• What is Menu Planning?
  • What is Menu Planning?
  • What is Menu Planning?
  • What is Menu Planning?

The ordering of the foods in groups compatible with each other according to their characteristics is called a menu. Another feature to look for in order to call a meal group a menu is to arrange the dishes that make up the menu according to the order of service and to serve them..

What are the Points to Consider in Menu Planning?
Mr. Instructor See. The articles of Güven ARIKAN and Mr. Murat Karaca were used.
Following the innovations of our age, there is a renewal in our sector, as in every sector. 
It will definitely be useful to follow the newly released or foreign foods, to go for the necessary modernization after watching the newly developed cooking and preparation equipment. For example, the technique of cooking with induction.
We should not forget the saying “The only thing that does not change is change”. Today, I follow the most talked about balanced nutrition issues very closely and we can say that as a hotel cook, we should be a factor in taking the necessary precautions. For example; We can prepare a more contemporary menu by specifying the calories of the dishes in the menu. A menu is a pre-made list of meals that allows people to read and choose the food that suits them on paper.
The word menu has passed into our language from French and its dictionary meaning means detail, detail. Particles, sections, sub-sections that make up any whole are expressed as menus. In gastronomy (Food and Beverage Science / Art), menu is used in different meanings.
The ordering of the foods in groups compatible with each other according to their characteristics is called a menu. Another feature to look for in order to call a meal group a menu is to arrange the dishes that make up the menu according to the order of service and to serve them in this order. and meet regularly. 
The purpose of preparing and presenting the menu in terms of business is; It is to provide benefits to the business in terms of raw material selection and usage amount, meeting different customer needs and expectations in the process from purchasing to production, from production to presentation. In order to meet these expectations, the dishes were diversified by grouping them among themselves.
If we look at the classic menu layout; cold hors d'oeuvres, soups, hot hors d'oeuvres, fish, meat dishes, hot entrees (soufflé, pancakes, shavings, water pastries, etc.), cold entrees (pâtés, etc.), sherbets, roti, salads, vegetables, desserts, savoris ( cheese types). In today's restaurants, the classical menu is not fully presented, but the classical menu is used in international (international) restaurants. We can collect the menus under three headings.
Table d'Hote Menu: These are the menus that are prepared for certain periods and can be repeated periodically until the seasonal feature changes.
Ex: Hospital, school menus. Numbers are given to the menus and a menu is served every day in order. After the last menu, the menu is repeated by going back to the beginning. 
Fix Menu: It is a kind of table d'hote menu in which the types and quantities of beverages are included in the price of the menu. Although the meals are the same, the type and amount of drinks may vary.
A la Carte Menu: The foods served in the restaurant are written according to the order in the classic menu and their prices are indicated. Customers examine the cards and order the food they want. The service is done by the waiter. The price of the meal eaten is paid. In this way, many dishes are prepared after the customer's order. 
One of the key points of a successful food and beverage business is to make the right menu planning. Menu Planning; It plays an important role in controlling the sub-details that constitute the production criteria, such as facilitating the selection and purchasing of raw materials and evaluating the raw material correctly, saving time, reducing food consumption, and making the correct cost calculations, and ensuring quality and standardization.
For this, it is necessary to make a correct menu analysis before planning. In the first stage of the analysis, potential and existing customers, location, equipment, production and presentation areas, required personnel and efficiency levels, restaurant type and service system, and finally the financial resources and planning to be considered in the realization of these stages gain importance.
In Menu Planning:
1-) For What Purpose We Will Prepare the Menu: Is the menu we will prepare for lunch or dinner, or does it have a special meaning (eid, iftar, etc.)? It is necessary to start menu planning by evaluating and planning such purposes. 
What is Menu Planning?2-) Seasonal Features : Seasonal features should be considered while preparing the menu. The effects of food on the human body vary according to the seasons. On hot summer days, fried foods, spicy and sauced foods, oily and floury foods are harmful to health. Offering such foods at the appropriate time of the season leads to cost losses in the business as it will not attract much attention by the customers. Foods that are abundant in season should be presented on the menu. 
Because ;
• Every food is fresher in its season. 
• Each food is more nutritious in its season. 
• Their flavors are more in their own season. 
• Food is cheaper in its season.
3-) Nutritional Values ​​of Meals: The meals on the menu should meet the needs of people for fat, carbohydrates, protein, mineral substances and vitamins. The menu should not contain dishes containing the same type of nutrients. Menus consisting of the same type of food items fill the stomach, but do not provide a balanced diet. The menus offered in the restaurant should appeal to a wide range of customers.
4-) Affordability in terms of economy: Another issue that should not be forgotten while preparing the menu is that the best Menu Consulting is not the menu consisting of the most beautiful and expensive dishes. Not every dish is liked by everyone. The menu should be evaluated in terms of both customers and businesses. The menu to be prepared should not cause financial difficulties for the customers. For this, the target audience should be analyzed very well and its general structure (socio-economic and demographic), needs and expectations should be determined.
5-) Regional and Cultural Features: While preparing the menu, the selected dishes should appeal to the taste of the people living in that region and cultural features should be taken into consideration. For example: While spicy and hot dishes may attract attention in Gaziantep restaurant, the same dishes may not attract attention in Izmit restaurant. However, special local dishes can be included while choosing a meal.
6-) Facilities of the Business: While preparing the menu, the technical possibilities of the business and the personnel situation should be taken into consideration. Such as the equipment of the kitchen, the capacity of the ovens and stoves, the storage and storage facilities. The knowledge, skills and number of personnel is also one of the important points to be considered.
Menu Planning takes time, effort and knowledge. At least one week before the presentation of the menu, menu planning must be done within the criteria stated above. Determining these criteria provides the best planning and the healthiest quality and cost control, as well as preventing the same food from being served over and over again.
The people who plan the menu need to be familiar with the normal mix and basic characteristics of the food. Special events, holidays, etc., so that the menus can be planned as required. It would be helpful to have a reminder file. In addition, by keeping a warning book for the menu, the dishes liked by the customers in the past, the menus applied on special days, the spoiled amounts are the points to be considered in menu planning. 
Also in Menu Planning;
• It would be more appropriate to include simple foods on the menu. Because simple, well-cooked and beautifully presented foods are often in greater demand than fancy and complex foods. Mixed and unidentified food often gives the impression that leftover food is being reused. However, including specialties in the simple menu will make the menu richer. 
• There should be dishes cooked in different ways (fried, steamed, boiled, etc.) on the menu. Foods cooked with the same technique make the menu inefficient. 
• Spices and sauces that provide the same taste to various foods should not be given in the same menu. It is necessary to pay attention to the color harmony in the menu. For example: It is not correct to give the dishes prepared only from red sauces in the same meal. The colors of the food should be in harmony and balance with each other. 
• The textures of the dishes to be prepared on the menu should also be different from each other. For example: Spinach and chard or lentil and ezogelin soups should not be placed on the menu on the same day. 
• The appearance of the dishes on the menu should also be different from each other. For example: Tas Kebab and Veal Goulash should not be placed on the menu on the same day. 
The intensity of the dishes on the menu should also be different from each other. For example: Tomato Soup and Meatballs with Paste.
The purpose of paying attention to all these points is to increase the quality and efficiency of the menu and to ensure that it appeals to more customers.
While making the menu, the usage time of the
menu should be determined. The continuous supply of the material to be used in the menu The
level of the customers coming to the
establishment Considering the surrounding facilities It should be
prepared jointly with the implementer of the menu
It should be made with a very good thought while making the menu The
cost should be suitable for the workplace and the price for the customer
The menu should be stylish, well-printed and legible
Consumption Less food should not be placed on the
menu. Too much variety on the menu is not a trick.
Perishable foods should not be included in the menu.
The duty of the chef is to prepare the recipes of all the dishes on the menu and give them to the cost control officer for cost evaluation. After the
recipes are prepared, samples are prepared and pictures are taken in order to ensure that the meals are of the same standard.
The costs of the dishes on the menu are evaluated . then it is put into practice by taking the opinion of the General Manager.
The main menu, called Ala-carte, covers the types of food used by a workplace every month or a year...
cocktail party menu
diet menu
Cocktail prolange menu
fixed menu
brunch menu
Iftar menu
Suhoor menu
buffet menu
tea buffet menu 
Room service menu
Banquet menus 
breakfast menus
What is Menu Planning?Special day menus and special day meals vary according to the cultures of the countries. For example; In Turkey, special religious days such as birthday, circumcision, engagement dinner, wedding dinner, funeral home dinner, pilgrim dinner are organized.
The important thing is to decide which tour will be the menu to be applied...
Menu Planning
Regardless of the experience in cooking, the most important task of a kitchen chef; is to prepare menus as required and in accordance with the procedure. In menu making, various points are taken into consideration. Depending on the organization, customer, season, amenities, taste, etc. menu making may vary according to the rules. There is a great need for knowledge and experience to make a menu in accordance with the rules. Knowing the expectations of the customer, the characteristics of the food, seasonal needs, and the conditions for preparing balanced meals are some of them.
Balanced diet. Today, healthy and balanced nutrition is one of the most important issues that everyone focuses on. Especially, a person responsible for the preparation of a very important item such as a menu should know this subject sufficiently. The person meant here is head chef or kitchen chef. It is inconvenient to assign the task of chef (kitchen chef) to a person who does not know enough about healthy nutrition. A kitchen chef should know the food groups, nutritional values ​​of foods (protein, fat, carbohydrate, mineral, vitamin…), calorie amounts, analysis of a meal very well, and be able to keep microorganism and hygiene conditions under control.
In fact, they should be able to calculate how many calories, how much protein, how much fat and how many carbohydrates can be found in a meal. The issue of balanced nutrition is certainly not a difficult or incomprehensible subject. There is no need to go to school for years. Anyone who wishes can improve themselves as much as they want by reading appropriate nutrition books. Currently, the biggest problem of Turkish Cuisine is the use of oil in the kitchen. Most of our meals are high in fat and calories. A conscious cook can keep the use of oil in the kitchen under control. In mass consumption places, people fill their stomachs in a healthier way and experience fewer health problems. This is a justification.
Cost control. The exact cost price of each dish to be placed on the menu must be known. Otherwise, a price imbalance will occur. This in turn affects cost control. In order to calculate the cost of a meal, the technical receipt of that meal is prepared. Once this dish is known how much it costs, it is put on the menu or not. Every dish must have a technical slip. In this plug; The name of the dish, its number, the number of portions, the ingredients and their quantities, the preparation technique, the total material cost of the meal and the portion cost should be seen. So this receipt is a kind of identity of the dish. In establishments that work without technical plugs, the prices of meals are certainly very uneven and there is no standard for any meal.
Considering the seasons. A good kitchen chef can enrich his kitchen by preparing a variety of menus with seasonal whole foods. An unlimited variety of dishes can be served from the beautiful and very delicious vegetables and fruits of our country. In summer, menus with plenty of vegetables and plenty of salad cause more appetite of the customer. At the same time, it is necessary to include various light vegetable dishes on the menus in summer, instead of heavy dishes with sauce. With the seafood of our country, which is surrounded by the sea on three sides, it is possible to make astonishing dishes.
Of course, it is necessary to know the season when the fish is plentiful and delicious. Out of season fish dishes are not very suitable in terms of price, taste and preference. Eating some shellfish (mussels, oysters, scallops…) especially in summers is considered unhealthy in terms of health. May and June are the breeding season of fish. In this season, the fish is very tasteless and weak. In summer, most of the meat dishes should be chosen from sauce-free and grill-based dishes. In the hot days of summer, instead of heavy Turkish desserts (tulumba, baklava, sugarpare…) it is necessary to put more fruity and low-calorie desserts on the menus.
Preparing menu according to customer category. Preparing a menu according to the expectations and characteristics of the customer is the most important task for the kitchen chef. The customer should not force him to eat food that he does not know the taste of. The customer must be able to find a few dishes that he or she likes on the menu. Most of the dishes on the menu should be chosen from dishes that the customer can recognize. The other part can be chosen from local dishes, chef's special dishes and international dishes. The condiment added to the meals should be in line with the expectations of the customer. New customers should be warned about the bitterness level of some special dishes (raw meatballs, spicy kebab...). While preparing menus for elderly customers, diet should be considered. In a normal menu, it is very useful to have food from all six of the six food groups. Beneath the dishes whose name cannot be understood, There should be a small explanation as to why it is done. If there is, it must be stated that there is garlic in the dish.
Working on appropriate recipes. While doing a job, it is necessary to know the job very well in order to get the highest efficiency from that job. This understanding also applies to food preparation. In order to properly prepare a dish, it is essential to know the ingredients, seasoning, proper cooking method and preparation technique very well. There are many books written on this subject. It should be studied by extracting recipes from reliable books, and the meal should be standardized after determining how to prepare the meal in the best way. In order for the dishes prepared in a kitchen to always be of the same quality, all dishes must have well-prepared technical receipts. These plugs should always be kept at hand and used. This job is a head chef job. A kitchen chef who does not do this job is considered to have not done his main duty.
What is Menu Planning?Menu planning for certain times. The menu planning of each establishment may be different. However, preparing menus some time in advance is very helpful in getting the food, preparing, preparing the cooks themselves according to the task to be done, and for other departments as well. By comparing the prepared menus with the menus prepared and applied before, repeating the same dishes at very frequent intervals is prevented. At the same time, this comparison also helps some cooks to scrutinize and work on dishes that are not well known in pre-prepared menus.
One of the most important issues to be considered while preparing a menu is to have more than enough food on the menu. It is not possible to carry out a wide variety of menu normally if there are not enough cooks and the kitchen capacity is insufficient. Because; As food rotation is less, it becomes very difficult to keep food fresh. In such places, it is seen that many of the dishes smell of cabinets.
Adaptation to working conditions. In order for a prepared menu to be implemented without difficulty, it should be ensured that the dishes on the menu are divided among the cooks in a balanced way. While some cooks are working in sweat, some cooks' time unemployed causes loss of customers. In addition, the equipment used in the preparation of the meals on the menu should be suitable for the work capacity. An insufficiently sized grill, a poorly functioning oven, insufficient refrigerator, a kitchen without hot water will undoubtedly lead to a decrease in work capacity.
Different kinds of food. The types of dishes on the same menu should be very different from each other in terms of appearance, preparation and naturalness. For example, simple mistakes such as green beans with olive oil first and then green beans with meat should not be made. Simple meals that can be made at home should not be included in ala card menus. People can eat foods such as scrambled eggs, omelette, pasta, bulgur pilaf at home. However, dishes that are difficult to cook at home such as pepper steak, foie gras, grilled tenderloin with bearnaise sauce, turbot fillet with champagne sauce, soufflé, and duck with mushrooms are very valid for ala cards.
World cuisines. A kitchen chef working in the field of tourism must have sufficient knowledge about world cuisines. Because the taste and eating habits of human societies can be very different. In a survey, it was revealed that the most encountered problem in world tourism is the food problem. A person usually eats a food they do not know with suspicion. Because the way he wanted was not prepared either, or he thinks that the food is prepared differently in his own country. For example, everyone loves ravioli as it is known in Turkey. However, if the same ravioli were given to a French, would they eat it with the same appetite as us? No, because the French usually eat yogurt with sugar. Instead of sugar, they may not like it when garlic is added to yogurt. For this reason, touristic menus, from major internationally known dishes (grilled steak, shish kebab,
Avoid similar types of food. One of the most important of the main conditions of menu planning is the variety of dishes. It is necessary to avoid the frequent repetition of the dishes in the menus. The variety of dishes is not just according to one's request. At the same time, it is a very important element to be in line with the principles of balanced nutrition. In order to get the necessary nutrients, which are very important for health, we must eat all kinds of food. If you drink barley noodle soup today and vermicelli soup tomorrow, it is seen that no change has been made in this direction. However, it will be more balanced to have vegetable soup today and vermicelli tomorrow. Well; It is very wrong to serve similar foods under different names on a menu.
The portion size. The meals on the menu should be balanced. The amount of sauce and garnish served with the main food should not be missing or exaggerated. The garnishes given with the food should be sufficient and compatible. A fresh vegetable side dish should be given with meat dishes. For example, some green beans sautéed next to the steak grill and some potato type garnish can be given. As some kebab shops do; It is wrong and an example of an unbalanced diet to give some onion piquant and a few pieces of tomato slices next to the meat.
Food names. The names of the dishes on the menu should be realistic. Exaggerated, flashy and deceptive names should be avoided. From the name it should be understood what kind of dish the dish is. Under the dishes whose name cannot be understood, the type of food should be stated very briefly. Some menus may not be included in this rule. In other words, imaginary and surprise names can be added to the menus prepared for familiar and sincere people. However, customers should never disappoint customers by putting fictitious names on their menus. For example; thyme flower-flavored queen of the highlands…, wouldn't it surprise you if what comes your way is nothing more than a simple grilled steak we always eat?
Understanding of taste and flavor. One of the main mistakes that some cooks make is that they do not understand taste and taste. It is one of such mistakes to affect the taste of the dish negatively by putting a strange sauce, a side dish or an inappropriately exaggerated spice in the dish with the idea of ​​making it better. There are also chefs working by adding something to some classic and well-known dishes, influenced by other country flavors. For example; New flavors are sought by adding honey, vanilla, raisins and similar ingredients to a meat dish.
In order to do such a thing, it is absolutely necessary to adjust the amount of different ingredients to be added to that dish very well. Otherwise, the people of our country may not like it at all. Some currants are added to the stuffed rice. However, if this amount is added in excess, it may not be pleasant. In addition to sauced fish and meat, rice and pasta type garnishes can be given. Boiled potatoes are served alongside pan-fried and grilled fish. However, fried and grilled meats should be served with french fries or pans. Salad goes well with meat dishes, but does not go well with vegetable dishes.
Class and location of the organization. Whatever type of menu is being prepared, the location and class of the establishment should be considered. It should prepare menus worthy of the establishment. For an ordinary restaurant, dried beans and rice may be appropriate. However, for a luxury restaurant or a hotel, it is quite natural that luxury and expensive dishes such as consomme, caviar, langust thermidor, sea bass fillet, fatty foie gras are on the menu. On the other hand, it would not be right to include expensive dishes such as tenderloin with truffle sauce, smoked salmon and grilled lobster on an ordinary restaurant menu.
Writing the menu. A kitchen chef's Turkish may not be perfect. The spelling errors of the prepared menu need to be corrected. A menu written in good Turkish inspires confidence. The prices stated in the menu must be clear. There should be no problem in paying the bill. This situation adversely affects customers and loss of customers. Everything should be written clearly. Well; If VAT, service fee, cover (per customer) fee and similar extra fees are to be added to the account, these should definitely be stated on the side of the menu. As a matter of fact, the customer should not be charged an unexpected fee. Such mistakes made by inexperienced and unprofessional people cause the customer not to come for the second time.
Some of the a la carte menus are not priced. Menus without a price are usually offered to invited customers. However, the invitee (the person paying the bill) must be given the menu with the price specified. In addition, the menus of restaurants with foreign customers should be written in several different languages. Menus are not newspapers. Unnecessary information should not be written on it. However, the name of the manager, the name of the kitchen chef, the hours it is open, the days it is closed, the brief history of the establishment, its characteristics and some other necessary information (wedding, seminar, banquet, hotel, buffet...) can be written in the blanks.
Menus do not have a standard size. Different sizes of menus can be written based on creativity and logic. The appearance of the menus, the fact that the container is made of solid material, and the necessary information is written on the computer provides many advantages today. These are easy menu software, price change, adding and removing food names, low cost, the ability to write whatever you want immediately.
Note: In some restaurants and hotels, a service fee of 5% to 15% is added to the menu. Generally, this fee is written in a corner of the menu and notified to the customer. However, this is entirely at the will of the organization and has no official direction. So it's kind of a final tip.
The importance of the menu. In fact, the menu is not just a simple menu. Menu and menu lists are the selling tools and equipment of an establishment. They must convince customers with their shapes, colours, images and flamboyance. The menus are the showcases of the institution in question and are the commitment documents of the service to be provided. The customer makes his decision by looking at these menus. The importance of menus in commerce is enormous in terms of selection of food and determination of prices. When necessary, it is a business practice to organize menus with photographs and more convincingly for banquets, banquets, weddings and similar catering.
It is very positive behavior for restaurants to hang a copy of their menu outside for passers-by to see. This clears the doubts of the customers and helps them to get an idea of ​​what kind of food is served in the restaurant. This behavior is very common in European countries. Even luxury establishments hang their menus outside. Some hotels attract customers by hanging their menus illuminated in a corner of the reception, inside the elevators and sometimes in the rooms. In addition, they can be pocketed, print small menus and give them as gifts for advertising purposes.
Food Preparation
food recipe
It is a list used in the preparation of foods, which ensures that the food is formed in the same taste and dimensions.
A business may have recipes that can create rich menus, but the dishes
When it is produced more or less than the demanded amount, the efficiency of the enterprise may decrease.
The amount of product to be prepared in order to ensure the balance of efficiency should not be too low or too high above the sales capacity. If less production is made than demanded, it will cause the product to be sold out and not meet the customer's needs.
In case of more production than requested, if it is not possible to reuse the remaining products, they are destroyed. In both cases, the business suffers a loss. Problems arise because customers' needs are not met. For this, businesses need to work with standard tariffs.
*Tariff: The text that shows the name, quantity and the way to be followed in the preparation of the materials used in the meal to be prepared is called a recipe.
*Standard: These are the criteria that should be in a meal. Color, taste, consistency, shape are different for each dish. For example, when preparing meat, vegetables should be put in order according to the cooking time, and care should be taken to cut them in the same size and shape;
so the standard is provided.
*Portion: The amount that an average person can eat. Portion amounts are different for each food.
Parts of the recipe
A recipe consists of two main parts. 
•  List of materials to be used
•  Detailed description of the preparation method
In some recipes
* Tools and equipment to be used
* Preparation techniques
* How long to cook
* How many degrees will it be cooked?
* Information such as what kind of garnishes to be used can also be specified.
Writing Standard Meal Recipes
After the tariffs are developed and standardized by choosing the appropriate method and evaluating them, they should be written in a way that is easy for the users to understand. Recipes should be written on cardboard. The width and length of the cardboard should be in such a way as to ensure that the tariff is written appropriately. Appropriate dimensions for tariffs generally used in institutions should be 20x30 cm. The following information should be included in the tariffs.
* Name and group of the dish
* Portion size
* Portion measuring tool and serving style
* Cookware and hob used in cooking
* The materials to be put in and their quantities (gross, net and average size)
* Preparation and cooking method
* Preparation and cooking times
* Total weight of food
* Price of one serving
* Nutritional value of one serving,
This information should be written on the front side of the recipe, the price and nutritional value of a portion should be written on the back side.
Using and Benefits of Standard Meal Recipes
No matter how well a menu is planned, if the food is not of the expected quality, success cannot be achieved in food service. The basic element in making quality food is standardized recipes. Standard tariffs, managers responsible for the institution's nutrition service; It enables them to divide the work among the personnel, to control the work done in the kitchen, to determine the nutritional value of the menu and to control the price.
In addition, diners always want to see the food of the same name of the same quality. If the recipe is not prepared and written down and the food is left to the chef's skill, this will never be possible.
Meal recipes are prepared as at least 10 portions. After quality checks are made with an evaluation panel made up of people who are experienced in food, it is duplicated, double-checked and standardized.
The recipes used in institutions are usually standardized as 100 portions. Standardization of recipes according to 100 portions facilitates the calculation of large portions. Mostly, 500-portion pots are used for meals in institutions. If it is made over 1 portion, there will be a 500-fold increase in the calculation of the material for 500 portions, whereas the margin of error will decrease when the increase will be 5 times when the recipe is 100 portions. In order for the standard food tariff to be beneficial to the institution, it is necessary to read the tariff carefully by the practitioner and the practitioner, and to know the information in the tariff and its benefits.
In the tariffs; Various information such as the name and group of the dish, portion size, portion size tool and serving method, the container and stove used in cooking, the materials to be put in and their quantities (gross, net and average size), preparation - cooking method and times should be included. This information should be written clearly for the convenience of the user and how to use it should be explained in detail.
The institution that will use the tariffs should have the tariffs printed on the cartons. For ease of use, each group can be written on a different color cardboard (like I. Containers white, II. Containers blue, III. Containers yellow), and separate colors indicating the groups can be placed on the corners of the cards. It must be hung on the kitchen work board on the day it will be applied to the recipe. Nyloning is envisaged for the protection of the tariff.
Name and Group of the Food
It is clear that if the name of the dish is not included in the recipe, the recipe cannot be used. However, the food names; varies according to institutions and regions; for this reason, the person who will have the tariff enforced should read the tariff carefully and check whether the name given corresponds to the name of the dish used in his institution and make the necessary corrections.
Dishes must also be marked as first, second and third vessel. These numbers are essential for the menu plan. Two meals from the same group should not be served side by side at one meal in establishments that serve table d'hôte type meals. When the recipes are hung on the kitchen workboard, it can be easily seen from the colors whether there is a grouping error or not.
Meal Portion Size
It is very important to determine the portion size of the meal and to pay attention to this in the service; Because portion control is important in price control and if the portion size is not determined well, there are problems such as the increase or decrease in the prepared food, as well as the fact that the nutritional needs of the group served are not adequately met. In the tariffs, the measurements should be given in grams and the ladle, plate or bowl to hold this gram should be determined.
Cookware and Stove
Writing the pot and stove in which the food will be cooked in the recipes allows the dishes to be selected according to the equipment at hand in menu planning. For this, the implementer should pay attention to this issue in the tariff. If oven meatballs are written even though there is no oven at hand, the cooks will try to cook by turning the trays on the stove, this will cause a loss of energy and time on the one hand, and on the other hand, the food will not be of the expected quality and will lead to economic losses.
Gross, Net Amounts and Average Sizes of the Ingredients Included in the Meal
The ingredients included in the meal should be written in the order in which they were handled during the preparation of the meal. A horizontal line should be drawn for each different process, including the items to be added to the meal at the same time.
This provides convenience in practice. The ingredients in the food should be given as gross, net and average size. The amount of food to be taken to the institution is determined by using the gross column. The net amount column is important for controlling the amount that will enter the boiler. The nutritional value of the meal is calculated over the amounts in this column, and the price is calculated from the gross column. The difference between the gross and net amount shows the residues formed in the sorting.
These residual percentages can be used when standardizing tariffs; however, since the dried meat is taken as the body, bone residue will occur and since all parts of the body will not be used in the same dish, it must be broken down according to the parts to be used.
Therefore, the order for meat cannot be made according to the recipe. The person who will order should order the body with an average calculation according to the status of the menu. However, in order to inform the person who will order the meat and for the price calculation, the bone residue percentages of the meat can be added to the net amount and written in the gross amount column. For example; In meatball recipes, the net amount should be given as 6000 gr for 100 portions.
In some dishes, meat with bones is used. In this case, the net amount to enter the boiler is the same as the gross amount. However, this time, a second number should be written under the first number in the net amount column for the nutritional value calculation. If it is possible to buy the meat in pieces, the column with the net amount should be used.
Since some foods are not purchased by weight, it is obligatory to specify them as pieces or bundles. For example; eggs, lemon, parsley, dill, lettuce, curly are these types of foods. However, to calculate the nutritional value, it is necessary to know the net amounts of these foods. It may also be possible to gain weight. For this reason, their amounts should be written in grams in the net and gross column, and the required quantities in pieces or grains should be specified in the average size section.
Meal Preparation and Cooking Method
The purpose of cooking food; increase their taste, facilitate their digestion, while ensuring that they do not lose their special color, smell, taste and nutritional value. This should be taken into account in meal plans. Every transaction should be written clearly.
Meal Preparation and Cooking Times
In one corner of the recipes, the total preparation and cooking times should be written. In tariffs , the time to be spent for each transaction should be given in a separate column. The duration column is the administrator's; helps him distribute work among workers and specify start times. In addition, if the cooking times are not specified, the person must be constantly at the beginning of that meal. If the cooking time of the food is not known, if the time is kept short, the food will not be in the expected consistency, and if it exceeds the time, it will cause loss of flavor and nutrients, as well as economic losses.
Nutritional Value and Price of the Meal
If the nutritional value of the meals is not known, it cannot be known whether the planned menu meets the nutritional needs of the group served. However, the first purpose in food service is to meet the nutritional needs of the group adequately; Therefore, the nutritional value of each dish should be calculated and written in a specific part of the recipe. This information is usually on the back of the tariff. Knowing the price of the meal is mandatory for the institution to control the price and must be written on the back of the tariff. However, since the prices change from year to year, the institution manager has to make the necessary adjustment every year.
Rules to be considered when using a food recipe
•  It should be checked whether all the tools and equipment to be used in meal preparation are ready.
•  All necessary food products should be prepared.
•  Preliminary preparation should not be forgotten. Like a meat that needs to be marinated beforehand
•  It should be ensured whether there is enough time for the cooking process.
•  The person who will apply the food recipe must have sufficient capacity.
•  A plan should be made in order to use the working order, kitchen materials and time effectively.
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Turkish Cuisine Chefs, Turkish Chef, Restaurant Consultancy, Kitchen Consultancy.