, products such as sugar, saffron, rice, lemon, citrus, eggplant, spinach, Damascus nut, sesame and rose water are widely used. 
Claiming that there is a class distinction in European cuisine, the power of wealthy people is represented by pieces of meat cooked on fire, while the presence of poor people is tried to be explained with vegetables and legumes. It was mentioned that laws were enacted that the hunting culture was specific to wealthy and noble people. In relation to the food culture, it is explained that pork butchers are widespread, seafood is preferred, molds are created for cake, leavened and unleavened bread are made, bread ovens are widely used, various types of pasta are prepared with technological machines and manual system, and wine habit is formed. It has been mentioned that at the beginning of the most important developments related to table manners, the habits of using knives and forks have become indispensable.
While talking about the European (1500-1700) culinary culture in the Nineteenth Chapter, the Spaniards, who tried to find a new way to India and the Far East, which were the source of spices in their voyages of discovery, started a struggle to get a share from the trade of spices, which Western European states considered as light in weight but heavy in weight, When they discovered America, this period coincided with the developments and innovations of the European cuisine, under the leadership of Italian cuisine, the dominant delicious sauces were abandoned, the natural flavors of the dishes were revealed,
the use of spices was reduced, ice cream was produced, the importance given to local products increased, the share plate was paid attention to table manners. and widespread use of forks,It is an example of the garden culture that feeds the Ottoman cuisine, where the chefs of the wealthy and noble classes kept scientific approaches in the forefront while cooking by creating diversity in food, sugar production increased rapidly with the colonial activities, the gourmet or appetizer culture gained importance, cookbooks were written, national cuisines emerged and the Ottoman cuisine was fed. In this study, information was given about the subjects such as the creation of gardens where various fruits and vegetables were grown.
Information was given about the issues such as the emergence of national cuisines and the creation of gardens where various fruits and vegetables were grown by taking the garden culture that fed the Ottoman cuisine as an example.Information was given about the issues such as the emergence of national cuisines and the creation of gardens where various fruits and vegetables were grown by taking the garden culture that fed the Ottoman cuisine as an example.
In the Twentieth Chapter , while it is mentioned that the trade volume expanded in Europe (1700-1900), the Industrial Revolution began, the nation-states proliferated and the nationalism movement became stronger, it was stated that the developments had a great impact on the culinary cultures of the countries. 
Accordingly, the developing nation-state phenomenon and feelings of nationalism contributed to the formation of food culture, French cuisine was accepted in the Western world in the 18th century, French cooks were accepted all over Europe, French cuisine was operated on a systematic basis within the scope of rules, In Paris, restaurants were established,
pastry was developed, lunch was made a distinguished meal, the French national cuisine was created in the 19th century, gastronomy maps were prepared in France, cookbooks were written, the work of Marie-Antoine Careme and Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin. They wrote the works that introduced the French cuisine to the world, and that England and France, which are rivals in the field of politics, continue their struggles in the field of gastronomy,After the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, the cooks who left the wealthy and noble people opened their own restaurants, modern restaurants emerged, and with the increase in industrialization, the food cultures were changed. The subjects that have reached far places are included.
Who is the target audience of this work?
The work has been prepared within the scope of a rich bibliography and footnote explanations consisting of data in the form of ancient sources, modern literature, archaeological excavations, visual arts, interview data and anecdotal information. In this respect, it is a must-read for anyone interested in World Cuisine, especially in the departments of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, Cookery, Food and Agriculture.
As a resultThe work named “Cultural History of Food from Hunting to Gourmet” is an important work that entered the field of gastronomy as Turkish literature. It has been understood that since ancient times, political, military and socio-economic events affected inter-communal relations and the relations of these societies with each other developed by influencing their culinary cultures.
In this context, Priscilla Mary IŞIN, who presents to her readers that food products, meals, drinks, desserts, cooking techniques, table habits and banquets differ from society to society and from continent to continent, with a "Bee" craftsmanship, from her original work and from Anatolian and Turkish I would like to congratulate him for making a "culinary culture ambassador" by researching the culinary culture in detail, and for creating a literary text by visiting, seeing and tasting from place to place.
Support Information: During the preparation of this work, no aid/support in kind or in cash was received from any individual or institution.
Conflict of Interest: There is no conflict of interest or gain in the work.
Ethical Approval : The author declares that ethical rules have been complied with in all preparation processes of this work. In case of detection of a contrary situation, Tourism Academic Journal has no responsibility and all responsibility belongs to the author who prepared the work.
Ethics committee approval: This work review is not included in the group of studies that require ethics committee approval.
As the head chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR , I see the source:
Mr. I sincerely thank Salih SOSLU for his academic studies titled "Cultural History of Food from Hunting to Gourmet" and wish them success in their professional life . It will definitely be considered as an example by those who need it in professional kitchens, related research and in the world of gastronomy.
*** You can contact me through my contact information for more information on the subjects specified by labeling, taking into account my professional background in the above article, and to get support for Restaurant ConsultingKitchen Consulting  in the titles within my Service Areas. ***
Turkish Cuisine Chefs, Turkish Chef, Restaurant Consultancy, Kitchen Consultancy.