• What is the History of Baklava?
  • What is the History of Baklava?
  • What is the History of Baklava?
  • What is the History of Baklava?
  • What is the History of Baklava?
  • What is the History of Baklava?
  • What is the History of Baklava?
  • What is the History of Baklava?
  • What is the History of Baklava?
  • What is the History of Baklava?

They are private enterprises affiliated to the "ehl-i hiref-i hâssa" and self-employed artisan organizations working for a salary in state-owned workplaces. The state has a direct control system over the ehl-i hiref-i hâssa and indirectly over the private enterprises affiliated..

What is the History of Baklava?
Organization of Tradesmen in the Ottoman Empire
Tradesmen is the general name of those who are engaged in handicrafts in the Ottoman Empire and those who make their living through the production, purchase and sale of goods and services. the differentiation between the master and the richest, XVIII. Although the distribution of wealth and income between them has increased slightly over the course of the century, there is not much difference.319 
The amount of income is such that the shopkeeper can support himself and his family in modest terms and pay their taxes. The low profit rate accepted by the state also prevents tradesmen from providing capital accumulation.320
The origins of tradesmen in the Ottoman Empire date back to the previous Turkish-Islamic states. Every tradesman branch has its own traditions and every profession has a pir. Hz. Adam's farmers, Hz. İdris tailors, Hz. Yusuf watchmakers, Hz. David, blacksmiths and armorers, Hz. Lokman physicians, Hz. Muhammad is considered the master of merchants, Salman-i Farisi the barbers, and Ahi Evran the master of tanners.
In the Ottomans, the tradesmen were divided into two parts. 
They are private enterprises affiliated to the "ehl-i hiref-i hâssa" and self-employed artisan organizations working for a salary in state-owned workplaces. The state has a direct control system over the ehl-i hiref-i hâssa and indirectly over the private enterprises affiliated to the artisan organizations.321
It cannot be denied that in the early periods, the tradesmen's organization in the Ottomans was influenced by the Fütüvvet and Ahi organizations. However, although the traces of this influence continued in the later development periods, the mysterious aspects of the fütüvvet sect were not applied exactly and completely by the Ottomans.322
The influence of the Akhism continued in the early periods of the Ottoman Empire.
For this reason, some terms belonging to the ahi-order were also used in the Ottoman craftsman organization. In the Ottoman Empire, the first-degree supervisors of the tradesmen were judges and muhtesibs. However, apart from these, there are some chiefs of the tradesmen, who are known as sheikh, nakib, duacı, sergeant, yigitbasi and kethüda. The sheikh has an important place in the organization of tradesmen. Nakibs, on the other hand, are the people who have a say over the tradesmen after the sheikh, that is, the chiefs.
Kethüdas are another supervisor who is accepted as the full authority in important matters of tradesmen. This word, which literally means reliable officer and home owner, has passed into our Turkish as steward. Kethüda, as the chief of the tradesmen organization, is called reliable people appointed by the state to look after the affairs of craftsmen and merchants.
Due to the decrease in skilled tradesmen who would apply the futuwwa method and the entry of non-Muslims into trade, the Ahilik organization, whose meeting places were lodges and zawiyas before the Ottomans, left its place to guilds in the Ottomans.
In the Ottoman Empire, before the Tanzimat, tradesmen and craftsmen, who formed the main body of the urban class, in other words, those who were engaged in economic affairs other than agricultural activities, were organized within the professional organizations called "lonca". In order for a tradesman or craftsman to engage in an economic activity in the Ottomans, other tradesmen or craftsmen in the same profession had to be registered with the professional organization of which they were members. It was not possible otherwise. 
It was very common at that time to see people from various religions, sects and ethnic backgrounds together in tradesmen organizations. It was seen that religious differences did not affect professional solidarity and integration in intra-organizational hierarchy or relations, and even as the religious majority changed, the management staff could also change in the same direction.
The moral rules and traditions prevailing in society in general were applied much more strictly within professional organizations. For example, competition was not allowed as it would disrupt the stability and balance among the guild members, and the balance policies pursued in social life were exactly applied within the tradesmen's organizations.324
Although the chief in the zawiyas is the chief, sheikh and nakib, in the guilds they are replaced by the kethüda and the valiant chief. The managers of the tradesmen, who are called "old" or "old"; it has both. In addition, the chief at the head of the guild is also called the sheikh. Like the sheikh of booksellers, sheikh of quilters. However, the main administrators of the guilds and their relations with the state are the kethüdas (kâhyas) and valiant chiefs. The most important duty of Yiğitbaşı is to be a means of communication between the kethüda and the tradesmen.
Each artisan has a specific meeting place called a guild, which is similar to today's production cooperatives.
In the first periods, the notables of the Muslim and non-Muslim tradesmen (workers, elders), that is, the masters gathered in one place. Under the chairmanship of Kethüda and valiantbaşs, they negotiate on the business of tradesmen; they handle minor cases without going to the judge; They negotiated the rules and regulations that were valid between the tradesmen and the tradesmen, and they made the accounting of the middle chest belonging to the tradesmen. 
Later, Muslims and non-Muslims formed separate guilds. Guilds also ran the business of today's unions and attached particular importance to quality control and standard. The head of the guild organization is kethüda. The valiant chiefs and the elders chosen from among the notables of the tradesmen would help him. There is a charity fund belonging to every tradesman under their supervision and administration. This is called the middle chest. Its capital is the donations of the tradesmen, the shares received for the ballot box from the money given by the masters for those who pass from apprenticeship to journeyman and from journeyman to master, and similar incomes. From this fund, money and loans were given to the tradesmen who were in a difficult situation.
In old Istanbul, guilds participated in the great festivities organized for the army's expedition, the circumcision of the princes, or the weddings of the sultan's daughters and sisters, and births in the palace, and very important guests who came to the city, with cars depicting the field of activity of the profession. ” was created. The passing of the tradesmen, the gifts they gave, the works they did, and the display of their skills played an important role in the Ottoman festivals. 
In these regiments, the tradesmen would compete with each other for supremacy. They each made an effort to demonstrate the more powerful and technologically most surprising and inconceivable inventions related to their profession. In this respect, the examination of the tradesmen's regiments is important in terms of showing the stage of the Ottomans in those centuries in terms of both art and technology.
Tradesmen's regiments reflecting the power of the state and the skills of the tradesmen constituted the most striking part of the festivities, which attracted attention not only by the people of Istanbul but also by foreigners who were in the country for any purpose at that time. as well as peddlers and physicians. Evliya Çelebi, grouping the fifty-seven types of professions, including the four judges of Istanbul, grouped within himself and increased the number up to one thousand hundred, some of the artisans and craftsmen are as follows:
Esnâf-ı Ekmekciyân-i Janissaryan and Firat-i Dukkan-i Tuzciyân;
Kavm-i donutciyân and börekciyân and zümre-i crispciyân and hiref-i kâhiciyân; Esnâf-i gurâbiyyeciyân ve class-i simitciyân ve ehl-i kar, katâyifciyân.328
Each artisan guild would hold a parade and show scenes related to their trade before giving their precious gifts related to their field. Then, in accordance with the festive tradition, they would present their gifts to the sultan according to the predetermined size and shape. It is remarkable that the gifts (pişkeş) presented to the sultan were given in a predetermined size and form. Even the presentation of gifts according to a predetermined order should be related to the image of the "Ottoman order" that is tried to be created in the festival and later in the surnames that turn the festivals into literary narratives.
According to various sources written about the festival, the parades of the tradesmen's regiments have an important place in the 1582 festival. In the two surname texts written on the 1582 festival, the passage of the tradesmen's regiments forms an important part of the narratives.
The shopkeepers operating in Istanbul were generally in the status of tenants. Shop owners were generally foundations. In order to generate income, foundations built large bazaars and inns in city centers and rented out the shops in these bazaars and inns. Craftsmen were reliable tenants for foundations. On the other hand, the craftsman to open a shop had to open a shop in the same place with the union of the tradesmen to which he belonged. Thus, foundation shops were allocated to tradesmen unions both in order to find tenants for the foundation shops and for the tradesmen's union to operate together.
Tradesmen, inability to pay their rent, bankruptcy, leaving their shop, etc. When a situation arises that will directly affect the foundation that owns the property, such as the owner of the property, the tradesmen's union, which vouches for the tradesmen in this situation, stepped in. The shop was not left empty, and it was rented to another master of that trades union. A certain place was allocated to the tradesmen union and it was regulated that the tradesmen affiliated to the union would not open a shop in any other place than this place.330
When tradesmen opened a shop, they could not sell their goods on the street. They were supposed to sell it in their shop. From time to time, judgments were made about those who did the opposite. For example, on January 1, 1594, a decree was sent to the judge of Istanbul that "the shopkeepers should not wander the streets and sell what they want to sell in their shops":
The judge of Istanbul ruled that in Mahruse-i Istanbul, there are tablakars and wax makers, ketan and other zahâir sellers, satub and many more shops in their shops, while there are minbaad tablakars and other shops in this city I was ordered to be banned, I said... when we arrived, we decided to unat vechile in this section and sold these maculas in bilkülliyye shops to nerhi ruzi, those who opposed my sheriff were muhkem te'dib iyliyesin Fi 8 R 1002 (Bahattûn-i Hümâyy) )331
Again, each artisan group had to operate in their own field and produce and sell. They were forbidden to make and sell any other product. There were those who violated this issue from time to time. For this reason, tradesmen were warned through the provisions sent to the judges. For example, in the provision sent to the judge of Istanbul in 1609, "On the prohibition of making vinegar by other tradesmen in Istanbul," the following was briefly stated:
While the duty of processing and selling vinegar was the vinegar shopkeepers, it was the subject of complaints that some of the wax makers, grocers and halva makers process and sell vinegar. These grievances of the shopkeepers were answered. A judgment has been sent to the Istanbul Kadi on the subject. In this provision, it is emphasized that the duty of processing and selling vinegar is the duty of the vinegar merchants. In the provision, it was requested to investigate whether someone from the outside had committed vinegar, and if there were those who did, it was requested to be banned, and if they insisted, their names and pictures were requested.332
The Sultan Owned The Baklava Craftsman
The Ottoman Empire prioritized the concept of justice in all areas of social and economic life, defended the rights of all its citizens regardless of religion, language and other distinctions, and thus survived for centuries. The Ottoman laws were so detailed and advanced that, as seen in the example below, the sultan himself intervened when there was injustice even in a matter that could be considered simple from the point of view of the administrator. Compared to today's modern understanding of the state, the issue of guaranteeing the concepts of tradesmen's right and personal rights was far ahead of today's world in the Ottoman society.
In addition, every tradesman had to be registered with the existing guild organization related to his occupation. He could not manufacture in any other sector other than the production and productions of the organization he was registered with. This situation was important in preserving the standards of the products and maintaining the quality, as well as preventing the tradesmen working in one sector from entering another sector, disrupting the balance and trying to share in the profits of others.
It is possible to see both the issue of justice and raw baklava together in a sultan's edict published in May 1755. as follows:
The representatives History of Baklava and halva makers in Istanbul, Galata, Hâslar, Üsküdar, Eyüp, Kasımpaşa, Tophane and Beşiktaş complained to the kadı. The subject of the complaint is as follows: Some donut shopkeepers who are not members of the organization of baklava makers and helva makers manufacture baklava, although it is prohibited, and sell these baklavas on the streets or in front of shops through peddlers, informally and illegally. 
At the same time, these pirate producers and sellers were tacitly threatening the shopkeepers who warned them, saying "we are the military". Courts on the subject caught those who threatened them through law enforcement officers and gave warnings and other penalties to these people and prohibited them from making baklava. However, as it is understood from the document, the donut shopkeepers in question continued to pirate production in the same way after a while. 
Continuing illegal production without complying with court orders several times in a row has caused serious grievances for baklava makers. Finally, the sultan himself intervened in the situation and ordered the judges to be more sensitive in this matter and to follow the rights of the baklava makers meticulously.
We come across a similar case and the intervention of the sultan himself in favor of the baklava maker, in a judgment dated 1759. Here, too, it is understood that the donut shopkeepers go out of their manufacturing sector and manufacture and sell baklava, thus impeding the work of the baklava makers. At the same time, as can be understood from this document, donut shopkeepers have been making pirate production for a long time and they had to be warned many times.334
To make an indirect inference from this issue; The demand for baklava is very high. Baklava manufacturing and selling industry is doing a very good job and the art of baklava is therefore a popular profession. Donut makers who want to take advantage of this are also opportunistic.
During the Ottoman period, Baklava makers were loved more by the public than other artisan groups and they were asked to be in their places. It is possible to understand this from the document given below.
According to the document dated August 2, 1850, the people of the neighborhood were disturbed by the fact that the baklava shop adjacent to the sherbet in Beyoğlu was rented out to fishermen. 
The transcription of the said document is as follows:
Due to the fact that the Zabtiye Müşirine Beyoğlu let the baklava seller shop together with the kaim sherbethaneci Canito sherbethane to the fishermen, the fishermen of the Kamer Hatun Neighborhood decided to expel them from there because of the circumstance. His transfer to the savb-i serir about his deportation from there was to be expressed by the aforementioned assembly, and to be commanded to take care of the execution. Fi 23 Ramadan year 66,335
Gummy Masters Rolling Baklava Dough
XX. Until the beginning of the century, baklava was made in houses and mansions in Istanbul. Shops selling baklava varieties in Istanbul XX. It was opened at the beginning of the century.336 So much so that until the First World War, baklava was always made at home, even in middle-class families in Istanbul. At that time, there were no ready-made dough makers like today. 
The dough of baklava, börek and pastries was made by the woman of the house or her adult daughter. The dessert made by peddlers or baklava makers settled in a shop would be bought and eaten by those working in bakeries, baths, and single servants who slept in single rooms and single inns. One of their customers was the rabble. Rarely, modest families would buy sweets, meanwhile baklava, from confectioners. If they were to bring the ready-made dessert they bought from the dessert shop to a guest table, they would be reprimanded.337
That's why there were dough spreaders for baklava and börek in Istanbul during the Ottoman Empire. Dumplings were people who spent their lives trying to be competent at their job. They would spread forty phyllo sheets as thin as rose petals on baklava trays.338 These were Gum masters organized in a guild. These were the Greeks of Istanbul. 
Probably because they migrated from Chios to Istanbul in ancient times, they were called "Masters with Gum". In Istanbul, about seventy shops consisting of Gummy Greeks and Franks, called Galata confectioners, were located in districts such as Kasımpaşa, Eyüp and Suriçi. The real skills of these masters, who were skilled in rolling dough, were in confectionery and sugar sculpture. So much so that they made sugar sculptures for circumcision, wedding and other special days of the palace.
The palace had special masters.340 So much so, that II. It is known that during the time of Bayezid, masters named Sinan and Osman, the chief bakers of the palace, rolled dough sheets and prepared baklava for Ramadan and Eid. In the following periods, among the kitchen staff in the Ottoman palaces and rich mansions, there would be cooks who spent their lives just baking dough, and even became "baklava makers" by specializing in this field. Thanks to the skills of these masters and the expensive materials that the rich people they worked for could buy, the palate developed in the XV. From the 19th century onwards, new inventions and developments in the Ottoman cuisine would be on his way.
Paper Thin Baklava Dough
Undoubtedly, the most important food item obtained by mixing flour with water and salt is undoubtedly bread. The Turks knew how to make a wide variety of bread from flour, which is everyone's staple food. One of the most important types of bread made by the Turks was yufka, which is known to be baked more than loaf in our villages today. One type of phyllo was made very thin. It is known that this type, which can be broken as soon as it is touched, is called "liar (liar) yuga".342
Baklava is the dessert that has the strongest connection with pre-Anatolian Turkish cuisine. It is known that Turks have been making various sweet and savory dishes by rolling thin sheets of dough and folding or wrapping them since ancient times.343
The old Turkish word yabka, the ancestor of the words yupa, yoka and yufka, meant "thin, fragile" and specifically described thin, flat bread.344 This word still lives on in various Turkic languages ​​as "yufka hearted". XI. Kasgarlı Mahmud defines “yuvgha” and “yupga” as “thin bread” in the dictionary Divân-ü Lûgat-it Türk, which belongs to the 19th century; he also includes the phrase added yufka and translates it as "khubzp mughaddan" to Araçâya. Since the word layer means layer, it is almost certain that the layered dough is layered.345
The original meaning of "thin" in Old Turkish was yufka, which was also used to mean unleavened bread that was rolled out very thin. 
XI. Mahmud of Kashgar tells that the dough was broken due to its thinness, and sometimes bakers accused their customers of "you broke it". Based on this information, it is possible to understand that the ready-made phyllo was already sold at that time and the thinness of the phyllo.346
The rarity of the yufka, which entered the Medieval Arabian cuisine with the name "rikak", indicates that it was sold ready-made at that time as well. XIII. named Kitabü'l-Vusla. In a recipe in the 19th century Arabic cookbook, it is stated that the dough will roll out "like a handle", indicating that thin doughs such as phyllo are of Turkish cuisine. Therefore, baklava phyllo made of flour is one of the most important ingredients of Ottoman cuisine, which is the main representative of Turkish-Islamic culture. So much so that, although phyllo was a type of bread, a wide variety of foods such as phyllo pastry, yufka kebab, yufka meatballs, phyllo pilaf were also made from it, especially börek and baklava.
The phyllo type of bread was mainly eaten by making rolls. This method is still very common in our villages today. Turks XI. In the 19th century, they called the dürme “türmek” and as well as stuffing eggs and ground meat, cheese or oil was also put in it. The part of the wrap, also called "spin", was also called "tikim".
It was also possible to eat the crumbled yufka called “added yuga” directly by frying in oil. As a matter of fact, we still come across this kind of food in some Anatolian villages today. On the other hand, according to the mention of crumbled bread, crumbling bread and helping each other in crumbling bread, they ate the bread by crumbling it into oil, ayran etc. These pastries, similar to "gozleme", may have combined with the Arab tradition of syrupy dumplings, resulting in today's baklava.
XVI. Thousands of fodula and phyllo were consumed in the wedding feasts of the 19th century. In the miniatures of the same century, triangular folded phyllo can be seen on the tables separately for everyone.350
In the Azerbaijani dessert known as Baku Baklava, it is not the usual baklava made by filling 50 to 100 paper-thin phyllo with crushed walnuts, but it is one made with eight phyllo dough with seven layers of walnuts, no thinner than required for noodles. A very similar dessert is the one made by Kazan Tatars under the name paklava.
Ottoman Empire Exported Baklava to Europe and America
The fame of Ottoman baklava was known all over the world. Baklava was exported to various countries in Europe and even to America. In an archive document dated July 2, 1914, it is stated that the baklavas made by an Ottoman citizen from Beirut named Halilel Aris, who was engaged in the manufacture of baklava, were famous not only in the Ottoman lands, but also in Europe and America, and for this reason, it was decided to give him a medal by the Minister of Industry and Trade. As it can be understood from here, it is possible to see that baklava masters were trained and baklavas were produced worldwide, not only in Istanbul but generally in the Ottoman geography. Especially the Middle East region, where we know that quality baklava is still produced today, had a well-deserved reputation during the Ottoman period.
The great achievements achieved at the international level were always appreciated by the Ottoman court. The saying “Ingenuity is subject to compliment” explains this situation very well. As can be seen from the example below, the export of baklava to Europe and America by Halil Aris Efendi, a well-trained craftsman and baklava master in Beirut, attracted the attention of the Ottoman administration. Upon this success, he was rewarded on the grounds that "he did a good job for the country". Thus, both the craftsmanship was appreciated, the promotion of the country in a positive sense was appreciated, and exports were somehow encouraged. 
What is Baklava in Ottoman?
At the same time, it was seen that an incentive to the masters to be trained and a local success were raised to the universal level by giving a commendation. The fact that the Governor of Beirut offered this award showed that he carefully followed the tradesmen living under the management of the Ottoman local administrators and contributed to the development of the sector by encouraging success. Finally, as it can be understood from this document, European and American food lovers closely followed the Ottoman cuisine and the taste of baklava, which took the lead in it.
The transcript of the archive document regarding the medal offer sent from the Ministry of Trade and Agriculture to the Office of the Grand Vizier on the subject is as follows:
* Ministry of Commerce and Agriculture
* General Directorate of Industry
* Huzur-ı Sâmi-i Cenâb-ı Sadâretpenâhiye
* extract
* About the dessert of Halil Efendi, the Dessert Shop in Beirut
* Exposed are Çâker-i kemines
What is the History of Baklava?Halil Aris Efendi, who has been busy with sweets since his death in Beirut and is famous and well-known for his skill in this art, is serving and striving to make progress and the famous Beirut baklava, which is being sent to all over the Ottoman Empire, Europe and America. His grace and graciousness are extraordinary, he confirms that he seriously favors distinction and others in this art, and that such progress in every class of industry will bring benefit to both the household and the wealth-i country, and to the honor of the service, even in appreciation of the 'maintainment of encouragement'. Despite the fact that such an artist, who was raised in the inner country, whose award was made from the aliyyah of the province of Beirut, was rewarded with an industrial medal, it was found appropriate to be appreciated and encouraged in a way.The vechi inha muma is presented and requested with the expression of the general directorate of industry of taltifat-i seniyye nail ve şayan-i permisson-i celile-i fehimaneleri. 
Ol babda emru ferman is men lehü'l command.
Fi 8 Şaban year 332 and fi 18 June Year 330 Minister of Commerce and Agriculture Süleyman After the issue was discussed at the Grand Viziership, the will came to the conclusion that it would be appropriate to present the medal to Tatlıcı Halil Efendi in Beirut. The transcript of the will is as follows:
* Ministry of Commerce and Agriculture
* General Directorate of Industry
* Irade-i Seniyye
* A continent industry medal was given to Halil el-Aris Efendi, who was engaged in confectionery in Beirut.
* The minister of trade and agriculture is the officer of the execution of this will. 353 fi 11 Shaban year 332 and fi 22 June year 330
The Minister of Commerce and Agriculture, Süleyman the Grand Vizier Mehmed, is very skilled in the art of Baklava, and another master who has received many important national and international awards, appreciation and compliments is Hacı Mustafa Efendi from Şam, who has kebab and baklava branches in various districts of Istanbul. His achievements in the art of baklava were also featured in the newspapers of the period in the last years of the Ottoman Empire. As understood from the newspaper, Hacı Mustafa Efendi was awarded with Osmani from the fourth rank, Mecidi from the fifth rank and a gold industry medal from England.
Types of Baklava in the Ottoman Empire
Baklava is the first thing that comes to mind when it comes to pastry desserts. Making baklava dough requires great skill. The dough for baklava is the same except for samsa dessert and home baklava. The folding of the dough, its cutting, placing on the tray and the filling material distinguish one type of baklava from the other. Although some of them are called by the names given by the confectionery masters, most of them, such as bülbülyuvası, sarığıburma, and milky nuriye, have now become classics.
Baklava is an indispensable dessert of our daily life with its past and present. On holidays, the morning meal usually consisted of tarhana soup, pickles and baklava. There is even a nice nursery rhyme in memory of those days, such as "Tarhana tartar, it will tear my throat, baklava brother, come save me".356
There are many varieties of baklava in the Ottoman Empire from past to present. We can list them as follows: 
Baklava, samsa (Oklava baklava), copy (amulet), 357 dilber lip, lady's lip, pastry baklava, bundle (bulb) baklava, cigarette baklava, Güllaç baklava, lady's ankle, turban burrito, rikak baklava, 358 nightingale's nest, milk bak nuriye, common , cream baklava, musanna cream baklava, woman's belly, melon baklava, rice baklava, caterpillar baklava, moon baklava, lady lip, ...etc.359
It is possible to come across baklavas made in various names, shapes and recipes in many regions of the Turkish World as well as the Ottoman Empire. For example, pahlava, eared pahlava, tailed pahlava, gin, cauldron pahlava, Russian Napoleon tortilla.
There is also white baklava that is cooked without browning. Here the oven is only heated from below. Cooking degree and cooking time are the same as other baklavas. Some baklava masters cover the tray with paper when making white baklava.
There is also dry baklava, which is rarely made but can last for a long time. Here, too, the oven is only heated from below. In addition, contrary to the custom, a large amount of powdered sugar is added to the mortar and the mortar is mixed with walnuts, almonds or pistachios. Dry baklava, which is the same in other respects, drinks its syrup a few hours after it is cooked and reaches a consistency that deserves the adjective "dry".360
Baklavas are usually made with cream, walnut, pistachio mortars. The cream of baklava with cream, unlike what is known, is a mixture of milk and semolina. In baklava, this is also called "cream".
Apart from the classical mortars, the masters sometimes tried some exotic mortars such as orange in the making of baklava. Apart from that, there are also baklava recipes with apple, candied cherry, pineapple and dates in dessert books. The point to be considered in making this type of baklava is that the juices of the fruits used are well squeezed. Otherwise, baklava dough may turn into porridge. Today, such baklavas have not become widespread.361
Baklava is one of the most frequently described desserts in old cookbooks. In Melceü't-Tabbâhîn, Mehmet Kamil gives three different recipes for baklava, namely 362 ordinary baklava, cream baklava, musanna cream baklava, melon baklava and rice baklava. Mahmut Nedim, on the other hand, is content with 363 baklava and caterpillar baklava recipes at the Chef's Headquarters.
Mehmet Kamil's cream baklava is different from its current meaning. It indicates that the layers of baklava are put on top of each other by spreading egg whites between the layers of cream, or the layers of the same baklava are cooked on two separate trays without any mortar and covered by putting cream in between them.364
When Ottoman cookbooks are mixed, black-eyed peas, cheese etc. Many forgotten baklava varieties are encountered. An interesting piece of information about baklava here is that it should be eaten hot. In these books, baklava recipes are given under the title of "Hot Sweet Taams Made of Dough". In Urfa, on the other hand, there is baklava with hot cheese, which is thought to have disappeared under the name of “katmer”. Both the ladies at home and the baklava makers in the bazaar do this.365
Today's baklavas are made with about twenty to thirty layers of phyllo. After the first ten or fifteen phyllo dough, mortar is put in between, and it is prepared by arranging it on the other ten or fifteen layers. Even a newspaper can be read from the back of a well-opened baklava dough. The butter sprinkled in between while the yufkas are arranged on the tray evaporates during cooking and the water of the butter evaporates, pushing the thin baklava phyllo up to rise.
According to the sources, fifty to sixty of these phyllo dough were placed on a tray in old Istanbul mansions. In fact, these conditions were more severe in the mansions of curious hosts.
The owner wanted at least one hundred phyllo on the tray and a gold lira dropped half a meter high would find the bottom of the tray thanks to the thinness and crunchyness of the phyllo. Otherwise, the owner would consider himself disgraced and send the baklava tray to the kitchen without being eaten.
Another story about baklava is as follows:
Two pashas were chatting about whose cook made the best baklava. Both of them kept talking about the deliciousness of their baklava to make their own. Finally, one of the nibs cut off the job;
“It is impossible for your cook to open baklava as delicious as mine. Because you don't have that marble. I brought him all the way from Edirne.” he said.366
Mehmed Kamil's work named Melceü't-Tabbahîn contains very detailed information about baklava varieties and their recipes. Some interesting varieties and recipes are as follows (names of baklava are given as in the book):
Ordinary Baklava: 
Thin pastry-like phyllo that is mentioned in the fifth chapter of the art tabh is opened and the tray is oiled, once every five phyllo dough is sprinkled with rugan-i plain, ten phyllo dough is sprinkled with crushed hazelnuts or pistachios or hud almonds. When we are forty, they boil the burnt hot rugan-i plain on the baklava-shaped kesub and boil it with kefce. While it is about to cook in the tray, they cut the tray with sugar or ace with two or three cups of water, and they prepare the boiled broth beforehand, okay, when the baklava is fried in the baklava, the aforementioned spreads the sugar or ace on the wood again with the pan. Spread the ba'dehu on the plates regularly, add fine powdered sugar to it and reduce it.367
Cream Baklava:
When phyllo dough with baklava flavor, whose method is mentioned, is prepared with something apart from the softness between them, when the egg white is poured under and over the cream pieces with a chicken vest or with a hud spoon, there is a possibility that the cream will not be cooked and melted in the aforementioned way. it is necessary to use eggs, or they cook the yufka on one tray without cutting the other on the other tray, and when the dessert is put on one of them, they spread the splinter on one of them and cover the other with the method, cut it like ba'dehü pastry, or serve it on the plates, or two or three egg whites and egg whites in a quantity of milk. Even if you put it in the middle of the dough, it is possible, even if there are more solutions, these are the easiest ones.368
Musanna' Cream Baklava:
Again, if it is not possible to find phyllo dough in the same way, if it is not possible to find mikdar-ı vafi white beans, then strain the water when it becomes soft, then pass it through a sieve or kefir in a saucepan, then boil it with a small amount of milk and boil it in a saucepan. It is possible to knead it properly with two egg whites, or when the milk and rice are cooked properly, it can be kneaded with egg whites or kneaded with unsalted curd cheese or salted meadow cheese with a bit of sugar as required.369
Melon Baklava:
Sprinkle rugan-i plain among thinly rolled baklava phyllo on a greased tray, spread about fifteen or twenty phyllo dough on top of it, mash the sweet melon with a spoon when it is completely covered, put a yufka on it again and put a lot of sugar on it while it is hot. Even if the dough is not put on the melon, its taste will be pleasant.370
Rice Baklava:
It is famous around Plovdiv and Pazarcık in the Greek province. Tarik-i tabhı put one measure of melted and foamed asel and one measure of melted rugan-i plain and one measure of water and one measure of peaked rice flour and a cup of settled, sharp rose water in a saucepan and fire. Mix it with kefce on top, and when it becomes like halvah, it is cooked on a tray with kefce and spread in furunda.
Women's (Women's) Belly: In some nevahis of the Greek province, Kadı Boğan dirler tarik-i tabhı half a kerchief rugan-i plain is melted in a pot and mixed by pouring two knaves on it with a precise amount of water. Knead it with a little salt, roll it like cookies, put the middle of it on a greased tray with your finger, and cook it until it turns golden.
In the book "Tatlıcıbaşı", one of the famous cookbooks written by Hadiye Fahriye, who grew up in the last period of the Ottoman Empire, very original and detailed information about the varieties and recipes of baklava can be seen.
Some of these varieties and recipes are:
After concentrating the dough, grease the bottom of the tray with melted oil and then put three pieces of dough on top of each other. It should be lubricated again by laying three more sheets of dough. Sprinkling oil between the dough can be done with a spoon, but the most comfortable and best thing is a clean piece of broom, as we say in bala. 
After laying another dough on the ninth dough, he should lay the previously prepared dough there and put a piece of dough on it and oil it, after that, he should put six or nine pieces of dough by lubricating one third of it, and he should finish the work.
Now it's time to cut it out. Baklava should be cut by pressing, not by pulling the tip with a sharp sharp knife, and boiled with a spoon or ladle, by heating the oil containing one hundred and fifty dirhams of oil and spreading it all over it.
Now this is the job to be done at home. If there is sweet furun in the matbah, it is cooked there or in an unheated market furun. The fact that the baklava is well cooked can be understood by the fact that it swells like a pomegranate. The last operation is to boil the dessert. The thing to be careful about is to pour the syrup on it after the baklava has cooled down. If the baklava is poured boiling in sugar while it is very hot, it becomes a sweet, very soft, almost dough-like thing, which is not acceptable at all. After that, the remaining work is to carefully take them on plates one by one and to dissipate with perfection.
May my Mevla grant us a fortune and a blessing.373
Creamy Baklava
Baklava with cream is kneaded and the dough is rolled out, as described in the bala (above). It is laid out on a tray and oil is sprinkled on it every third phyllo. It should not be stuffed but cut and cooked in furun.
The dessert is boiled and left to cool. The cream rolls are cut open in the middle and placed on a plate to come under the crust, cut with a thin knife in the desired size to be placed in each baklava, and cold sugar syrup is also prepared in a bowl.
One baklava is taken from the tray, the phyllo dough is lifted from the middle with the tip of a knife, a piece of cream is dipped in cold sugar syrup and placed on it, and the lid is placed on the phyllo and placed on the plate and shrunk.
The reason why the cream is put after the baklava is cooked, although all kinds of inner phyllo are put before it is served to the furun, the reason why it is melted in the furun, only the thin crust side will be spoiled and become a waste.
Opening the baklava hamsas one by one and putting cream in it is a skill that needs a lot of dexterity, so they often put the pieces of cream on the hamsa on the plate. Even if the Buddha has the same taste, the previous one looks better and is more acceptable.374
Moon Baklava
The dough is kneaded like ordinary baklava and the dough is rolled out. In this, it is not necessary to put the dough on the tray when you open it. Lay on one side of the dough board. Sprinkle a little oil on each phyllo. When there are three phyllo dough, one more yufka is laid on it after thinking that the stuffed cream, which is meant to be put on top of it, is exceptional.
A rolling rolling pin made like a ruler board with a width of four fingers or something that can do that job is placed on the edge of the dough and it is turned by holding it together with the dough, which is careful not to spill or collect it for this rolling pin. And it folds. When there are four layers, that is, two layers each above and below the rolling pin, the mecmu'u becomes sixteen folds. It is cut from the edge with a sharp knife and separated from the unfolded side of the dough. 
The wood inside is pulled out by grasping at one end, and then the remaining dough is wrapped and folded in this way. As a result of this operation, the rolled phyllo rolls, obtained as four fingers wide, are divided into crescent-like courses by pressing strongly with a cup or mug with a thin edge.
If it is desired that the baklava slices be in the shape of a crescent, these half-course courses are cut with a cup or a cup and put to that delegation. Then these courses are taken slowly and placed on a greased tray, lying on its side. Like ordinary baklava, its oil is boiled and sent to the furun. After it is cooked, it is cooled and circulated by adding its dessert, which is known as a vecihle.
What is Baklava in Ottoman?
If it is desired to make moon baklava with cream, then cream is placed between the vechile where it is described in the talk of baklava with cream, or a piece of cream is placed on each slice. But if it is going to be with cream, it is necessary to cook it plain without putting any stuffing between the phyllo dough.
They have been producing moon baklava in this way since ancient times. However, as a flat rolling pin is needed for this, it needs extraordinary attention and care and a great deal of care to be beaten and gathered to one side. In order not to leave any room for this problem, it should be acted according to the explanation we will give as a part of it.
Spread the phyllo dough like ordinary baklava, but on the dough board, and butter is spread on every three phyllo dough. After putting three phyllo dough on it and spreading oil again, three more phyllo rolls are rolled out. If it is not creamy, it is laid out on top of it, after it is desired to be laid, on the condition that it is greased with one third of it. The eighteen-layer dough circle obtained in this way is cut into courses or crescent-shaped pieces with a cup or mug, as described in the bala, and then laid out on the tray and baked in the same manner as we have said.375
Ladylip (Dilberdudagi)
After the lady's lip is produced like the Moon Baklava described in the bala and divided into round courses with a cup or a mug, these courses are twisted in the middle and doubled. Then its shape will be a semicircle. These are arranged on a tray, oil is boiled on top and cooked.
However, in order for the courses not to be too thick as they will be folded, the number of phyllo sheets laid on top of each other should be reduced as much as necessary.
It is prepared by putting cream in between or on each piece after it is cooked like ordinary baklava.376
After the beaker is cut from the middle of the dough rolled out like ordinary baklava, the rolling pin is put on one side and the dough starts to be wrapped on it, and after one or two layers of wrapping, the inside to be put is sprinkled all the way through the turban. When the half dough is wrapped completely, push the dough towards the middle with fingers from both sides of the rolling pin and when it is wrinkled, it is pulled from one side and the rolling pin is removed. Then, this crumpled stuffed phyllo roll is put on a greased tray and rolled into a dough. 
A second piece is rolled up by starting from the place where it hits. Thus, the tray is filled. Then, with a sharp knife, it is cut from the edge to the middle, separated from the matlup bodies, and the oil is boiled on top of it, as in ordinary baklava, and given to the oven. When it cools down, it is enjoyed by adding dessert. If it is desired to make it with cream, it is necessary to put the cream like a finger into the hole in the middle and arrange it on the plate or put it on the pieces after wrapping the yufka in a rolling pin, after the inner cream and the dessert is cooked and boiled.377
Boğça (Bohça) Baklava
Eight-nine phyllo dough is laid out on a tray, like ordinary baklava. Then, one or one and a half spans long and such a wide inner layer is placed in the middle of them, depending on the size of the tray and the amount of dessert desired to be made, and a four-cornered phyllo bull is formed by turning the phyllo sheets one by one. Then the needed oil is boiled and given to the oven. After cooking, the dessert is boiled like baklava. 
It is transferred to the plate with the team and sent to the table.
It is customary to cut and smash when this dessert is to be added to the table. However, its dessert should be a bit more and a bit juicy than ordinary baklava, and it should remain in the dessert for at least two hours before it is added.
On the other hand, if it is made to make the cream of this bull's baklava with cream, it is mandated to put one of the bulls on a plate, to lay the cream on it, and to cover the second bull with the badehu, after the two bulls are cooked and the dessert is boiled.
It is also possible to cook Boğça baklava without an oven. In this case, as described, the amount of oil required in a frying pan or tray has been declared before when the sturgeon is prepared and ready. It is melted down. Badehu boğça is placed in it and cooked until it is golden brown, then it is turned upside down with a wide knife or an iron chisel used in such works and fried. Then the dessert is boiled and taken to the plate.
Samsa Baklava
Samsa or copy (Muska) baklava As in ordinary baklava, after the dough is rolled out, it is cut from fifteen to twenty centimeters wide. This badehu yufka is folded in two on top of each other and put in the middle as much as necessary and wrapped like a copy (amulet). It becomes a three-cornered bull. The samsas prepared in this way are arranged on an oiled tray, the oil is boiled on top and placed in the oven, and when it cools down, hot sugar syrup is poured on it. And badehu is recited.
It is possible to cook it with a pan at home without an oven. It is fried in oil just like bulldog baklava and served for dessert. If the creamy one is matlub, after the samsas are plain and cooked and the dessert is boiled, pieces of cream are put on them and they are consumed with pleasure.379
Smoking Baklava
As in ordinary baklava, the dough is rolled up like a cigarette after it is cut from length and put inside, as stated in the mention of Samsa baklava in honey. It almost takes the form of a Frankish cigarette.
Badehu these are placed on the tray in order. Oil is boiled on top and baked in the oven. The dessert is poured on it and added a little later.
It is also possible to fry this at home with a pan. Then, after it is well fried in the pan, it should be taken out with a colander or with a clean tongs and after the oil is drained, it should be added into the dessert -but the dessert should have cooled.380
Güllaç Baklava
Güllaç should wet the leaves in ordinary water and place them on a tray on top of each other. When it is low, it should lay the inside, which is suitable to be put, and lay the rosemary on it by wetting it one by one. Then leave the tray in a crooked position for about an hour and drain the water completely. Badahu should be cut like baklava with a sharp knife.
After that, there are two methods of cooking. One is by boiling melted butter on it like ordinary baklava – but it should be half the fat of ordinary baklava. After cooking, sugar is poured on top.
The other, cut pieces like baklava, are arranged on a clean cloth. It is left in this state for about ten minutes. Badehu is dipped in a well-shaken egg and fried one by one in hot oil in a pan. After taking it from the pan with a colander and draining the oil, it is thrown into the dessert, which has been prepared and cooled beforehand. Badahu is taken on a plate and shrunk.
If it is desired to have creamy cream, it is necessary not to put the stuffing between the gullaç leaves beforehand, but simply to put it between or on the pieces of cream after cooking in the oven or in the pan.
Boğaça Baklava
In this, the dough is kneaded like ordinary baklava dough, but by adding eggs and water, twenty-five dirhams of oil. When the dough is ready to be rolled out, it is divided into two halves. One part is rolled out on the dough board with a rolling pin until it is as thick as a finger, and melted oil is applied on it, and the dough is covered in two layers on top of each other. Again, oil is applied on it and after it is folded once more, it is opened to the same thickness with the roller. By applying oil again, it folds like the first time.
This operation is repeated five times.
For the last time, the dough is opened to the size of the tray on which it will be placed and laid on the tray. It is laid on the interior to be placed. Then the second piece of dough is opened and folded like the first and closed on the other piece on the tray.
Badehu is cut like baklava with a knife, poured over the remaining oil and sent to the oven. Then, the allelusul dessert is boiled and taken to the plates, and it is ordered.
There are various baklava recipes in the work called A Manual of Turkish Cookery, which was written by Turabi Efendi and published in England in 1864, and is also the first publication on Ottoman cuisine in a foreign language. It is a very important work in terms of introducing Turkish baklava to foreigners in their own language, and some baklava recipes are as follows: 383
Ordinary Baklava
* Thin Pie dough
* 1 cup of wheat starch
* 500 g butter (melted)
* 500 g pistachios, almonds or hazelnuts (very finely ground) -500 g honey or sugar
Preparation of:
Put the flour on the counter and make a hole in the middle and beat the eggs well with the salt. Then add water little by little and make a soft and flexible dough. After dipping your fingers into the oil and feeding them into the dough, divide into walnut-sized pieces. Then, sprinkle starch on both sides of these pieces and roll them out as thin as possible. After preparing the dough as described in the recipe, divide it into 50 pieces. Sprinkle a little starch on both sides and roll it out as thin as possible in the size of your tray. 
Then oil the tray, put 5 phyllo sheets on top of each other and apply oil on them. After putting 5 phyllo dough on this layer again, put peanuts, almonds or a quarter of the hazelnuts without oiling and put 5 layers of phyllo on top and grease the top again. After you put a second five layers of dough on it, put mortar again and complete the layers in this way until you run out of dough. Then cut the phyllo dough into diamonds (baklava slices) and pour the remaining butter on top by heating it. Bake in a 200 degree oven until golden brown.
Meanwhile, mix the honey or sugar with 8 glasses of water, put it in a saucepan and boil it until it thickens. After the baklava is well fried, pour the syrup on it, wait for 5 minutes and arrange it in a pyramid shape on the serving plate. Sprinkle powdered sugar on top and serve.
What is Baklava in Ottoman?
Cream Baklava
* Prepared as in 50 Thin Pie Recipe 
* Dough, 1 Kg 
* Cream 200 Gr 
* Butter, 
* 4 Egg Whites, 
* Syrup
Preparation of:
Place half of the phyllo on the tray by rubbing oil between each layer. Lightly mix the egg whites in a bowl and apply this mixture to the cream, which you have divided into small pieces, with the help of a brush, and put it on the phyllo dough.
Spread oil between them, cover with the remaining phyllo and cut into diamonds. Bake in an oven preheated to 200 degrees until golden brown.
Prepare and pour the syrup from the previous recipe and serve.
The reason for dipping cream into egg white is to prevent it from melting during cooking.
You can also make baklava with cream by cooking half of the phyllo on one tray and the other half on another tray, pouring syrup on both, then putting cream on one of them and covering the other on top of it.
Or you can whisk the cream with a small amount of milk and one or two egg whites, put it between the phyllo dough and cook it.385
Cream Baklava Material:
* 50 pieces of baklava dough
* 1.5 cups of rice flour
* 3 cups of milk
* 2 egg whites
* 200 g butter
Syrup (Mix honey or sugar with 8 glasses of water, put in a saucepan and boil until thickened)
Preparation of:
Boil the rice flour with milk and make it into a pudding consistency. After it cools down, eat the egg whites and knead it with your hands so that it becomes creamy.
As in the previous recipe, place half of your phyllo with butter between them, place the pudding in the middle and cover it in the same way, then cut it into diamonds.
Bake in a 200 degree oven until golden brown. Pour the syrup and sprinkle powdered sugar on top and serve.
Instead of rice flour, you can also use cream cheese with added sugar.387
Melon Baklava
* 40 baklava pastries
* 200 g butter (melted) 
* 1 piece of musk melon
Preparation of:
Grease the tray and put 20 phyllo dough on top of each other, brushing melted butter between them. Then peel a fragrant melon. After dividing it in half and removing the seeds, crush it well with the help of a wooden spoon and spread it on the phyllo dough as thick as a finger. 
After covering it with the same amount of phyllo dough, bake it in an oven heated to 200 degrees until it turns golden. While still hot, sprinkle powdered sugar on top and serve.388
Rice Baklava
* 500 g rice flour
* 500 g honey
* 500 g butter (melted)
* 1 teaspoon of soda (dissolved in 3 tablespoons of water) 
* 2 glasses of water
Preparation of:
Boil the honey beforehand and remove the foams that form on it. Then put it back in the pot and add the butter, rice flour, water and soda and cook it on low heat, stirring until it forms a thick sauce.
Then pour into a greased baking tray and spread well. Bake in an oven preheated to 200 degrees until it turns brown. Cool, cut into diamonds, sprinkle with powdered sugar, place in a pyramid shape and serve.
It is also possible to use a syrup prepared from the same amount of granulated sugar instead of honey.389
Güllaç Baklava
* 500 g wheat starch
* 20 egg whites
* 500 g cream
* 3 tablespoons of powdered sugar 500 grams of granulated sugar
* 2 tablespoons of rose water
* 8 glasses of water
* 2 glasses of milk (warm)
Preparation of:
Put the egg whites in a deep bowl and whisk well. Then mix it well with starch and add water little by little to get a fluid consistency.
Then put a round hair on the wood fire and cover the middle of it with a finger-thick ash to prevent it from getting too hot. When it comes to medium heat, pour some dough with the help of a spoon so that you get a thin sheet the size of a plate right in the middle. Make sure this dough is thin, in less than a minute. After preparing 50-60 phyllo dough in this way, put half of them on a suitable tray and wet them with a mixture of rose water and milk while placing them.
Spread three millimeters of cream in the middle and sprinkle powdered sugar on top. Sprinkle with rose water and milk and cover with the remaining phyllo dough. Then put 4 glasses of water and sugar in a saucepan and boil it until it turns into syrup. Pour the syrup to cover the dough.
Cover it and wait for it to cool down, then cut it into a diamond shape and serve it. You can also use crushed almonds or pistachios when you can't find cream. You can also buy these phyllo ready-made. If done properly, this is a very pleasant and delicious dish.390
XIII. In the 19th century Arabic cookbook titled Kitâbü'l-vusla ile'l-habib fi vasfü'l-tayyibât ve't-tîb, there is a recipe for today's turbanburma baklava. However, its name is not baklava, but "ash ve şükr" or "karnıyarık". Its Arabic name is ash ve şükr, that is, “eat and thank”. It is very interesting that a second name is given in Turkish as “karnıyarık”. This name, which is considered appropriate because it is empty in the middle, makes one think that it is a dessert of Turkish origin.
Indication of both names shows that the readers of that time knew the dessert with this Turkish name, and if the Arabic name was enough, they would not be able to understand what it was. That is to say, in Arabic, kul and shukr is a name that has been attributed later. The fact that it is said in the recipe that the dough will open "like a handle" adds certainty to this idea.
Because “tutmaç” is also Turkish and is an old Turkish pastry dish. Another result must be that there was no Arabic term used for thinning the dough in Arab cuisine at that time. 
Here is the recipe for baklava:
“Another type known as ash and şükr and karnıyarık. Flour and plain oil are mixed and kneaded with water and rolled out with a rolling pin like a handle. With the melted butter, the dough is lubricated and (...) rolled onto the rolling pin, then it is pulled down and removed by keeping the rolling pin upright. It is then shaped into small rounds and fried in sesame oil, and sugar and rose water are poured over it.
A special place is reserved for baklava in Kitabü't-Tabbahin, which is one of the important manuscripts about the dishes of the Ottoman period. The part where various baklava recipes are explained is as follows:
It is in the declaration of ta'am from the hot datlu nev, which is made of raw dough.392
'Âdî baklava san'at-ı tabhi (The art of cooking)
When the thin pastry, which is mentioned in the fifth chapter, is rolled out and the tray is oiled, patent-i plain sprinkled on five phyllo dough, sprinkled with crushed hazelnuts or pistachios or hud almonds on five phyllo, and again on ten patent leather flakes, and on the other hand, sprinkled with thirty-five thin toppings from one of the thirty-five sheets. When the hot patent leather burnt on the kesub is ready to be boiled in kefçe and boiled in the boiled furunda, it is time to cut the tray with sugar or ace of two or three cups of water. Regularly leave the powdered sugar on it and reduce it.
Usûl-i tabhi (Cooking method)
When the aforementioned baklava-like phyllo dough is prepared, something made of patent leather is placed between them, and when the phyllo dough is the portion of the dough, it should be applied and acted upon by applying egg white on the bottom and top of the cream pieces, with the aforementioned method. It is necessary to isti'mâl, or when bisürüb datlus is placed without cutting the yufka in one tray and the other in another tray, they spread the cream on one of them and cover the other with the method, ba'dehu cut it like börek, pour it on the plates like ba'dehu. Even if you put the cream and cream and put it between the dough, it is possible, if there are any more solutions, these are the easiest.
Tarik-i tabhi (The way of cooking)
Again, if Usûl-Isâbik uzre phyllo dough is not prepared, if cream is not found, when mikdar-ı vâfî softens the white buckwheat with water, strain the water in a pan and pass it through a sieve or kefir as required. It is possible to knead two eggs with the mind as required, or when the milk and rice are cooked properly, the egg whites can be kneaded with a mixture of ice, or kneaded with unsalted lod cheese or salted meadow cheese with a bit of sugar, and it is possible to knead it properly. In addition, it becomes a sin for cream.
Tarik-i tabhi (The way of cooking)
Sprinkle patent leather among thinly rolled baklava phyllo on a greased tray, put the datlu melon on a thin sheet of phyllo dough with a spoon, and once it is completely covered, put the datlu melon on it with a spoon, and spread it again with a phyllo dough and when the patent leather sprinkles are put on the fur, when it is hot, a lot of sugar is ordered on top of the dough. If it is added, its taste will be a pleasant taste.393
The original file of the source is as follows;
The original text, which is accepted as a source, is as follows. Google translation was used for the necessary language change.
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