• Raw Nutrition
  • Raw Nutrition
  • Raw Nutrition
  • Raw Nutrition
  • Raw Nutrition
  • Raw Nutrition

In the developing, changing and constantly renewing food and beverage sector, different nutrition trends are becoming known and applied day by day. Some of these currents are; slow food, fusion cuisine, molecular cuisine, edible flowers and insects, surf&turf, vegetarian..

The Importance of Germinated Grains and Legumes in the Raw Food Movement
Beyza OKUR-a
*Ayşe Büşra MADENCI-a
Raw food (raw food) movement; It is a diet based on the consumption of natural, raw and unrefined foods. Cereals and legumes are the products that are frequently consumed in the raw diet. The germination process has very important effects on the nutritional values ​​of cereals and legumes, and some changes can bring various advantages to the products. 
Mainly wheat, buckwheat, barley, oat, rye, rice, soybean, lentil, bean, chickpea and quinoa are among the products that can be consumed by germinating. The increase in the protein, vitamin, mineral substance, nutritional fiber, phenolic substance content and antioxidant activity values ​​of cereals and legumes, as well as the decrease in the content of phytic acid, which is considered an anti-nutritional factor, shows the importance of germination in terms of nutrition. In this study, it is aimed to examine the effects of germination process on various nutritional properties of cereals and legumes and to emphasize the importance of germination of cereals and legumes in terms of raw feeding current.
Gastronomy, which is basically an expression used in the sense of the art of eating and drinking, is a science that comprehensively examines the historical development processes of food and beverages, the relationships between food and culture, and food and beverage preparation techniques (Hatipoğlu, 2010).
In the developing, changing and constantly renewing food and beverage sector, different nutrition trends are becoming known and applied day by day. Some of these currents are; slow food, fusion cuisine, molecular cuisine, edible flowers and insects, surf&turf, vegetarian cuisine and raw food. The raw nutrition trend has attracted a lot of attention recently and there are many practitioners around the world (Madenci, 2018: 9).
In the raw nutrition movement, products that are described as "raw food" are consumed. Raw foods can be defined as unrefined foods that have not been exposed to any heat or chemical treatment, mostly grown using animal manure. Vegetables, fruits, cereals, legumes, herbs and nuts have a very important place in the raw diet. 
Although the raw diet trend has been very popular lately, it has been a way of eating that has been practiced since the idea that people could be protected from diseases by consuming only uncooked food in the 19th century. In the preference of raw feeding current; It is stated that there are reasons such as the desire to be healthier, protection from diseases, living a long life, religious beliefs, economic opportunities, protecting the world and preventing climate change, animal welfare and some ethical rules. There is no official statistical information about how many people in the world and in our country adopt the raw nutrition trend, which can be considered as a strict application of vegetarian nutrition (Aktaş and Algan Özkök, 2018: 117-128).
Cereals and legumes are products that are frequently included in the daily diet and are important products that contain many bioactive components such as dietary fibers, phenolic compounds, vitamins and minerals (Bartlomiej, Justyna and Ewa, 2012:559). It is stated that cereals meet approximately 53% of the calories in daily nutrition (Bilgicli, 2002:82). The main cultivated cereals are; wheat, corn, rice, barley, rye, oat and millet varieties (Elgün and Ertugay, 1995). It is stated that legumes can be substituted for animal proteins with their protein content and quality (Anderson, Smith and Washnock, 1999:464), so it is inevitable that they are frequently included in the raw diet. 
The protein content of edible legumes varies between 18% and 31.6% depending on the variety (Şehirali, 1988). Legumes are remarkable in terms of quality as well as quantity of protein, and it is stated that they contain a high level of essential amino acid lysine, and with this value they are almost equal to that of beef (Pellet, 1988). In addition, it is reported that quality protein intake can be achieved if cereals and legumes are consumed together (Dipnaik and Bathere, 2017:4272). Legumes are also considered a rich source in terms of B group vitamins and mineral substances (Özkaya, Özkaya and Eren, 1998: 56-63). In addition, legumes are rich in dietary fibers (Saldamlı, 2007), which are reported to have a protective effect against the formation of diseases such as colon cancer, constipation, obesity and diabetes.
The germination process is an effective process on the nutritional values ​​of cereals and legumes and can make them even more valuable (Şahan, 2017). The germination process is carried out by keeping the grains moist until short shoots appear (Boyacıoğlu, 2017). In order for germination to start and continue in each grain, certain environmental conditions (such as temperature, water, oxygen and light) must be provided (Karakurt, Aslantaş and Equalken, 2010: 115-117). Wheat is one of the cereals in which the germination process is most frequently applied, and it is reported that the amount of vitamin E in the grain increases three times with the germination process, and a product rich in B and C vitamins is formed (Sivritepe, 2010: 76). 
Rice, barley, rye and oats are also grains that can be germinated. Legumes such as chickpeas, lentils and beans can also be germinated and included in a raw diet. Buckwheat, amaranth and quinoa, which are included in the pseudo-cereal (grain-like) group, are also among the products that can be consumed by germinating.
Effects of Germination on Nutritional Properties
During the germination process, many changes occur in the grain. Some of the changes occur with the formation of new compounds, and it can also be in the form of hydrolysis or neutralization of some existing compounds (Turan, 2013: 15). The effect of the germination process in increasing the nutritional properties is due to both the breakdown of some anti-nutritional compounds during germination and the increase in the concentrations of free amino acids, useful carbohydrates, dietary fiber and various components that can increase functional properties (Lopez-Amoros, Hernandez and Estrella, 2006: 277-283). .
It is stated that the germination process has a reducing effect on the carbohydrate amounts of the grains. The increase in the activities of degrading enzymes during germination leads to a decrease in the amount of starch. Ohtsuba, Suzuki, Yasui and Kasumi (2005: 303-316) investigated the effects of germination on the nutritional properties of brown rice and determined that the carbohydrate content decreased from 74.0 g/100g to 71.3 g/100g after 72 hours of germination. In another study, it was determined that there was a decrease in the amount of starch after germination in legume samples and it was reported that starch digestibility of germinated samples increased between 53% and 82% depending on the variety (Ghavidel and Prakash, 2007: 1292-1299).
A decrease can be observed in the oil content of cereals and legumes as a result of the germination process. Ghavidel and Prakash (2007: 1292-1299), in their study examining the effects of germination on some nutritional properties of mung bean, cowpea, lentil and chickpea, determined that there were significant decreases in the oil content of all varieties with germination. It has been reported that the decrease may be due to the use of oil as an energy source during germination. In a study examining the effects of germination on the nutritional properties of buckwheat, it was determined that the amount of oil, which was 3.8% at the beginning, decreased to 1.8% after the germination process, and it was stated that this decrease might be due to the increased lipase activity during germination. (Devrajan, Prakash and Jindal, 2017: 1491-1501).
It has been reported that there are some changes in the protein content and usefulness of the grains with the germination process. Steve (2012: 35-47) examined the effects of germination on some physical and chemical properties of wheat flour and determined that the protein content increased from 10.77 g/100g to 13.50 g/100g as a result of germination. Wen, Cao, Gu, Tang, and Han (2009: 959-967) stated in their study on rice that there was an accumulation of more easily digestible peptide structures during the germination process. 
In a study conducted on brown rice, it was reported that the crude protein content, which was 7.8 g/100g, increased to 8.2 g/100g as a result of germination (Ohtsubo et al., 2005:303-316). In another study carried out on legumes, the effects of germination on protein content were observed, and an increase in protein between 6.1% and 9.7% was determined as a result of germination, depending on the variety. In the same study, protein digestibility was also examined and increases in the range of 14-18% were observed (Ghavidel and Prakash, 2007:351-356). Similar results have been reported by Negi, Boora and Khetarpaul (2001: 251-254).
Increases in the amount of some nutritional compounds can also be seen as a result of the germination process. It is stated that the amount of polyphenolic compounds increases with germination, thus increasing the antioxidant capacity of the grains. Fernandez-Orozco et al. (2009: 885-892) in their study with chickpea samples, they determined that the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity increased as a result of germination. In another study, the phenolic contents and antiradical activities of edible seeds at various stages of the germination process were examined, and as a result of the study, it was determined that the germinated seeds were a very good source of phenolic antioxidants (Cevallos-Casals and Cisneros-Zevallos, 2010: 1485-1490). 
Tarzi, Gharachorlooa, Bahariniab, and Mortazavic (2012: 1137-1143) analyzed the effects of germination on the antioxidant activity value and phenolic substance content of chickpea, and analyzed the results using different extraction solvents and resulted in a total phenolic substance extraction rate of 53.7% (acetone extraction) in the germinated grain compared to the ungerminated grain. ) and 92.8% (methanol extraction) have determined that between the increase. In another study carried out with lupine sample, it was determined that the antioxidant activity value, which was determined as 17.2% in raw samples, increased to 65.6% after germination for 9 days (Fernandez-Orozco et al., 2006:495-502).
The vitamin contents of the grains are also affected by the germination process, and the amount of various vitamins increases with germination and more valuable products are formed in terms of nutrition. Fernandez-Orozco et al. (2006:495-502) determined the vitamin C content of raw lupine to be 5.71 mg/100g, while on the 2nd day of germination, this value increased to 8.09 mg/100g. They found that after nine days of germination, the vitamin C content of lupine reached 15.76 mg/100g with an increase of 176%. In the same study, it was also noted that the vitamin E activity, which was determined as 1.58 α-TE/100 g in raw samples, was 4.29 α-TE/100 g after 9 days of germination. 
In a study conducted on the germination of brown rice, it was determined that the contents of vitamins B1, B3, and B6 increased by 62%, 73% and 144%, respectively, as a result of germination (Trachoo, Boudreaux, Moongngarm, Samappito and Gaensakoo, 2006:2657-2661). Ghavidel and Prakash (2007: 1292-1299) also reported in their study that an increase in the thiamine content of legumes occurred at rates varying between 8% and 33% as a result of germination.
It is also stated that the mineral content and usefulness of some grains increase with the germination process. Ghavidel and Prakash (2007: 1292-1299) determined that the Fe, Ca and P contents of legume samples decreased with the germination process, but the biological availability of these minerals increased by 64.6% in chickpeas, 67.8% in mung beans, 75.8% in cowpea and 81.3% in lentils. . This was thought to be due to the decrease in phytic acid content as a result of germination. In the study carried out with a group of legumes including cowpea, mung bean, soybean and millet, it was determined that the germination process had an increasing effect on Ca, Mg, Zn and Fe contents in all of the samples (Tarafdar, Yadav and Dave, 2008:344-348).
As a result of the germination process, there may be changes in the nutritional fiber content of cereals and legumes. Ohtsubo et al. (2005:303-316) determined that the nutritional fiber content of brown rice increased from 2.9 g/100g to 4.2 g/100g as a result of germination. Devrajan et al. (2017:1491-1501) reported that the crude fiber content of buckwheat increased from 7.80% to 9.74% as a result of germination. In a study examining some properties of wheat flour, the nutritional fiber content of raw wheat flour was determined as 1.70 g/100 g, while this value was determined as 1.93 g/100 in germinated wheat flour (Steve, 2012:35-47).
The germination process also has important effects on the phytic acid in the grain structure. Phytic acid; It is an anti-nutritional compound that reduces the digestibility of minerals such as zinc, iron, calcium, magnesium and copper, and causes them to turn into some compounds that are difficult to digest and absorb (Desphande and Cheryan, 1984). It is stated that phytates formed as a result of the combination of phytic acid with minerals have negative effects on protein absorption (Cheryan, 1980). It is reported that the absorption of mineral substances taken with food is significantly inhibited if 2-8 g of phytic acid is taken per day. 
It is stated that a vegetarian diet contains 3-4 g of phytic acid daily (Morris, 1986), and the effect of phytic acid in the raw diet is clearly seen. The phytic acid content of cereals and legumes can be reduced by applying processes such as heat treatment, soaking, peeling and fermentation (Özkaya, Özkaya, Bayrak and Gökpınar, 2004:54). The germination process is one of the methods that can reduce the phytic acid content. The amount of phytic acid in the cereal grains decreases thanks to the phytase activity, which increases with the germination process. 
Phytase is the enzyme that provides the hydrolysis of phytic acid, although it is stated that the germination process should be continued for 7-8 days in order to completely decompose phytate (Ashton and Williams, 1958), although differences can be observed according to the variety. Laboure, Gagnon and Lescure (1993: 413-419) stated that the maximum phytase activity in millet was reached after 5 days of germination. 
Bartnik and Szafranska (1987:23) determined that after 3 to 4 days of germination, phytase activity increased 4.5 times in wheat, 2.5 times in rye, 6 times in barley and 9 times in oats. In a study conducted with legumes, it was determined that the germination process caused a decrease in the phytic acid contents of mung beans, cowpea, lentils and chickpeas by 18%, 20%, 21% and 21%, respectively (Ghavidel and Prakash, 2007: 1292-1299). It is stated that with the decrease in the amount of phytic acid, there is an increase in the usefulness of mineral substances, especially iron (Bilgicli, 2002).
Although direct consumption of germinated cereals and legumes in the raw feeding stream is common, their use in the production of various foods by turning them into flour is also included in the literature. In a study on germinated chickpea flour, it was emphasized that germinated chickpea flour could be preferred in the production of new functional products with the increase in antioxidant activity during germination (Fernandez-Orozco et al., 2009:885). Torres, Frias, Granito and Vidal-Valverde (2007:202-211) conducted a study on the use of germinated pigeon pea flour in pasta production. 
In the study, it was determined that there was an increase in the B2, C and E vitamin contents and antioxidant activity values ​​of the peas after germination, while there was a 61% decrease in the phytic acid content. Flour obtained from germinated grains was added to the pasta formulation in varying proportions (5, 8, 10%) and it was determined that all samples were sensory acceptable, and protein, nutritional fiber, vitamin and mineral substance contents and antioxidant activities of pasta samples increased with the addition of 10%. . 
Chauhan, Saxena, and Singh (2015: 939-945) examined the use of germinated and ungerminated amaranth flour in gluten-free biscuit production and determined that the samples obtained from germinated amaranth flour had the highest antioxidant activity and nutritional fiber contents, and that germinated amaranth flour was of acceptable quality and nutritional value. emphasized that it can be used in the production of biscuits with improved properties. Yun, Kim and Shin (2015:781-790) used germinated brown rice flour in the production of gluten-free cakes and determined that the nutritional and functional properties of the cake samples improved as a result of doping. In addition, as a result of the study, it was reported that the addition of germinated brown rice flour prevented staling during storage.
It is stated that there are positive changes in properties such as bread volume, final fermentation time and dough stability with the use of germinated grains in certain amounts in bakery. Sadowska, Blaszczak, Fornal, Vidal-Valverde, and Frias (2003:46-50) investigated the effects of adding germinated pea flour on dough structure and bread quality and found that the rheological properties, texture, and texture of the dough compared to ungerminated pea flour in the same proportions as a result of doping up to 12.5%. reported that bread quality was more satisfactory. Rosales-Juárez et al. (2008:152-160) in their study examining the effects of germinated and ungerminated soy flour addition on dough and bakery quality, reported that the use of germinated soy flour gave better results in terms of bakery quality of dough.
Conclusion and Recommendations
In recent years, various nutrition trends that appeal to consumers with different expectations are on the agenda. Raw nutrition, which is one of these trends, is especially common among people with healthy and natural nutrition concerns. Grains and legumes are very important in the raw nutrition movement, which is based on consuming foods in their natural state as much as possible without exposing them to high heat. The germination process is one of the simplest methods that improves the nutritional properties of cereals and legumes, and provides more valuable products in terms of protein, vitamins, mineral substances, dietary fiber and antioxidant activity. 
It is also very important in terms of nutrition that the amounts of various anti-nutritional compounds decrease during germination. As a result, the consumption of cereals and legumes by sprouting and their flour in a raw diet
It is thought that the use of food in the production will make many contributions to healthy nutrition.
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As the head chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR, I see the source:
Ms. I sincerely thank Beyza OKUR and Ayşe Büşra MADENCİ for their academic studies titled "The Importance of Germinated Grains and Legumes in the Raw Food Movement" and wish them success in their professional lives. It will definitely be considered as an example by those who need it in professional kitchens, New Kitchen Trends related research and the world of gastronomy.
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