• Alternative Protein Sources in Nutrition
  • Alternative Protein Sources in Nutrition
  • Alternative Protein Sources in Nutrition
  • Alternative Protein Sources in Nutrition
  • Alternative Protein Sources in Nutrition

The nutritional adventure of human beings, which started with the consumption of raw foods, continued with the cooking of foods on the naked fire as a result of the discovery of fire. This adventure has begun to change as a result of the rapid passage of time and the inventions...

Alternative Protein Sources in Nutrition
Human beings have various needs in order to survive, and nutrition has an important place in these needs. Nutrition is important for people to fulfill their daily activities and lead a healthy life, not to suppress their hunger when they are hungry. Therefore, the growth and development of the human body and the protection of health emerge as a result of good nutrition.
The nutritional adventure of human beings, which started with the consumption of raw foods, continued with the cooking of foods on the naked fire as a result of the discovery of fire. This adventure has begun to change as a result of the rapid passage of time and the inventions, technologies, wars and destructions that have emerged with the curiosity of human beings. These changes were followed by rapidly developing urbanization, increasing leisure time, increasing transportation opportunities and differentiating their eating habits. In other words, eating is emerging as a nutrition-oriented lifestyle today, getting rid of the purpose of just filling the stomach. It pays attention to human nutrition and consumes healthy and high quality foods, especially with research and developments focused on gastronomy.
The act of cooking is the first chemical process of humans and the first scientific revolution. In other words, it is the discovery of biochemical changes that cause flavor changes and facilitate digestion through experimentation and observation (Aksoy and Üner, 2016). During the development of the science of gastronomy, changes have been observed in people's eating and drinking habits and behaviors. Changes in cooking techniques, equipment used in kitchens, supply of materials and service have brought along innovative applications. These practices have affected people's nutrition, food and meals (Beaugé, 2012).
In addition to the developments in gastronomy, one of the biggest challenges faced today is to provide food and nutrition to an increasing number of people in a sustainable way (Green, 2016). The world population is expected to exceed 9 billion by 2050, and therefore, humanity must meet its food, fuel and shelter needs with a minimum ecological footprint (Anankware, Fening, Osekre, & Obeng-Ofori, 2015). 
The United Nations (UN) Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), published for the year 2050, “How to Feed the World in 2050?” In his report, he predicts that almost all of the population growth will be in developing countries and the rate of urbanization will be 70 percent. Expected population growth over the next 40 years, food demand is expected to increase by 60 percent under business-as-usual assumptions. For example, annual grain production is expected to increase from 2.1 billion tons today to about 3 billion tons, and annual meat production of 200 million tons to 470 million tons (FAO 2050).
The increasing world population will expose the world to a great problem in the provision of animal-based proteins with the negative effects of the environment (Paoletti, Buscardo and Dufour, 2000). As traditional ovine, bovine and poultry farming is no longer sustainable, people in industrialized countries will need to adapt to other sources of animal protein in the future. Therefore, animal protein sources will not be sufficient for the global human population and protein sources will be needed (Caparros Megido et al., 2014).
In recent years, with the increase in human population and changing consumer trends, various biotechnological researches and studies on alternative protein sources have increased (Smil, 2002). Although scientists' research on edible food alternatives and alternative protein sources, genetically modified organisms, insects, algae and in vitro (artificial meat) are important alternative protein sources, the importance of research on artificial meat has increased in recent years (Sürek and Uzun, 2020). 
The search for new protein sources that can replace natural animal protein such as meat is expected to have significant economic, nutritional and environmental implications and make a big difference in the meat industry (Smil, 2002). The first protein sources used as alternatives to meat products are plants and fungi (microproteins), and besides insects, duckweed and algae (algae), cultured meat (in Vitro) is also an important protein source (Post, 2012; Van der Spiegel, Noordam and Van der Fels). -Klerx, 2013; Sürek and Uzun, 2020).
Protein Sources
The structures of cells and enzymes, which are the smallest parts of the body, consist of proteins, and proteins are among the nutrients required for growth, development, cell repair and a healthy life (Çetiner and Ersus Bilek, 2018; Dalgıç, 2019). Proteins are “components made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, and in some cases sulfur. The building blocks of proteins are amino acids. When a protein-containing food is consumed, the protein is broken down into amino acids and collected in the amino acid pool. Amino acids are used by the body to be converted into proteins and participate in the structure of muscles, hormones and enzymes (Eskici, 2020: 2).
Proteins, which are necessary for the life of body cells, are the most common substance in the human body after water. Proteins are necessary for the formation, development and repair of cells in the body (Rızaoğlu and Haçer, 2013). Protein is used directly in the body for protein synthesis, if the body gets enough carbohydrates and fats in the daily diet, protein is not used for energy (Önçel and Özgür Göde, 2018).
The source of body protein is the protein found in food. Since it is not possible to make protein from carbohydrates or fats, it is necessary to take protein from outside. With a balanced diet, approximately 10-15% of daily energy should be met from protein (Dalgıç, 2019). The best sources of protein are foods such as meat (beef, chicken, fish, etc.), soybeans and dried beans, grains (wheat, barley, rice, etc.), and oilseeds (pumpkin seeds, hazelnuts, walnuts, etc.). For animal protein sources such as meat, the essential (essential, essential, essential) amino acid arrangement is desired, but for plant protein sources such as soybean, consumption must be accomplished by mixing a variety of nutrients to provide the desired amino acid arrangement. For example,
The important functions of proteins are (Ademoğlu, 2020; Eskici, 2020):
• It is an important component for many tissues of the body, consisting of organs (heart, liver, pancreas...), muscles and bones.
• It supports growth, provides repair and regeneration of tissues such as muscle, connective tissue, skin, hair, nail and muscle tissue.
• It carries substances in the blood. For example, it is the protein that carries iron.
• It plays an important role in the immune system with the help of antibodies.
• It is used as an energy source especially in endurance exercises where carbohydrate stores are low.
• Its importance is critical in maintaining the water balance in the body.
The digestible ratios of proteins are (Ademoğlu, 2020):
• 91100% of proteins taken from foods of animal origin such as meat, eggs, milk and dairy products,
• 79-90% of cereal proteins,
• It is around 69-90% of leguminous proteins.
Depending on the extent to which the proteins taken with the food can be used by the body, “example proteins” are completely used (breast milk and eggs), “good quality proteins” are used almost completely (meat, fish, milk and milk derivatives), “low quality proteins” are completely used. It is grouped as unused (Ademoğlu, 2020: 82).
Alternative Protein Sources
Since protein, which is important for human health, development and strengthening the immune system, is not produced in the body, it must be taken from food. The production of resources for nutrients becomes important due to the increase in the world population and changing environmental conditions. Therefore, it can be stated that new food types have emerged as a result of researches on edible food alternatives and alternative protein sources. In this context, alternative protein sources include insects, duckweed and algae (Algae) (Van der Spiegel, Noordam and Van der Fels-Klerx, 2013), as well as cultured meat (in Vitro) (Post, 2012; Sürek and Uzun, 2020). is explained.
Artificial Meat (in Vitro)
Known as in Vitro, “artificial meat” aka artificial conditions, these new meat and protein products benefit from revolutionary technologies designed to meet the challenges of the traditional meat industry (Bonny et al., 2015). In Vitro is an animal meat product that is artificially produced and is not part of any live animal. The term in vitro is cultured meat or laboratory-grown meat (Pandurangan and Kim, 2015). In vitro meat produced from stem cell cultures resembles normal meat not only in appearance and shape, but also in composition (Sürek and Uzun, 2020).
Raising meat in the laboratory is a possible alternative to traditional meat. Isolation and identification of stem cells, ex vivo cell culture and tissue engineering are important techniques that allow the production of skeletal muscle and mesenchymal (adult type stem cells found in the connective tissue of cells) tissue developed in the last decade (Dennis and Kosnik, 2007). 2000). Cultured meat and meat from genetically modified organisms have no real ability to compete with conventional meat production in the current environment. However, meat substitutes made from plant proteins and microproteins are currently the biggest competitors in the market and are gaining small market share (Bonny et al., 2015).
Although today's traditional meat production has a high production cost, the proportion of agricultural land used for animal production is almost two-thirds, the remaining one-third is used for protein of vegetable origin. 1 kg of poultry requires 2 kg of grain, 1 kg of red meat requires 7 kg of grain, and 1 kg of pork requires 4 kg of grain. In addition, 15.500 m3/ton water is required for red meat and 3.918 m3/ton water is required for chicken meat. Economic pressures to increase meat production lead to high levels of environmental degradation and pollution (Datar and Betti, 2010; Sürek and Uzun, 2020).
In artificial meat production, tissue is achieved in a shorter time compared to the traditional method. Only muscle tissue is produced for the same meat mass, avoiding the production of by-products and other non-skeletal tissues. In artificial meat production, there is no need to destroy forests to create pasture due to the minimum land requirement, so the volume is increased vertically. Under controlled conditions, the formation of waste and by-products, as well as disease risks and loss of animal products resulting from diseases, are prevented and the environmental burden is alleviated (Datar and Betti, 2010).
Historical Development of Artificial Meat
The first step in the historical process of cultured meat is seen as Alexis Carrel's success in keeping the embryonic heart muscle taken from chicks in a petri dish (laboratory dish) alive in 1912 and growing the muscle tissue to a significant extent. René Barjavel, a French science fiction writer, describes in vitro meat production in restaurants in his 1943 novel Ravage. In the early 1950s, Dutch Willem Van Eelen came up with the idea of ​​using tissue cultures independently for in vitro meat production, and was only able to patent his theoretical idea in 1999. The reason for this is that the concept of stem cell and in vitro cell culture has not yet emerged (Bhat, Kumar, & Fayaz, 2015).
In vitro culture of muscle fibers was first performed in 1971 by professor of pathology Russel Ross, who successfully cultured the guinea pig aorta (the main artery that distributes blood to the body). In 1991, Jon F. Vein of the United States applied for and eventually secured a patent for the production of tissue-engineered meat suitable for human consumption in which muscle and fat would be grown in an integrated manner to create food products (Cultured Meat, 2021).
In 2002, SymbioticA took muscle biopsies from frogs and allowed these tissues to grow in living and cultured dishes. (Bhat et al., 2015). Benjaminson et al. (2002) cultivated muscle tissue of goldfish (Carassius) in petri dishes to investigate the possibilities of growing animal muscle protein for long-duration spaceflights or acclimatization to spaceflights. Culture muscle explants obtained in the study or muscle tissue from which biopsy was taken were washed, dipped in olive oil with spices, covered with breadcrumbs and fried. A test panel evaluated these processed explants and determined that the product was acceptable as a food.
An artificial meat symposium was held in Norway in 2008 and an artificial meat workshop was held in Sweden in 2011 (Sürek and Uzun, 2020). In 2008, PETA (People in Charge of the Ethical Treatment of Animals) stated that it would award $1 million to the first company to deliver laboratory-grown chicken meat to consumers by 2012. Researchers from around the world have made significant progress, but nothing has reached the mass market, and there has been no winner at the end of the deadline (Cultured Meat, 2021).
In 2013, the world's first in vitro meat-based burger was produced. Scientist Dr. Using stem cells taken from a cow's shoulder by Mark Post, beef was grown in a laboratory at Maastricht University in the Netherlands over a period of three months. It was reported that the cultured meat produced was colorless and more like chicken meat. So some beet juice and saffron were added to color the meat. More than $330,000 worth of beef, a five-ounce (1 ounce = 28.35g) beef burger patty was cooked and tasted live by a sensory panel at Riverside Studios in London on August 5, 2013. 
The sensory panel consisted of Josh Schonwald, the American author of The Taste of Tommorrow, Hanni Rützle, an Austrian nutritionist, and Dr Mark Post. Panelists said the burger tasted "almost" like a traditional burger. No one spit out the meat and was disturbed (Bath et al., 2015). The price of the first in vitro based burger was reduced to $80/kg in 2015 (Sürek and Uzun, 2020).
Within the scope of artificial meat studies in Turkey, a start-up company named Biftek.co established a laboratory to carry out artificial meat production studies at Ankara University Technopolis in 2018. Stating that nearly eighty companies around the world are trying to produce artificial meat in a laboratory environment, the CEO of the company stated that the main plan is to produce the meat-forming solution cheaply and sell it to other companies in the world, and to produce artificial meat to meet our meat needs when requested (CNN Türk, 2021) .
Benefits and Limitations of Artificial Meat
In vitro meat production is one of the proposed ideas to reduce the negative effects of current meat production on the environment and human health. In vitro meat production can offer health and environmental benefits by reducing the pollution, water and land use associated with existing meat production systems. In this respect, in vitro meat production systems hold great environmental promise. In addition to reducing environmental hazards, as in vitro meat production system conditions can be controlled and manipulated, animal suffering will be significantly reduced and the designer will ensure that meat is chemically safe and its production is sustainable (Bath and Fayaz, 2010).
With artificial meat production, it is aimed to reduce the use of pesticides and chemicals in animal feed production and to ensure the production of environmentally friendly meat products (Şürek and Uzun, 2020). 
Compared to conventionally produced meat, in vitro meat uses approximately 7-45% lower energy use (only poultry has lower energy use), 78-96% lower greenhouse gas emissions, 99% lower land use, and 82-96% more low water use. With uncertainty, it was concluded that the overall environmental impacts of cultured meat production are significantly lower than those of conventionally produced meat (Tuomisto and Teixeira de Mattos, 2011).
While scientists who advocate artificial meat claim that greenhouse gas emissions, land and water use will decrease by twice that of conventional production with artificial meat (Bath et al., 2015), some other scientists are not convinced that artificial meat production will have a low carbon footprint. It believes it will result in limited reductions in fossil fuel and water consumption and an increase in land area, with no real benefits. However, it is thought that consumers will be concerned about personal health risks arising from consuming artificial meat (Hocquette, 2016).
Although artificial meat has no harm that has been researched and revealed so far, it has limitations. Looking at the limitations of artificial meat, Hocquette and Laestadius (2015) mention that for large-scale production, more efficient techniques and low-cost technology are needed than existing techniques, and it is difficult to assess the environmental impact of artificial meat production.
It is thought that artificial meat may require more industrial energy than livestock production and may have higher global warming potential (Hocquette et al., 2013). Since the production of artificial meat requires a large number of molecules, the preparation of all these molecules by the chemical industry and how the waste will be managed remains unclear. Another limitation is that the public's perception of artificial meat is mixed, that they have significant reservations about the development and consumption of artificial meat, and the lack of clarity on how to buy artificial meat (Hocquette and Laestadius, 2015).
Edible Insects
Today, consumers are becoming more careful in their food choices as they become increasingly aware of the harmful effects of many of their food choices on the environment. Halving the extremely high current meat consumption level will greatly benefit the environment and reduce greenhouse gas emissions (Videbæk and Grunert, 2020).
With the increasing human population and environmental degradation, the world is turning to alternative sources for providing protein of animal origin. Edible insects, which are considered to be beneficial for the protection of human health and the environment and as an alternative food source, appear as a new trend in today's gastronomy (Mankan, 2017). Insect eating is known as entomophagy. Derived from the Greek words “entomo” (insect) and “phagein”, it is used to mean to eat insect. Many animals, such as spiders, lizards, and birds, are entomophagous, as are many insects (Pal and Roy, 2014). Insect feeding is practiced in many countries of the world, especially in Europe and North America, except developed countries. Insect foods are estimated to contain 2,000 edible species consumed (Caparros Medigo, et al.,
The United Nations demands the introduction of edible insects as an alternative food source due to the dramatic increase in human population in the world (Mankan, 2017). However, despite its nutritive and lasting benefits, entomophagy is widespread throughout the world, although it is not widely accepted in Western European societies as a disgusting and unattractive food source. People all over the world have been eating insects as part of their diet for thousands of years. As rural people in Africa, Latin America and Asia suffer from malnutrition, particularly protein-energy malnutrition, they need alternative sources of nutritious food (Pal and Roy, 2014; Mankan, 2017). As traditional beef, poultry and pig farming will become unsustainable,
Classes of Edible Insects
Insects, which are very good in terms of nutritional value, are currently included in the traditional diet of 2 billion people, and 1900 insect species have been found to be used as food (Mankan, 2017). The most consumed food in the world is insects (Coleoptera), and when we look at the classification of edible insects; Lepidoptera (caterpillars, butterflies, and moths), Hymenoptera (ant, bee, wasp), Orthoptera (grasshopper, cricket, crickets), Hemiptera (true beetles, cicadas, water beetles), Isoptera (termites, termites), Odonata (dragonflies) and Diptera (flies) (Pal and Roy, 2014; Mankan, 2017; Classes of Edible Insects, 2021).
Butterfly and Moths (Lepidoptera)
The larvae (caterpillars) of many moth species serve as food. It is important in Africa as a source of nutrients (protein, fat, minerals and vitamins). More than 30 species are grown in Congo alone. It is usually dried and canned before being consumed and sold in Botswana and South Africa. Adult butterflies are not consumed because of their wings and scales on their bodies.
Bees, Ants and Wasps (Hymenoptera)
The broods (larva/pupae) of the bees are usually eaten. Canned wasps are sold in Japan with wings and whole. Emperor Hiroita's favorite food is rice cooked with wasps. Ants are also generally consumed as larvae. In movie theaters in some parts of South America, fried ant bellies are sold instead of popcorn. Honeycombs are collected for honey and larvae. In Mexico there are certain types of ant larvae called escamole, fried with butter or served with fried onions and garlic.
Grasshoppers, Crickets, etc. (Orthoptera)
Grasshoppers, crickets and their relatives have played an important role in human dietary history. After the wings and legs are removed, frying and sautéing are common cooking methods. Onion, garlic, hot pepper, chili pepper or soy sauce can be added. Candied grasshopper, known as inago, is a favorite cocktail snack in Japan.
True Insects (Hemiptera)
Most of the insects in this group live in water. Known as the famous Mexican caviar, which has been the basis of aquatic agriculture in Mexico for centuries, “ahuahutle” is made from the eggs of several aquatic hemiptera species. A type of "giant water bug" in Asia, it is exported from Thailand to Asian markets around the world today, where it is steamed and consumed as rice topped with paprika.
White Ants (Isoptera)
Termites, used as food in Africa, are social insects with colonies divided into castes with workers, soldiers, winged adults, and a queen. They are very attracted to lights, even candlelight, and this is their way of capturing them for use as food. Its wings are consumed as broken and fried.
Spiders and Scorpions (Arachnida)
Of the more than 40,000 species of spiders and scorpions, only a few are consumed. Scorpions are consumed in the south of China and its neighboring countries. It is mostly grown in people's homes, on farms. It has a woody flavor and is consumed whole, except for the tail. Spiders are also consumed mostly in Southeast Asia. In Cambodia, large, "tarantula"-like spiders are commonly eaten in the north of the country.
Beetles (Coleptera)
Larvae and adults of many species are used as food. Humans remove the hard parts (wings, legs and head) of all adult insects, prepare them for cooking and consume. Larvae have soft bodies.
Nutritional Value of Edible Insects
Insects are nutritious foods in terms of protein, carbohydrates, fats, minerals such as calcium, zinc, iron and phosphorus, and vitamins A, B, C. Caterpillars, palm grubs and termites are rich in oil. Stung beetles, palm maggots, and adult house crickets are rich in calcium. There is iron content in termites and caterpillars, and maximum phosphorus content in grasshoppers and giant water beetles. Eggs and larvae of honey bees have high amounts of vitamins A, B2 and C. Calories from insects are 776.9kcal/100 g, usually more than soybeans, corn and beef (Pal and Roy, 2014).

Food Type / Insect Type

Protein content (%)


Ground beef (beef)


Pal and Roy , 2014 / Mankan , 2017

Fish (cod)


Pal and Roy , 2014/ Mankan , 2017


7 - 25

Pal and Roy , 2014


35 - 65

Pal and Roy , 2014 / Anankware , 2015


43 – 44

Erdogan et al., 2021

house cricket

55 – 70

Erdogan et al., 2021


14 – 68

Kourimska and Adamkova , 2016


46 - 65

Kourimska and Adamkova , 2016


59 – 63

Erdogan et al., 2021

Table 1. Protein Content of Some Foods and Insects
Insects are eaten alive immediately after being caught in many countries of the world. Apart from this, it is also consumed after the cooking process such as boiling, frying, baking and drying. If the insects are scalded, they are practically tasteless as their pheromones are washed out by rinsing, and they take on the flavor of the ingredients added to the insects during cooking. (Kourimska and Adamkova, 2016).
According to Ramos-Elorduy (1998), the vast majority of insects are odorless due to their exoskeleton. During cooking, the color of the insect often changes from the original shades of gray, blue or green to red. Insects that are not properly dried may turn black. Properly dried insects are golden or brown in color and can be easily crushed with a finger. The taste and flavor of ants and termites turns into a sweet and nutty food; land beetle larvae taste wholemeal bread; the taste and flavor of dragonfly larvae and aquatic insects to a fishy taste; the taste and flavor of cockroaches to mushrooms; the taste and flavor of the wasp to pine seeds; mealybugs to the taste and flavor of french fries; The taste of the water boatman is also similar to the taste and aroma of caviar (Kourimska and Adamkova, 2016).
New Protein Sources
New protein sources (algae, duckweed, and rapeseed) are described in sub-headings, in other words, products that are expected to replace proteins of animal origin (Van der Spiegel et al., 2012).
Algae (Algae)
Algae are a large and diverse group of organisms that use photosynthesis, not belonging to the terrestrial plant group. It can be distinguished as miroalga and seaweed. Microaggregates are single-celled organisms that can grow in a wide variety of environmental conditions. Single-celled algae can store many building materials and energy and thus form the basis of marine food chains. Seaweeds, on the other hand, are complex multicellular organisms that grow in salt water or a marine environment (Cazaux, Van Gijseghem, & Bas, 2010).
Microags has a low calorie, high vitamin, mineral and fiber content and therefore becomes an attractive material for researchers and the food industry (Akköz et al., 2011).
Chlorella (freshwater algae, 50-60% protein), Tetraselmis, Spirulina (seaweed, 57% protein), Nannochloropsis, Nitzchia, Navicula, Haematococcus and Crypthecodinium species can be used as food for both terrestrial and aquatic animals. Microalgae used for human consumption are Chlorella, Spirulina, Dunaliella (unicellular green algae, 40-50% protein) and Aphanizomenon flos-aqua (algae that can be found all over the world, 68% protein). Spirulina; Chlorella from China, India, Japan and America; Dunaliella from Taiwan, Germany and Japan; It is marketed from Australia, Israel, America and China, and Aphonizomenon flush-aqua is marketed from America. Chlorella, Spirulina, and Dunaliella have been widely commercialized and mainly used as dietary supplements and animal feed additives for humans (Van der Spiegel et al.,
Algae can accumulate heavy metals. Because it is located at the bottom of the aquatic food chain pyramid, it is at the highest levels of the most important vector or pollution in the aquatic environment. Algae grown in mud contain significant amounts of heavy metals (Van der Spiegel et al., 2012).
Consumption of seaweeds as food has its roots in Asian countries such as China, Japan and Korea, but it has also spread to America and Europe due to the demand for edible seaweeds. Increasing food prices and the search for alternative protein sources have brought algae production and consumption to the agenda. Microagles are usually sold as a dietary supplement in tablet form or as a sea vegetable (Cazaux et al., 2010).
Seaweed (Seeweed)
Various types of seaweed are used as human food to provide nutritional value and a characteristic taste. It is rich in various minerals and resistant protein components (14-15% protein content). Fresh and dried seaweeds are heavily consumed by people living in coastal areas of Asian countries and Hawaii. In Far Eastern countries, various seaweeds such as Nori, Kombu and Wakame are used in food (Akköz et al., 2011).
Algae used for direct consumption can be harvested from the sea. Fresh and dried seaweed can be imported from France and Japan. Although it is used as a food supplement in Iceland and Norway, no studies have been conducted on protein extraction from algae for human consumption (Van der Spiegel et al., 2012).
Duckweed (Duckweed)
As a natural source of protein, duckweed is closer to animal protein than most other vegetable proteins. Freshly harvested duckweed plants contain up to 43% protein. Compared to other plants, duckweed leaves contain very little fiber (Yılmaz, Akyurt and Günal, 2004).
Duckweed can be found in many geographical areas and climatic zones around the world. They can be found in all regions except dehydrated deserts and frozen areas and grow best in tropical temperate regions, although a few species can survive extreme temperatures (Rahman and Hasegawa, 2011; Van der Spiegel et al., 2012).
Duckweed grown in nutrient-rich waters contains high minerals, potassium, phosphorus and especially carotene. Fresh duckweed is well suited for intensive fish farming systems with relatively fast water exchange rates for waste removal (Yılmaz et al., 2004).
Rapeseed (Rapeseed)
Although rapeseed contains approximately 50% crude oil, 30% carbohydrates and 45% crude protein, its quality is mainly determined by its fat and protein content. Its use as edible became widespread during the 2nd World War and it is used industrially as cooking and frying oil in nutrition (Altıntop and Gıdık, 2019).
Rapeseed or canola is grown primarily for its high oil content (400 g/kg). Rapeseed proteins have long been used as a feed ingredient worldwide for a wide variety of animal species including poultry, beef, pork and fish (salmon, trout, tilapia and shrimp) (Burel, Boujard, Escaffre, Kaushik, Boeuf, Mol, Van). der Geyten and Kühn, 2000). The use of canola protein as a human food ingredient has been classified with a few foods produced and marketed in low volume, such as processed meats, cheese, pizza, and bagels in Canada, Japan, and the United States. Some studies have shown that rapeseed may contain heavy metals and allergens. Heavy metals from the soil, chromium, zinc, copper, lead, can accumulate in the roots, plant and seeds of rapeseed (Van der Spiegel et al., 2012).
Küreselleşen dünyada, değişen eko sistemler ve bozulan doğal yapı ile toplumlar mevcut koşullara uyum sağlayarak hayatta kalma mücadelesi vermektedir. Günümüz şartlarında gıda kaynaklarına ulaşım oldukça önem arz etmektedir. Sağlıklı halin devamlılığı için son derece önemli olan protein kaynakları, artmakta olan dünya nüfusuna yeterli olmayacağı öngörüleri gün geçtikçe artmaktadır. 
As time passes, the increase in the world's population brings with it a tendency to alternative sources for the demands that will be difficult to meet. Studies on alternative protein sources are handled in laboratories instead of natural environments, and artificial meat is tried to be brought to humanity as an alternative protein source. The desired point has not been reached yet due to the current technological conditions that do not allow mass production capacity and high costs in the studies aimed at reproducing the tissues taken without harming the animals in a way that will have nutritional quality.
With the difficulty of reaching food, people go to evaluate all the resources around them. At the beginning of these resources are insects, butterflies, bees, scorpions, flies and maggots, which are the easiest to access. Although these protein-rich foods are repulsive for people, they will be the main alternative source in nutritional models in the face of scarce resources in the future. The fact that new non-animal protein sources, which will be a good alternative to animal foods, contain the necessary nutrients and are easy to produce, facilitate the feasibility of these new protein sources.
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As the head chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR, I see the source:
Mr. I sincerely thank Engin PULLUK for his academic studies on "Alternative Protein Sources in Nutrition" and wish him success in his professional life . It will definitely be considered as an example by those who need it in professional kitchens, related research and in the world of gastronomy.