• Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
  • Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
  • Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
  • Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
  • Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
  • Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
  • Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System

Fatih Sultan Mehmed, one of the most important sultans of the Ottoman Empire, also adopted and applied this understanding. Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror had his grand vizier Çandarlı Halil Pasha executed in order to consolidate the central authority, thus the influence of the...

Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
Ahmet Ekiz
When we examine the principalities that were established after the disintegration of the Anatolian Seljuk State, the Ottoman Empire was a smaller principality than the others. The Ottoman Empire, which was established as a border principality, initially chose to struggle with the kingdoms in Byzantium and the Balkans instead of fighting with other principalities in Anatolia. The Ottoman Empire, which took the understanding of Gaza and jihad as its guide, expanded its borders against Byzantium and the Balkans in a short time. 
This situation has continued increasingly since the reign of Murad I. As the borders gradually expanded, the need for soldiers to protect the borders emerged. With the "Pencik Law" enacted in this period, a new system was developed to meet this need. Educational institutions have begun to be established to educate the children taken from non-Muslim families in the Balkans and to select the intelligent children. 
XV. There has been a great increase in the number of recruits compared to the expanding borders since the century. Thus, “Enderun School” was established in order to educate these children in a more systematic way. The main objective in the establishment of such an institution was to train skilled commanders for the Ottoman Empire, which was based on a military basis, and to provide strong administrative cadres to manage the masses of the constantly growing country belonging to different religions and cultures. Since the state has an unequal social structure, culture and discipline have been adopted as the basic principles instead of race and blood ties for such an educational institution, and the staff has been trained in this understanding. 
Fatih Sultan Mehmed, one of the most important sultans of the Ottoman Empire, also adopted and applied this understanding. Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror had his grand vizier Çandarlı Halil Pasha executed in order to consolidate the central authority, thus the influence of the Çandarlı Dynasty, which had been in existence since the reign of Murad I, was broken. Instead, he appointed people who were well-trained in terms of culture and discipline in the Enderun school to the position of grand vizier.
Generally, children who were taken by devshirme, who had nothing to do with their families, had to have undergone a certain lower education before being admitted to Enderun. Children recruited from non-Muslim families first learned Turkish in the presence of Muslim-Turkish families. These children, who later became Muslims, were brought up according to the Ottoman culture and tradition. This was called "Giving to the Turk". 
After staying with Muslim-Turkish families for a while, they were handed over to the Novice Hearth. The children who started their education and training life here for the first time would try to learn the positive sciences in the Ottoman Empire. After completing this part, they would see lessons and drills that would improve their physical and spiritual abilities in Edirne, Galata, İskender Celebi and İbrahim Pasha Palaces, which are known as the preparation palaces of the Ottoman Empire. They were called "Novice Boys". Novice boys were referred to as “Çıkma” after certain training and education here, and dispersed into various military units, while the gifted ones were taken to the Enderun school.
Education at Enderun School; The Big and Small Rooms are divided into seven sections, namely Doğancı Ward, Seferli Ward, Pantry Room, Treasury Room and Private Room. The inner boys, who could not take the training here to the end, were called out in the same way in the middle classes and joined various military units. The inner boys who took this education to the end and were successful were brought to the important levels of the state and were promoted to the grand vizierate. Considering its working system, program and functioning, Enderun can be said to be a place where various skills, arts, administrative and political knowledge are taught practically and abilities are determined rather than a school. In the seven rooms and wards that make up Enderun, there are certain rules that are strictly followed in the removal, promotion and filling of vacancies.
Enderun School, which is an institution that trains administrators in the Ottoman Empire, has trained many important statesmen from its establishment to its closure. In this study; An in-depth research has been conducted on the process, structure and functioning of the Enderun school from its foundation to its closure, using previously written sources, and I hope that the people who will read this study will benefit from the work in the best way possible.
1) Historical Development of Enderun School
1.1. Description of Enderun School
Enderun School is a high school of practice that provides special education and training in order to train the military and civil high-level administrators of the state.1 This school, whose students were chosen from among the novice boys, constituted the elite staff of the Ottoman education system. Until the day the Enderun school was founded, there was no other institution like it. Although there were schools in the Seljuks and Europe where the members of the dynasty were educated with special care, the education system of the Enderun school was completely different.2
The Ottoman State administration was based on two basic educational institutions. The first of these is the ulama from the madrasah; The second one is devshirme-origin students who were educated at Enderun School.3 In the Ottoman Empire, the sultans could hand over the state power only to those who were absolutely devoted to him, loyal, full of gratitude, but also very well-trained and talented. Here, Enderun was a school that trained some of the administrators who realized this aim, and enabled some non-Muslim youth to participate in the administration by being converted into Muslims and educated. This system did not aim to Islamize all Christians, as some writers who wrote books against the Ottoman Empire thought. 
As the devshirme method in which the students admitted to Enderun were provided was kept very narrow with some limitations, as will be seen in the rest of my research, this had little effect on the Islamization or Turkization of the Christians. If the real aim was to Islamize the Christians, the Ottoman State would not have acted selectively on these children. In addition, these children were forcibly taken from their families and converted to Islam or they would not take part in government positions. When we examine the glorious history of the Ottoman Empire, we see that this was not the case.
The Ottomans took the religion of Islam to the places they conquered with the understanding of war and jihad, but they never changed their language and religion by force.
Despite all this, western writers who try to denigrate the Ottoman Empire include the following statement in their works:
- Imagine a man whose father, a child he raised, is suddenly and forcibly abducted by foreign hands in front of his eyes, he is made to adopt foreign customs, to be dressed in barbarian clothes, to be taught a barbaric language, to be polluted with irreligion and similar things. It is enough to read more.
Regardless of their religion and language, the Ottoman State gave great importance to talented people and gave them the opportunity to develop. This shows not only their thoughts and attitudes about state administration, but also their understanding of people in general and the importance they attach to people's education. Again, the Ottoman state applied a promotion and rewarding system based on personal talent and success, and honest and socially beneficial behaviors during the rise. XVI. Busbecq, a writer who knew the Ottomans in the 19th century, tells how the Ottomans gave importance to talented people and generally to the education of people and the development of talents.
-When Turks find a person with exceptional qualities, they rejoice as if they have found something of inestimable value, and they do not hesitate to make any sacrifices in raising him; if they have a body structure that is suitable for fighting, they hold it above everything else. Our plan is very different; because we are also very happy when we find a dog, falcon or horse and we do everything we can to make it the best of its generation. 
But if a man has superior qualities, we don't make any sacrifices to make him perfect as well; nor do we consider his education as our duty. From the horse, dog or falcon we train well, we see the reward of this effort as service; but Turks receive the same service from a well-educated person. Because the nature of a human being is much more admirable and much more perfect than other animals.5 As we can understand from Busbecq's words, the Ottoman Empire brought these children, whom they recruited from non-Muslim subjects, to important positions in the state staff by educating them in the most perfect way.
1.2. Establishment and Development of Enderun School
Various opinions have been put forward about the establishment of Enderun School, one of the most important educational institutions of the Ottoman Empire. These views can be gathered in two main points. According to the first, Enderun School II. It was founded by Murad 6 and, according to the second, by Mehmed the Conqueror7. As a result of serious researches, Enderun Mektebi II. It turned out that it was founded by Murad.
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education SystemIn the Ottoman State Archive on this subject:
Even the arrangement of the Mabeyn-i Humayun in the primordial formation of the State-i Aliyya-i Osmaniye was a place of Paradise, and it was served as the Harem-i Humâyûn during the arrangement of the Dâ'ire-i Humayun in the Middle Palace during the time of Gazi Sultan Murad Han-i Sani. Even for his glorious works, some of the sons of the virtuous men were summoned and educated and the essence of Enderûn-i Hümâyûn was laid down, and many of them were virtuous and virtuous in the sciences, the penitentiary and the property. .8(Document 1)
Ensuring the Enderun School for students was done by choosing from among the novice boys. II. Founded in Edirne during the reign of Murad I, Enderun School gained its real personality during the reign of Mehmed the Conqueror. During the reign of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror, Enderun School, leaving its identity as a devshirme school, also focused on the education of the civil and administrative staff necessary for the protection of the state.9 
On this subject in the Ottoman State Archive:
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
After the conquest of Istanbul, Ebul Feth Sultan Mehmed Han Ghazi transferred his Imperial Majesty in Edirne to Dersaade and settled in the Old Palace, which was allocated to his private residence, for a while. For the distribution and arrangement of the Muahheren Dâ'ire-i Hümâyûn, in the year eight hundred and fifty-eight (1454) the New Palace was brought to the body, when the Enderûn-i Humâyûn was brought to the body with the construction of the buildings that were the most beautiful and beautiful point of the dream with the navy supervision. and some of it was left in the Old Palace, and even Mehmed the Conqueror was commanded to reside in the New Palace in the Season-i page.10 (Document 2)
As it can be understood from the above document, Fatih Sultan Mehmed made new arrangements to make it a city of culture and civilization after he conquered Istanbul. Fatih Sultan Mehmed Khan built a new palace by constructing buildings in Istanbul and transferred a part of the Enderun School, which was established in Edirne, here. After sitting in the palace where Fatih Sultan Mehmed settled for about a year, he started to have the Old Palace built in 1454 on the site of today's Istanbul University. The construction of this palace, called the Old Palace or Saray-ı atik-i âmire, was completed in 1458 and the Enderun School was moved here.11
Mehmed the Conqueror built a palace on the ridge of Sarayburnu, which was then an olive grove, overlooking the sea and the four corners of Istanbul, which he had always seen from the Old Palace (Saray-ı atik-i âmire), where he settled in 1458, and created the Topkapı Palace12 (1478). Thus, this became the new center of the state, and the Enderun School was definitely moved here. In order not to confuse these two palaces, Saray-ı atik-i âmire; The Topkapı Palace, which was founded later, was given the name Saray-ı Cedid-i âmire.
The development of Enderun School, which started with Fatih Sultan Mehmed, II. Beyazid continued during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. The buildings and artifacts brought to the Enderun School by these rulers belonged to Sultan IV. Murad, Sultan III. Ahmed and Sultan III. It was maintained and repaired by Mustafa.13
1.3. The Place and Importance of Enderun in Topkapı Palace
Topkapı Saray-ı (Saray-ı Cedid-i âmire) basically consists of three organizations as Bîrûn, Enderun and Harem. The seating plan of the palace, palace ceremonies and palace spaces were evaluated according to this organization. Topkapi palace; Bâb-ı Humayun consisted of three gates named Bâbü's Selam and Babü's Saade, four courtyards, a harem and a private garden. Surrounded by the sea on three sides, the palace was surrounded by high walls called Suru Sultani with a length of 1400 meters.14
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
The Enderun section in Topkapı Palace starts after Babüs Saade, that is, after the third gate. Enderun, which means the interior of the palace in Persian, consists of wards around a courtyard. In the middle of the courtyard, the sultan we call the Supply Room; There is a building where he accepts ambassadors, viziers and especially the vizier. III. Ahmed's library, which looks like an elegant jewelry box, is also located here. In addition, the Enderun Treasure and the Sacred Relics section in this section are very important.15
One of the most important functions of the Enderun section in Topkapı Palace was the education of children taken from non-Muslims here. The Big and Small Room, Doğancı Ward, Seferli Ward, Pantry Ward, Treasury Room and Private Room, where these students were educated, were located in this section.16
The Enderun section in Topkapı Palace is an important place because it trained statesmen for the Ottoman Empire and the state treasury was kept here.
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
Sultan III. Library Built by Ahmed
2) Student Selection for Enderun School
2.1. Establishment and Development of Devshirme
The students studying at Enderun School were from devshirme. With the understanding of war and jihad, the Ottoman Empire organized expeditions to the Balkans and organized conquest movements there. During these conquest movements, children taken from non-Muslim people were taken under the protection of the Ottoman Empire, educated and brought to important positions. There are two views on the starting point of the "Devşirme Law" in the Ottoman Empire. According to the first, the devshirme law II. It was issued in the time of Murad.17 
After the Ankara War between Yıldırım Beyazıd and Timur, the conquest movements of the Ottoman Empire stopped for a while and some places were handed over to the Byzantine Empire and the Serbians. Both during the reign of Mehmed Çelebi and his son II. In the first periods of Murad, the captives could not be used because there was no conquest in Rumelia. For this purpose, II. Murad enacted the "Devshirme Law". Thus, with a new method, which was rarely practiced in other Turkish-Islamic States before the Ottoman Empire, only one of the few children of non-Muslim subjects whose age was determined by law was taken into Ottoman service. 18
According to the second view, it is claimed that the “Revolutionary Law” was enacted during the reign of Murad I.19 Aşıkpaşazade describes this issue in his book Tevarih-i Âli Osman as follows:
-“One day, there was a Danishmend who was called Kara Rustem; He came from Karaman Province, Kara Halil from Çandar said who was Kazasker, why would you waste the property of the principality? 
What property does Kara Halil, a Kazasker, have to be the leading casualty? He said you do. Kara Rustem pushed him, said, "Who are these captives, who bring the veterans from the war, by the order of God, one fifth of them belongs to the sultan, why don't you take the moment; Even pes Kazasker presented this article to Sultan Murad. Anda Sultan Murad said because it is God's command; they were.
They read Black Rustam; They pushed him, they said, "Whatever is in the command of Mevlana God, push it". There was Kara Rustam, he lived in Gallipoli; He received twenty-five akches from each prisoner. It was left to Çandarlı Kara Halil and Kara Rüstem to take revenge from the captive in Gallipoli and elsewhere. 
And they even ordered Gazi Evranos. They said to take one-fifth of the prisoner that came out of the raid. They said, "No matter who is a prisoner of the moment, take 25 akçes from each prisoner." Upon this arrangement, even Evranoz appointed a Kadi, and the boys with calligraphy gathered; brought the boys they had bought and presented them to Sultan Murad; At that time, they would give these boys to the Turks in Anatolia. Even the Turks used to keep a couple for these boys. They would stay there until they learned Turkish, and they would be brought to the door. They wear white bork; and the Janissaries code his name, it has been there for a long time”.20
As it can be understood from this, the foundations of the Devshirme System were laid during the reign of Murad I and II. The system, which lost its former importance until the period of Murad, was revived with this period.
2.1.2. Fundamentals of Gathering
The need for soldiers for the Kapıkulu Hearth was determined by the janissary agha and presented to the Divan-ı Humayun. According to the decision to come out of this, those who were fit among the young people between the ages of eight and twenty would be recruited.21
In the Ottoman Empire, the devshirme law was not applied everywhere because of some obligations. Initially, it was mostly applied in Rumeli in places such as Skopje, Shtip, Köstendil, Prizren, Görice, Samakov, Prebol, Taşlıca, Ergirikasri, Ioannina, Prilepe, Shkodra, Ohrid, İpek, Dukakin, Navosin, Manastır, Mostar, Izvornik, Böğürdelen, Horpeşte. has been done. 
XV. Since the end of the century, it has been applied in Anatolia as well as around Erzurum, Harput, Diyerbekir, Bursa and Istanbul. In the regions where devshirme would not be made, the people had provisions stating that they were exempt from devshirme. Generally, devshirme was not made from derbendcilar, mine workers and miri workers. Albanian, Bosnian, Greek, Bulgarian, Serbian and Croatian children are preferred for devshirme; Turkish, Kurdish, Persian, Russian, Jewish, Georgian and Gypsy children were not recruited. Only very few Armenians were recruited for the palace.22
The devshirme work is done in three, five and seven years, and the Janissary Agha was primarily responsible for this work. After that, the novice landlord comes. The devshirme was initially made by the local governors of the relevant region, such as beylerbeyi, sanjak bey and local kadis. However, over time, some of them abused their duties, and during the reign of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror, devshirme became a principle.23
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
It was customary to give a sealed edict to the devshirme officer by the janissary agha.24 The devshirme officer would personally visit each district in the district where he was appointed. The devshirme officer would announce that he was coming for the devshirme by means of criers wherever he went. Children between the ages of eight and twenty were allowed to gather at the accident center. 
Non-Muslim children would go to the meeting place with their fathers and popes, even though they had their baptismal books with them. The recruiter who examined the baptismal book personally saw the children and separated those who obeyed the law and the instruction. Generally, if it was customary to take one boy from forty households in each accident, this number would rather be determined according to need. The village, township, father and mother's name of the recruited children, the name of the sipahi to which they belonged, the date of birth, the color of their eyes, and the name of the official who would take them to the state center were written in two separate notebooks. 
One of these notebooks, called "Eşkal Notebooks", was given to the recruiter and the other to the officer called "Driver" who sent the recruited children to the center. The driver used to deliver these devshirme boys along with this book.25 As it can be understood from this information, he did not make this system applied by the Ottoman Empire according to his own wishes, but within the framework of certain committees.
If we talk about the characteristics of the recruited children:
1) Children between the ages of 8-20 had to have facial beauty and conformity with their body structure and complete health.
2) Nobles of Christian children, sons of priests, only one of the two children, and the healthiest child of families with more than one child were chosen.26
3) The child of the only son of the family was not recruited.
4) Motherless and fatherless children, those who are known to be greedy, and the son of a village kethüda were not recruited, with the thought that he might have been blind.27
5) Children who got married and had art were not recruited.
6) The children of the cowherd and shepherd were also not recruited.
7) Bald, young and corner children were not collected.
8) Those who were extremely tall or short were among those who were not recruited.28
9) Tall children could only be taken into the palace, who were in good shape.
10) Those who were circumcised at birth were not recruited.29
The recruited children were sent to the state center in groups of 100-200 people, called herds, under the direction of the drivers. The devshirme boys sent to Istanbul were checked by the Janissary agha at the gate of the aghas and were written in the description books. Afterwards, circumcised children were given Muslim-Turk names and the jizya tax was deducted from them. After these operations of the devshirme herd were completed, they were given to the Turkish villagers in Anatolia and Rumelia for a small fee by the Anatolian and Rumelian aghas temporarily. Those who were recruited in Anatolia were sent to Rumelia. 
This would prevent the older ones from escaping. Those who escaped were handed over to the villagers again. Anatolian Aghas, one of the devshirme in Anatolia; Rumelia Agha was responsible for the devshirme in Rumelia. The Kethüdas would inspect the children who were with the villagers from time to time. 31 It was also forbidden to sell recruited boys to merchants, because they could choose to earn money by learning a trade instead of going to war. It was forbidden to give the boys to the merchant group so that they would not be tempted by the temptations of city life and open their eyes and refuse to work in hard labor.32.
With this practice called “Giving to the Turk”, the devshirme boys were engaged in agriculture and contributed to production, on the other hand, they learned Turkish and Turkish-Islamic customs, traditions and customs. Thus, these devshirme boys were both raised according to Ottoman culture and tradition, and helped in the production of Ottoman peasants. These children, who stayed with their Turkish families for 7-8 years, were brought to Istanbul when the time came, upon the request of the Janissary agha and the decision taken from the Divan-ı Humayun.33 
These devshirme boys, who were checked here by looking at their description books, were recorded in the Novice Quarter, and were named "Novice Boy" after registration. Pasha and İskender Çelebi were sent to the preparatory palaces and continued their education there. The devshirme, who successfully completed these preparatory palaces, were taken to the "Enderun School", the Palace University of the Ottoman Empire.35
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
2.2. Features of Preparation Palaces
Each of these palaces is like a school. The aim of all of them is to train students for the Enderun School. Progress in the court order and in the foreign service of the state depended heavily on ability.
For this reason, from the beginning to the end of the education, interest, ability and individual differences are given priority.
Students in the preparatory schools had the opportunity to grow up in fields such as language and literature, various handicrafts, calligraphy, etc. 37 In the upper education stage, the student was educated at one of the various education levels appropriate to his abilities. 
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
Reading and writing Turkish, Arabic, Qur'an and religion courses are the courses that all students have to follow in common.38 Apart from this, common learning areas are subjects such as physical education and war skills. Arabic language and grammar, fiqh, tafsir, Turkish literature etc. Topics such as higher education are based on special abilities.
Certain rules must be followed in order to move from preparatory schools to Enderun School or Sipahi divisions. The first of these is the “Bedergah”, that is, the “Law of Exit”.39 II. This law, which was enacted by Murad and valid since 1432, took its final form during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. Those with good work and skills completed their education in seven or eight years. Those whose skills were not good continued their education up to fourteen years.40
Among these people, those with good manners and morals were taken to Topkapı Palace and accepted to Enderun classes, which provide higher education. Those who showed great success in education and training there were transferred to various civil servants of the palace. Among them, there are those who are Beylerbeyi, Serhat Commander, Governor and Ambassador, as well as those who are vizier and even rise to the rank of Serasker and Grand Vizier.41
Another way out was that those who did not study at the Preparatory Palace School as much as they should and those with underdeveloped skills were not admitted to the Enderun School in Topkapı Palace. These young people, who were sent to the Sipahi divisions, formed the educated and written group of the military corps. Datings have occurred at certain times. 
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
For students to be recruited to the palace and to join the army, open spaces were required both in the Enderun classrooms in the Palace and in the Sipahi Divisions of the Army. For this reason, the departures did not occur every year. Without the gaps, it was impossible for students to leave the Prep Palaces. A fair promotion system was applied from the bottom up in the palace. The displacements were made in an order and sequence. In the Enderun Wards, where the cadres were fixed, well-trained people were brought to the vacancies in the Preparatory Palace Schools.42
3) Enderun School Organization
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
Young people who were taken to Enderun School were called inner boys. They were trained in three ways: a) to teach palace affairs by actually performing palace services, b) to receive an institutional education in the field of Islamic and some positive sciences, c) to receive an education according to their abilities in areas such as physical and art education.43
Education in Enderun School is divided into seven rooms. These are according to their importance44
1) BigRoom
2) SmallRoom
3) Doğancı Ward
4) Expeditionary Ward
5) Cellar Ward
6) Treasure Room
7) Private Room
If we explain the training given to the Inner Boys in these rooms of Enderun School:
3.1. Enderun School Rooms 3.1.1. Big And Small Room
The small room, which forms the first two levels of Enderun, was on the left when you entered Babüssaade, and the Great room was on the right. Young people who graduated from the novice boys' school with great success were admitted to these rooms.45 
These are the religion and culture of Islam; 
Seeing Turkish, Arabic and Persian lessons; He would perform sports instructions such as wrestling, jumping, and shooting arrows. Those who read in these rooms were called “dolamalı” because they wore a kind of robe called “dolama”. The inner boys in the Big and Small Room were performing the lowest services of the palace. If they were able, they could reach the highest places in the other four rooms.46 The inner boys in this room did not have the services of the sultan. Only when the sultan passed away, they saw the service of reading the Qur'an. In return for this service, they would receive a thousand akçes from the treasurer's treasury and eight gold coins each from the Enderun treasury.47
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
The palace lord would take care of the promotion and transfer procedures of the great room, and if necessary, they would be presented to the sultan by giving his wishes to the door lord. The sultan would write on the gift in his own handwriting saying "I gave it through" and send the gift. The privileges of the small room were presented through the kethüdas of their own rooms and again through the door master. In this way, those who were promoted from the big and small rooms would be removed from the robe and become caftan.48 If we talk about the number of students educated in these rooms, 100; While the small room had 60 people, XVII. In the 19th century, this figure reached a total of 258. It is stated that these rooms were removed in 1675.49
3.1.2. Doğancı Ward
The third degree of Enderun was Doğancı Ward. While the sultan was hunting, it was the duty of Doğancılar to tip those who brought game animals from foreign hunters and from foreign markets and to present the hunt they brought to the sultan.51 Doğancılar ward IV. Removed by Mehmed.52
3.1.3. Expeditionary Ward
Seferli Ward is higher than Enderun's Large and Small Rooms and Doğancı Ward.53 Seferli Ward is also called Hâne-i Seferli. Seferli ward for the first time IV. It was established in 1635 during the reign of Murad. IV. It was established by choosing from the Boys of the Big and Small Room when Murad started the Revan Expedition. Within this, the ward was called Seferli in the sense of warrior.54 Previously, the work of washing and arranging the laundry of the Enderun people was later shifted to art. 
Hanendes, Kemankeş, Wrestlers, Barbers, Bathers, Tellaks were raised. Dumb and Dwarfs, known as the Jester, are in this ward. Many scholars, poets and successful people in music were educated in Seferli Ward.55
It is the duty of those in this ward to wash and fold the ruler's laundry. The aghas of the Seferli Chamber lay the prayer mat on which the sultan would pray in the mosque, and the people of this chamber and the aghas were responsible for the clothes and prayer rugs of the palace.56
The gaps in the Seferli Ward were closed by the transfer of elements from the Big and Small Rooms. When there was a vacancy, the chief caliph of the Great Chamber would go to the expedition ward first. This room was removed in 1831 and the aghas here were given to the Treasury and Cellar Wards.57
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
3.1.4. Kilerci Ward
The Cellar Ward was established during the reign of Mehmed the Conqueror.58 The gilmans in the Kilerci ward were also responsible for cooking various meals of the Sultan, setting the table, making salads, cooking coffee, and making various syrups and jams, in addition to reading and writing and learning other sciences and sciences.59 The room has the fifth highest rank after Doğancı Ward and Seferli Ward.
The Cellar Ward was the kitchen dining room of the palace. Management belonged to the head of the cellar. The head of the cellar was called Ser-i Kilar-ı Hassa.60 The head of the cellar was from the white aghas or the inner sons. When the sultan eats in the special room, he is the head of the cellar who puts the food in front of the sultan and opens the lid. The cooking of the meal to be given to the sultan in the morning and evening, its transport to the sultan's presence and the preparation of the after-dinner belonged to the head of the cellar.
The inner boys of the cellar ward were given to the Kapikulu cavalry divisions during the outings and when it was their turn.61
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
3.1.5. Treasure Room
The Treasury Ward is one degree higher than the Cellar Ward and one degree lower than the Private Room, and was established during the reign of Fatih Sultan Mehmed.62 The Treasury Room, which was among the Enderun Rooms during the reign of Fatih Sultan Mehmed, was more developed and organized during the reign of Yavuz Sultan Selim.
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education SystemEnderun School in the Ottoman Education SystemRegarding the establishment of this room, it is mentioned in the Ottoman State Archives as follows:
-The mansion whose construction was completed in (875), as it is rumored to exist before the conquest of Istanbul or as mentioned earlier, is the master. It was agreed that the Treasury-i Humayun was committed. As the goods in the Treasury-i Humayun were registered in the regular notebooks, from 1084 to 1901, when the will and memorandum of the Treasury were observed, the nukud-u ceâhir and the ahcâr-ı zi doomsday, etc. the aforementioned book was reformed and even its records were corrected.63 (Document 3)
There would be no less than sixty Inner boys here; In later dates, their number increased to one hundred and ten, and even to one hundred and fifty-seven in 1772. The chief chief of the Treasury, called Serhazin-i Enderun, and the treasury chamber were the greatest chiefs of this place.64
The treasury room called Gılmânı-ı treasury used to receive tips twice a year. One is when the Egyptian Treasure comes and the other is when they offer hand oil to the sultan in winter. In both cases, a thousand akce tip was given to them.65
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
Those in the Treasury Chamber were in charge of protecting the Enderun Treasure. The head of the treasurer was inseparable from the sultan during the expedition and the hazer. When the ruler went to the Friday prayer, he would go to the mosque he was going to before and lay the prayer mat on the place where the ruler, called mahfel-i humayun, would pray, and as a precaution, he would rub his face several times in the place where he was going to prostrate, making sure that there was nothing that would harm the sultan's face.66
When they came out of here, the young people would enter the Kapikulu cavalry companies, the detachment and the çeşnigir.67
Private Room
The Has Chamber not only constituted the highest level of the Enderun School Chambers, but also constituted the highest part of education and training. The main goal of the education in this room was limited to educating the students in terms of administration.68
Has Oda was founded by Fatih Sultan Mehmed. The four famous officers of the Privy Chamber were Has Odabaşı, Silahtar, Cuhadar, and Rikabdar.69 Their main duties were to sweep the cardigan-i sheriff's office, to dust the mushafs and books there, to burn the ox-tree on certain and holy nights, to sprinkle rose water, to make railings, candlesticks and candlesticks. They had duties such as polishing and cleaning other objects, and they would do this on guard duty.70
The number of people in this room was thirty-two, which was later increased to forty.71 Makbul İbrahim Pasha, who was the Grand Vizier of Suleiman the Magnificent (later Maktul İbrahim Pasha), was a devshirme who was educated in the Privy Chamber, and rose to the rank of grand vizier.
 Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
Privy Chambers were taken out according to their old and inexperienced nature. If the Has Odali was one of the old ones, his way was to be a muteferrika, and if he was a novice, it was a seasoning. However, it is also seen that the special chambers came out with the sanjak principality.72
Privy Chambers had regulations and they were applied to the letter. The times to go to bed and get up, break and rest times were specific. There were teachers in the rooms to teach lessons. Each room had an imam and a muezzin. The health and safety of the sultan in the rooms after the night prayer every Thursday evening; It was prayed for the downfall of enemies, traitors to religion and the state.
3.2. Education and Training in Enderun School
3.2.1. Discipline and Discipline
The students of all the Palace Schools were recruited by the Devshirme Law from various parts of the Ottoman Empire, from various families with completely different religions and customs. It was necessary to establish a great authority over children with various tendencies and to raise them according to Turkish and Muslim customs. These young people, whose total has always exceeded a thousand, had to be brought together under the same system and a single discipline. There was a need for an authority. For this reason, from the establishment of this school to the day it disappeared into history, the administration has always been given to Akağas. Extremely tough, the Ak Aghas were very capable of disciplining young people of all ages.73
The landlords, who were appointed to the newly recruited recruits in Enderun, were obliged to deal closely and very seriously with the education and upbringing of the child who was handed over, and it was known that raising a young person was a matter of dignity and honor. :
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
-The method of serving these lala with great respect and honour, presumably with the performance of official obedience, and being a tutor to even that person's Novice Agha was introduced during the reign of Fatih Sultan Mehmed Han, and it was established even among His Holiness Sultan Bayazid-i Han-Sani. kid is ordered. (Lalas) Having the novice aga read the Akaid-i Religious Treatises such as İlm-i Hâl, Tajvîd, Birgivî, Halebî, Kudûrû, with the Qur'an-i Azimussan instruction and recitation from the first-order, while continuing the Arabic and Persian lessons, bathing in the bath and changing clothes He is responsible for teaching the methods and manners of other services. 75( Document 4)
Lalas would teach their novices first of all Islamic etiquette, reading the Qur'an, religious creeds and writing. Within his own power, he taught Arabic and Persian. Or he would send them to the lessons of the Arabi and Persian teachers of the Palace. They would check the child's talent, if he had a passion for music, he would enroll in the meşhane. Sometimes lala herself would be a musician. At that time, he would especially encourage his novice to music. The enthusiasm of the child encouraged him to go to these fields in horse riding, violin-playing, and gunslinger.76
The biggest and most unforgivable flaw in the Enderun School was inertia, laziness, and lack of enthusiasm for a science or an art.77 In order to maintain discipline in the Enderun-i Hümâyûn, it was necessary to follow some rules of discipline and respect. It was forbidden to stand undressed and free in Huzur-u Hümayûn. It was necessary not to disturb the people around him by stretching, yawning, sneezing loudly, eating things like garlic, onion and bacon. At the table, it was forbidden to reach out to the food before the elders, to eat outside the rules of manners, to look at other people's food, to yawn, to wipe one's hand on the table, to spill and distribute bread and crumbs. After eating, he had to thoroughly clean his hands and mouth.78
On Thursdays and Fridays, they would cut their fingernails and toenails in a secluded place. They used to change their ablution and prayer towels once every two days, and their hands and handkerchiefs every day.79
Enderun students used to sit at separate tables in groups of ten at mealtimes. There was an Ak Agha at every table. Plates were not placed in front of everyone. Before the white agha started to eat, the students would not reach out to the dish.80 It was shameful to smack the mouth, slurp the spoon, smash bread, spill it on the ground. It was shameful to act like getting fleas, scratching, changing their clothes late, not keeping their clothes clean, having rips and tears on them, splashing water on those around them while bathing in the bath, imitating their friends, cutting and wearing clothes made of fabrics for women, all kinds of sassiness and arrogance.81
In Enderun-i Hümâyûn, the biggest faults were never forgiven. Having bad feelings for a beautiful child among the little ones was one of the reasons why he left the palace. An Enderunite who was judged to be weighed from the palace by committing a serious crime would first have his cloaks plucked and his headdress taken off, then the collar of his dress would be torn and he would be laid on a square. The ruled would be kicked out of the palace after eating so many sticks. Later, his collar was torn and bare feet were removed from the palace gate. The Tard decision is usually also subject to exile, and Enderunlu, who was expelled from the palace, could not hold on in Istanbul.82
3.2.2. Managing and Supporting Capabilities
Progress and advancement within the court order and in the foreign services of the state depended heavily on talent. For this reason, from the beginning to the end of the education, priority was given to interests, abilities and individual differences. Military and war skills, language and literature, various handicrafts, calligraphy, etc., are related to the students in the preparatory schools and according to their abilities. They would have the opportunity to develop and grow in one of the areas such as Those who were understood not to receive further education were transferred to various services of the army with the Janissary Corps at the end of this stage, or they had the opportunity to work in various workshops and workshops established to meet the needs of the palace.83
The attitude was the same at the stage of higher education. The student would grow up in one of the various learning channels suited to his abilities. Turkish, reading, writing, Arabic, Qur'an and religion courses are the courses that all students have to follow in common. Apart from this, common areas of learning are subjects such as physical education and war skills. Arabic language and Grammar, Persian and Persian Literature, Fiqh, Tafsir, Turkish Literature etc. Topics such as higher education were based on special abilities. 
In addition, in which branch of vocational education the student will deepen and develop under the Expeditionary, Cellar and Treasury chambers is largely dependent on individual abilities. These abilities would be developed by teaching the oriental languages, Islamic and Ottoman laws. Physical, spiritual and religious upbringing would be in accordance with the requirements of daily life. Talents were identified and promoted everywhere. This was also a chance to be selected for higher education. In this way, they could improve themselves in the fields they wanted without being wronged.84
The curriculum of Enderun School is planned not only to be promoted, but also to determine those who will be allocated to the army and bureaucracy service. The system discovered high-skilled and leader-type statesmen.85
As an example of the education in the Enderun School, the course schedule of the Enderun School in the Topkapı Palace Archive museum, Numbers and names of the students:
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
In addition, the courses read in the course schedule of 1909 are shown as follows. Primitive first year: Pharmacist sheriff, Practicing prayer, Calculus mental, Calligraphy thuluth Second year: Qur'an, Catechism, Recitation Turkey, Account, Spelling, Calligraphy thuluth
Primitive third year: The Qur'an, Catechism, Recitation Turkey, Hesab, Imla, Calligraphy sulus Rushdi First year: Ulumu diniye, Arabi, Persian, Lisan-i Osmani, Account, Imla, Calligraphy thuluth, Calligraphy rika, painting 
Rushdie the second year: Ulumu diniye, Arabi, Persian, Lisan-i Osmani, Hesab, Imla, Calligraphy sulus, Calligraphy rika, painting
Rushdie third year: Ulumu diniye, Arabi, Persian, Lisan-i Osmani, Hesab, Imla, Calligraphy sulus, Calligraphy rika, painting
Rushdie fourth year: Ulumu diniye, Arabi, Persian, Lisan-i Osmani, Hesab, Imla, Calligraphy sulus, Calligraphy rika, painting86
Class special courses program: Ulum-u dinniye İlm-i kalam Tasvir-i ethics Edebiyat-ı Osmaniye Edebiyat-ı Farsiye
History of General
General Geography
Riyaziye: Algebra Müsellasat
Ulum-u tabiye87
A. Toderini, who did research in the Ottoman Empire, said the following about the education system in the Ottoman Empire.
“The Turks in Istanbul are very knowledgeable in the science of war; indeed, they were so well educated in this respect that even European mathematicians were stunned. Their library in Istanbul is full of Riyaziye books in both Turkish and Arabic. The treatises on algebra, which they will use together with Astrology and Theology, are in important libraries. Some young Turks, especially those in the Valide Mosque, were also following the European publications on this subject. 
The Turks studied geometry because of the sciences of Astronomy, Navy, Map and calendar to which they were very attached.”88 As can be understood from the words of A. Toderini, the Ottoman Empire was one of the most important scientific centers of its era. This statement of A. Toderini will be a good answer to those who both ruthlessly criticize the education in the Ottoman Empire and who argue that Turkey is left behind in education.
3.2.3. Everyday Life in Enderun School
In Enderun-u Hümayun, the day started like this:
Two hours before the time of the morning prayer, the aghas, who were the night watchmen of the wards, had the baths burned and removed the bathers. Then he would wake up the officer of the ward. The ward officer receives an iron in the form of a doorknob suspended on a very large nail, by reciting a Fatiha to the souls of all Muslims and especially those who served in the palace and passed away, and by giving a gift to the souls of those who served in the palace and migrated to the hereafter. he would hit the nail hard 3 times. It was the get up sign in the ward. Then, from one end of the ward to the other, the beds would go around one by one, and all the landlords, with their names, said, “Mahmut Bey!... Mehmet Efendi!...
Mustafa agha!... Mesut celebi!... Muhsin caliph!...” he would call. Those who were required to make ghusl would immediately jump up and run to the hammam.89
Half an hour later, the ward officer would walk around the ward once more, this time walking with his feet on the ground and calling out louder to those who were still not up.
Half an hour later he would walk around the ward for the third time. Now only the heavy sleepers would be left in the beds. This time, he would open the quilts of the sleeping people and hit them on their backs with the rosary in their hands. This rosary was a ninety-nine rosary made of wood with hazelnut-sized grains made for this purpose. The one who ate this wooden rosary on his back would wake up now. Thus, not a single person would sleep in Enderun-i Humayun at the time of the morning prayer. Those who went to the hammam and took ablutions would make their beds and sit on it, and a beautiful-sounding hafize would recite the Qur'an aloud.90
One of the doorkeepers at the middle door (Babus Salam) was called "Azan Informer". When the morning prayer began to be read in the Hagia Sophia Mosque, the very large iron ring of the middle door would begin to be struck. The muezzin of Enderun, who was waiting for this voice, was also in the middle of the Enderun wards, III. He used to go up the stairs of the Ahmet Library and start the call to prayer (before this building was built, in front of the Arz Room). All Zülüflü Ağalar would leave their wards in order and go to the “Zülüflü Ağalar Mosque” next to this library and wait for the sultan there.91
It was a palace tradition from the Fatih era that the Ottoman sultans performed their morning prayers together with the Enderuns in congregation. The Sultan used to come from the harem with the Girls Agha and other black and Abyssinian eunuchs. It was also a palace tradition that the sons of the sultan, if any, who were older than 7 years old, would come to the aghaslar mosque with their fathers for the morning prayer.92
The sultan would perform the noon, afternoon and evening prayers in Enderun wherever he wished, often nearby and with a small congregation of boys who were in his service that day. The Sultan would perform the night prayer in the harem, and the Devshirme Boys in their wards and with a congregation of ward comrades. The eldest of the ward, who distinguished himself with his knowledge and virtue, would become the imam. 93
The Zülüflü Ağas (Devşirme Boys), who were not on watch for the sultan's service, were busy with lessons and discussions, writing and music practice from morning prayer until noon. Those who were too eager for education could get together with the money they saved from their own pocket money and bring people who are known for their morals as well as their knowledge to be private teachers and bring them to the palace. Such young people were encouraged and protected by the elders of Enderun and the wealthy eunuchs in the harem. Other than financial aid, they were given valuable books as gifts, and the sultan's attention was drawn to those children.94
Between noon and afternoon he spent with lessons and meşk. They used to practice horses and arrows with the riders and the violin. It was the time of great recess between the afternoon and evening. Wrestling was held in the square and clubbing was played.95
One hour before the evening prayer, the door curtains of the three lower wards were pulled down, and children and young landlords were brought into their wards. Beautiful voices would start to recite the Qur'an, everyone would sit on their bed and listen to the Qur'an, thus waiting for the time of prayer. Between the evening and night, there was a conversation between the ward friends about lesson discussions or scientific bets.
After Isha, a meal was eaten, the adults were walking around on the stony ground, chatting, the children were not taken out of the ward and went to bed after dinner.96
3.2.4. Salary and Gratuities Given to Revival Boys
The salary given to the Zülüflü Ağas in the palace was called the "Caftan Akçe" and was only a tobacco coin in the words of that time, it cost something like three hundred kuruş per year.
Once a year, a traditional tip was given to the zülüfs of the Seferli, the cellars and the treasury wards, under different names, in the name of the sultan.97
Zülüflü Ağas of the treasury wards would decorate the victims that the sultan would cut with his own hands during the feasts of sacrifice, and on this occasion, a coin called “Kurban Akçe” was distributed to the treasury.
In April, the people of the cellar ward would collect April water in bowls placed on the coffee tables in front of their wards, fill it in jugs and present it to the sultan, and they would be given a coin called “April Water Coin”.98
In the spring, the landlords of the expeditionary wards collected some fragrant flowers, appreciated them, made flower waters and filled them in jugs and gave them to the sultan. He also issued them an Ihsan-i Iahane called the “Francismen Suyu Akçesi”.99
In palace weddings, especially in circumcision weddings of princes, the Zülüflü Ağas of the three lower wards would prepare and show various games in teams, and they would be given tips.
Those who excelled in playing music in the meşkhane, playing saz players or chanting, mehter players, violinists, riders, javelin players, often performed ingenuity and received favors in the presence of the sultan.100
Those who were enthusiastic about writing would write tablets and present them to the Enderun dignitaries and the sultan, the precious manuscripts in the palace libraries would be copied for the Enderun dignitaries, they would write Mushaf-ı İerifs and present them to the sultan with the palace staff, and they would be rewarded with valuable gifts and high monetary donations. Every year, one coat of official uniforms and two sets of underwear were given from the palace. Muezzin aghas and hafiz aghas also received ihsan, especially in the month of Ramadan.101
He made a tip in the Culus, and finally, those who were personal among the Zülüflü Aghas would protect the strange orphan aghas, who were their door comrades, with cash aids and various gifts, without offending their lofty souls.102
3.3. Those who grew up in Enderun and took important positions
3.3.1. Those who grew up in the Enderun School and became the Grand Vizier
Mehmed Pasha, Ahmed Pasha, Davut Pasha, Hersek Zâde Ahmed Pasha, Hadım Ali Pasha, Koca Mustafa Pasha, Tavaşi Hadim Sinan Pasha, Makbul İbrahim Pasha, Ayaz Pasha, Lütfi Pasha, Hadım Süleyman Pasha, Kara Ahmed Pasha, Semiz Ali Pasha, Sokullu Mehmed Pasha, Ahmed Pasha, Sinan Pasha, Siyavuş Pasha, Hadim Messiah Pasha, Ferhat Pasha, Lala Mehmet Pasha from Manisa, Silâhtâr İbrahim Pasha, Cağalazâde Sinan Pasha, Hadım Hasan Pasha, Cerrah Mehmed Pasha, Silâhtâr Yavuz Ali Pasha, Bosnian Lala Mehmed Pasha, Silâhtâr Damat Mehmed Pasha, Kayserili Halil Pasha, Dilâver Pasha, Davut Pasha, Lefkeli Silâhtâr Mustafa Pasha, Gürcü Mehmed Pasha, Kemankeş Kara Ali Pasha, Silâhtâr Circassian Mehmed Pasha, Filipeli Hafız Ahmed Pasha, Bosnian Silâhtâr Hüsrev Pasha, Sultanzade Mehmed Pasha, Abaza Silâhtâr Melik Ahmed Pasha, Abaza Silâhtâr Siyavuş Pasha, Tarhuncu Kethüda Ahmed Pasha, Silâhtâr Beşir Mustafa Pasha,Malatyalı Silâhtâr Süleyman Pasha, Arnavut Köprülü Mehmed Pasha, Ayasli Engagement Ismail Pasha, Bozoklu Armor Bıyıklı Mustafa Pasha, Kavanos Ahmed Pasha, Morali Damat Hüseyin Pasha, Armed Forces Çorlulu Ali Pasha, Abaza Silâhtâr Süleyman Pasha, İehid Ali Pasha, Silâhtâr Mehmed Pasha, Silâhtâr Seyyid Mehmed Pasha, Silâhtâr Ali Pasha, HüsrevMehmed Pasha, Mehmed Emin Pasha from Cyprus.103
3.3.2. Those who grew up outside Enderun but in the apartments attached to the Palace and became Grand Viziers
Yemişçi Hasan Pasha, Kuyucu Murad Pasha, Bostancı Başı Derviş Pasha, Baltacı Nasuh Pasha, Bostancın Chief Ohrid Hasan Pasha, Dilâver Pasha, Bostancı Chief Bosnian Recep Pasha, Teberdar Mehmed Pasha, Bosnian Süleyman Pasha, Kalaylı Koz Ahmed Pasha, Teberdar Mehmed Pasha, Bostancı Chief Arnavut Halil Pasha, Teberdar Damat İbrahim Pasha, Kozbekçi Pandul Topal Osman Pasha, Bostancı Başı Ali Pasha, Teberdar Bolulu Mehmed İzzet Pasha, Bostancı Başı Hafız İsmail Pasha, Bostancı Başı Abdullah Pasha, Damat Mehmed Ali Pasha.104
3.3.3 Shaykh al-Islams Raised in Enderun School
Mirza Mustafa Efendi, Circassian el-Hâc Hafız Halil Efendi, Yasencizâde esseyyid Abdülvahap Efendi.105
3.3.4 Admiralty Masters Raised at Enderun School
Martyr Mehmed Pasha, Sokullu Mehmed Pasha, Küçük Piyale Pasha, Silâhtâr Cağalezâde Sinan Pasha, Filipeli Hafız Ahmed Pasha, Weaponist Öküz Mehmed Pasha, Bosnian Traitor Kara Davut Pasha, Armed Forces Siyavuş Pasha, Conqueror of Hanya Silâhtâr Gazi Yusuf Pasha, Silâhtâr Bıyıklı Mustafa Pasha, Armed Forces Mustafa Pasha. 106
3.3.5 The Captains of the Sea who were not educated in Enderun but were raised in the palace
Chief Bostancı Derviş Mehmet Pasha, Chief Bostancı Arnavut Mehmet Recep Pasha, Chief Bostancı Maktul Cafer Pasha, Baltacı Kastamonulu Deli Hüseyin Pasha, Bostancı Baş Ahmed Pasha, Baltacı Koz Ahmed Pasha from Kayseri, Teberdar Mehmed Pasha, Bostancı Baş Hacı Mehmed Pasha, Bostancı Baş Hafız İsmail Pasha, Head of Bostancı Hacı Mehmed Pasha, Head of Bostancı Hacı Abdullah Pasha, Firarî Ahmed Pasha, Damat Mehmed Ali Pasha.107
3.4 Weakening and Closing of Enderun School
The first major change in the Enderun School, which was an important institution in the Ottoman State education system and trained statesmen, was II. It happened in the time of Mahmud. Mahmud II made many changes in Enderun as well as the regulation movements that started with the abolition of the Janissaries. With the abolition of the armament in 1830, the "Enderun-i Humayun Ministry" was established. In 1831, “Mabeyn-i Humayun Müşirliği” was established. Thus, the duties of the Cuhadar and the Rikâbdar began to be performed by the mabeynists. The title of Sarıkçı Head, called Tülbent Ağası, was changed to “Esvabcı Başı” and the title of Cellar kedhüdalık was changed to Kilerci Başı.108
In 1838, the Mabeyn-i Humayun Müşirliği was named “Serkurenalık”. Later, the Mabeyn Müşirliği was established again. Later, the title of "Enderun-i Humayun Nezareti" was changed and it was given the name "Minister of Mabeyn" and then "Minister of Treasury". Serkurena continued until the abolition of the sultanate.109
When Sultan Abdülmecid had the Dolmabahçe Palace built, he moved there. The next period was the period when Enderun School started to weaken. Mabeyn left Enderun. Enderun services no longer have the opportunity to develop. The duties of Hırka-i Saadet and Treasury-i Humayun were left to the Treasury. II. During the reign of Abdulhamid, Enderun was completely neglected and lost its importance. With the Constitutional Monarchy, Enderun no longer mattered.110
On July 1, 1909, a decree and an instruction were published, and Enderun School was abolished. At the same time, Privy Chamber, Treasury Chamber and Seferli Wards were abolished along with their names and duties. In order to learn Akaid and the Qur'an from the teachers, it is also explained in the instruction that they take one or two lessons every day other than Friday and memorize the Qur'an. Again, the employees of Enderun-i Humayun were allowed to attend any school they wished, so as not to harm their duties.111
Enderun School played an important role in the education of the Ottoman State from its establishment to its closure. II. Children taken from non-Muslim subjects in the Balkans were educated in the Enderun School, which was built by Murad in Edirne. Thus, they both learned Turkish culture and tradition, and those who were intelligent among them were taken into the service of the state. With the conquest of Istanbul, some rooms of the Enderun School were transferred to Istanbul. With the construction of Topkapı Palace by Fatih Sultan Mehmed, the rooms of Enderun School were completely moved here. Enderun School was expanded and enlarged during the reign of Mehmed the Conqueror. From this period, the influence of people with devshirme origin in the state administration began to increase.
Children gathered from non-Muslim people were brought to Istanbul and given to Turkish families for a while. Here he was learning about Islam and Turkish culture and helping Ottoman farmers. After a certain period of time, these children were gathered again and brought to Istanbul. He was sent to the novice boys' ward where he continued his education. Later, the smart and successful ones were sent to Edirne, Galata, İbrahim Pasha and İskender Celebi Palaces, which were the Preparation Palaces of the Ottoman Empire. The devshirme boys, who successfully completed these preparatory palaces, were entitled to study at the Enderun School, which was the Ottoman State's Saray University, with the nickname.
Enderun School consisted of seven wards. These are, in order of importance, the Big Room, the Small Room, the Doğancı Ward, the Expeditionary Room, the Pantry Room, the Treasury Room, and the Private Room. The Great and Small Chamber was the lowest rank of these wards. In Enderun School, they continued their education in order and order. The rules of the school were determined and the students had to follow them strictly. If the Devshirme Boys successfully completed their education here, there were even those who rose to the position of beylerbey, kazasker, door-to-darya or even grand vizier. This is a clear indication to us that the education system of the Ottoman Empire was based on being knowledgeable and intelligent, not noble.
Enderun School II. From the time of Mahmud, it lost its former importance and began to weaken. II. The sultans who came after Mahmud continued this situation in their own periods as well. Although the abolition of this school came to the agenda after Sultan Abdülmecid moved the state center from Topkapı Palace to Dolma Bahçe Palace, Enderun School continued its existence for a while. This school was closed in 1909.
Pictures of Devshirme Boys:
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System
1) Özbilgen Erol, Ottoman in All Its Aspects, Istanbul2004, p. 113
2) Akkutay Ülker, Enderun School, Ankara 1984, p. 25
3) Akyüz Yahya, History of Turkish Education, Istanbul 1997, p. 79
4) Imber Colin, The Ottoman Empire (1300-1650), trans. Iiar Yalçın, Istanbul 2006, p. 175
5) Akkutay Ülker, age 63
6) Baykal İsmail Hakkı, History of Enderun School, Istanbul 1953, p. 18.
7) Isfendiyaroğlu Fethi, History of Galatasaray, Istanbul 1952, p. 57
8) Akkutay Ülker, age 26
9) Akkutay Ülker, age 26
10) Akkutay Ulker, age 26
11) Baykal İsmail Hakkı, ibid p29
12)Baikal Ismail Hakki, age 33
13) Akkutay Ülker, aged 37-38
14) Ortaylı İlber, Life in the Ottoman Palace, İzmir 2008, p. 35
15) Ortaylı İlber ages 85-86
16) Uzun Çarşılı İsmail Hakkı, The Palace Organization of the Ottoman State, Ankara 1984, p. 308
17) Akkutay Ulker, age 36
18) Akkutay Ulker, age 36
19) Imber Colin, aged 172
20) Uzunçarşılı İsmail Hakkı, Kapıkulu Hearths in the Organization of the Ottoman State, Ankara 1943, Vol.1, p. 6-7
21) AkyüzYahya, age 80
22) Özcan Abdülkadir, “Devşirme”, TDVI.A. Istanbul 1994, Vol. 9p. 255
23) Uzunçarşılı İsmail Hakkı, “Devşirme”, ME.B.İ.A. Istanbul 1963, Vol. 3, p. 564
24) Uzunçarşılı İsmail Hakkı, Kapıkulu Hearths in the Organization of the Ottoman State, Ankara 1943, Vol.1, p. 15
25) Uzunçarşılı İsmail Hakkı, Kapıkulu Hearths in the Organization of the Ottoman State, Ankara 1943, Vol.1, p. 16-17
26) Uzunçarşılı İsmail Hakkı, “Devşirme”, ME.B.İ.A. Istanbul 1963, Vol. 3, p. 564
27) Özcan Abdülkadir, “Devşirme”, TDVI.A. Istanbul1994, C. 9p. 255
28) Imber Colin, aged 177
29) AkyüzYahya, age 80
30) Özcan Abdülkadir, “Devşirme”, TDVI.A. Istanbul 1994, Vol. 9 p. 255
31) Uzunçarşılı İsmail Hakkı, “Devşirme”, ME.B.İ.A. Istanbul 1963, Vol. 3, p. 564
32) Imber Colin, aged 181
33) Imber Colin, ages 180
34) Akkutay Ulker, age 49
35) Öztuna Yılmaz, “Ottoman Saray University Enderun”, Life History Magazine, Year:8, Vol.1, Istanbul1972, p. 10
36) Uzunçarşılı İsmail Hakkı, Ottoman State Palace Organization, Ankara 1984 p. 300
37) Akkutay Ülker, “The Enderun School in the Ottoman Education System”, Ottoman, Vol.5, Ankara 1999, p. 188
38) Akkutay Ulker, agm p. 188
39) Özcan Abdülkadir, “Bedergah” TDVI.AC 5, Istanbul1992, p. 302
40) İsfendiyaroğlu Conquest, ages 485-486
41) Akkutay Ulker, agms 188
42) Akkutay Ulker, agms 189
43) AkyüzYahya, age 81
44) Uzunçarşılı İsmail Hakkı, The Great Ottoman History, C: 2, Ankara 1984, p. 521
45) İpşirli Mehmed, “Enderun” TDVI.AC 11Istanbul 1994, p. 186
46) Akkutay Ülker, age 87
47) Akkutay Ulker, age 87
48) Uzun Çarşılı İsmail Hakkı, The Palace Organization of the Ottoman State, Ankara 1984, p. 310
49)İpşirli Mehmed, agms 186 50)AkyüzYahya, age 81
51)Baikal Ismail Hakki, age 65.
52) Akkutay Ulker, age 91
53) Akkutay Ulker, agms 189
54) Akkutay Ulker, age 90
55) Akkutay Ulker, agms 189
56) Ergin Osman, History of Turkish Education, Vol. 1-2, Istanbul1972 p. 12
57) Akkutay Ulker, ages 93-94
58) Ipşirli Mehmet, agms 186
59) Baykal Ismail Hakki, age62
60) Akkutay Ulker, age 95
61) Ipşirli Mehmet, agms 186
62) Uzun Çarşılı İsmail Hakkı, The Palace Organization of the Ottoman State, Ankara 1984, p. 315
63) Akkutay Ülker, aged 98.
64) Uzun Çarşılı İsmail Hakkı, The Palace Organization of the Ottoman State, Ankara 1984, p. 316
65) Uzun Çarşılı İsmail Hakkı, The Palace Organization of the Ottoman State, Ankara 1984, p. 317
66) Uzun Çarşılı İsmail Hakkı, The Palace Organization of the Ottoman State, Ankara 1984, p. 317-318
67) Ipşirli Mehmet, agms 186
68) Akkutay Ulker, age 104
69) Ipşirli Mehmet, agms 186
70) Uzun Çarşılı İsmail Hakkı, The Palace Organization of the Ottoman Empire, Ankara 1984, p.325
71) Özbilgen Erol, age 106
72) Akkutay Ulker, age 126
73) Coach Reşat Ekrem, Topkapı Palace, Istanbul 1960, p. 127
74) Akkutay Ülker, age 126
75) Akkutay Ulker, age 127
76) Koçu Reşat Ekrem, “Enderûn Organization in the Ottoman Palace” Life and History Magazine, Year 8, Vol. 7, Istanbul 1972, p.32
77) Coach Reşat Ekrem, age 128
78) Akkutay Ulker, age 128
79) Akkutay Ulker, age 128
80) İsfendiyaroğlu Conquest, aged 490
81) Coach Reşat Ekrem, age 128
82) Coach Reşat Ekrem, agms 32
83) Akkutay Ulker, age 136
84) Akkutay Ülker, age 137
85) Akkutay Ulker, age 138
86) Ergin Osman, age 23
87) Ergin Osman, age 24
88) Akkutay Ulker, age 150
89) Coach Reşat Ekrem, age 145
90) Coach Reşat Ekrem, agms 34
91) Coach Reşat Ekrem ages 145
92) Coach Reşat Ekrem ages 146
93) Coach Reşat Ekrem, agms 35
94) Coach Reşat Ekrem, age 146
95) Coach Reşat Ekrem, agms 35
96) Coach Reşat Ekrem, ibid 146 97) Coach Reşat Ekrem, agms35
98) İpşirli Mehmet, agms 187
99) Uzun Çarşılı İsmail Hakkı, The Palace Organization of the Ottoman State, Ankara 1984, p.351
100) Coach Reşat Ekrem agms 33
101) Akkutay Ülker, aged 153
102) Coach Reşat Ekrem agms 34
103) Ülker Akkutay, age 159
104) Ülker Akkutay, age 159
105) Akkutay Ülker, ibid. 159
106) Akkutay Ulker, ages 160
107) Akkutay Ulker, ages 160
108) Akkutay Ulker, ages 160
109) Akkutay Ulker, agms 192
110) Akkutay Ulker, age 28
111) Ergin Osman, age 24