• The Place and Importance of Seafood in Gastronomy
  • The Place and Importance of Seafood in Gastronomy
  • The Place and Importance of Seafood in Gastronomy
  • The Place and Importance of Seafood in Gastronomy
  • The Place and Importance of Seafood in Gastronomy
  • The Place and Importance of Seafood in Gastronomy

The transfer of local dishes made from various seafood in Turkish culinary culture to future generations will be possible with the increase in consumption. It is very important to take the necessary measures for this and serious, special measures and practices..

The Importance of Seafood for Health and Its Place in Gastronomy
Nurten BEYTER-1
The aim of this study is to increase the consumption of seafood, which is important for future generations to complete their mental and physical development and continue their lives as healthy individuals, and to preserve their presence in Turkish culinary culture in terms of gastronomy. Seafood has an important place in gastronomy due to its taste, nutritional value and contribution to health. For this purpose, articles about seafood in Turkish culinary culture and gastronomy were examined. 
In addition, it has been examined in studies that include the effects of seafood on health within the framework of the factors that should be taken into account in eating habits in order to lead a healthy life. Considering the geographical location of our country, it is an undesirable situation that the consumption of fishery products is less than expected. 
The transfer of local dishes made from various seafood in Turkish culinary culture to future generations will be possible with the increase in consumption. It is very important to take the necessary measures for this and serious, special measures and practices should be brought to the agenda in order to eliminate this problem. In addition, food recipes need to be brought to light, modernized and passed on to future generations.
Keywords: Gastronomy, Turkish Culinary Culture, Seafood, Health, Nutrition
The human organism is a complex machine that must receive all nutrients in sufficient quantities in a balanced mixture and continuously in order to maintain its vitality and life. As a result of the researches carried out in the last hundred years, nutrition science has become one of the main areas of interest of physiology and physiopathology due to its close relationship with health. Especially today, comprehensive research of the chemical and biochemical structures of foodstuffs, examining the stages of their digestion and use in the body, and finally trying to explain the body metabolism and energy production mechanisms have necessitated the cooperation between nutrition and physiology. As a natural result of this cooperation, while it is advocated that natural foods are offered to the societies,
Studies on biochemistry and physiology have revealed that although it is extremely important for living life, the body cannot synthesize some components in foods, different lesions occur in the absence of these, and therefore, these essential nutrients must be taken ready-made with food. Knowing the physiological values ​​of foods other than the energy source is important for the prevention or reduction of diseases that may result from malnutrition. 
In this sense, functional foods are of great importance. Functional foods; It can be defined as “containing fortified, enriched or improved foods not only in terms of nutrition, but also in order to reduce the incidence of certain diseases or to keep the incidence as low as possible and thus contribute to human health”. Examples of this type of food; foods with enriched composition (eggs, dairy products, bread, etc.), foods with natural nutritional content and functional properties (fruits, vegetables, fish products, etc.) are counted (Bağıran Özşeker, 2017).
The expression "Let your medicine be your food and your food your medicine", which Hippocrates uttered 2500 years ago, is an indication that the relationship between food and health existed even in those times (Özçelik, 2016, Bağıran Özşeker, 2017). Especially in preventing nutritional deficiencies and treating food intolerances, practices such as food enrichment studies and changing diets come to the fore (Ekşi and Karadeniz, 1996).
Vitamin and mineral supplementation in terms of enrichment of foods (Ekşi and Karadeniz, 1996), as well as antioxidant addition in order to increase the shelf life of foods and contribute to health (Oğan and Sezgin 2019) are among the common applications. In addition, enrichment of foods in terms of omega-3 fatty acids, which are among the essential fatty acids and have an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and brain development, is also among the practices performed.
Spices, aromatic and medicinal plants used in gastronomy are of great importance in terms of enriching foods (Çılgınoğlu, Aliu and Aliu, 2019). In addition to increasing the taste of the dishes they participate in, they both increase the durability of the food and contribute to health. Medicinal and aromatic plants are widely used in the world. Turkey is very rich in this sense and a significant part of these plants are defined as endemic plants (Çılgınoğlu et al., 2019). The contribution of the richness of endemic plants to the country's gastronomy is undeniable and necessary measures should be taken to protect and sustain such plants.
Based on the nutrients and building blocks contained in a food item, in order to reach a correct conclusion about its digestibility and usability by the body, first of all, it is necessary to have information about the chemical and biochemical structure of that food, both natural and after processing. By establishing a relationship between common nutritional regimens and diseases caused by malnutrition, which are common in societies, unique nutritional regimens can be developed to reduce them.
For example; In today's industrialized world, factors such as gender, age, diabetes, gluttony, inactivity and gout are effective in the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, which is accepted as one of the leading causes of death, as well as smoking, high blood pressure and high cholesterol in the emergence of this lesion and an acute cause. It is known that it is much more effective in gaining qualifications (Anonymous, 2015).
In terms of gastronomy, the importance of seafood is very high. It has the privilege of rich aquatic products, richness of nutritional content and appealing to different tastes. It has become an indispensable part of our New Kitchen Trends since ancient times. It has attracted attention as a source of wealth according to its place, and as a source of livelihood for the people who have financial difficulties. Seafood has somehow found a place in local cuisines all over the world (Dikel and Demirkale, 2019).
In particular, excessive intake of animal-derived fat creates problems in lipid metabolism and is a high risk factor for the emergence of cardiovascular diseases due to increased plasma cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia). For this reason, the close relationship between the properties of dietary fat and the plaques formed in the vessels is emphasized in cardiovascular diseases. The findings obtained as a result of the researches revealed that reaching a healthy fat consumption prescription for a proper diet is urgent and inevitable (Kayahan, 1998).
Today, especially developed country people pay great attention to their nutrition and take care to consume foods suitable for health in their diets. Among these foods, fish and other aquatic products, which are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, take the first place.
With the developing technologies in the food sector, seafood has gained the feature of being available anytime and anywhere, and its place in gastronomy has increased its importance. From another point of view, gastronomy has a great contribution to the development of the seafood industry (Dikel and Demirkale, 2019).
Seafood is indispensable; It can be explained because of its rich content in terms of nutritional value, its balanced structure and therefore its contribution to health. In terms of these features, seafood is always among the products that attract attention in terms of gastronomy. Seafood is one of the most interesting elements in terms of adapting local cuisines to modern cuisines.
2. Theoretical Framework
2.1. Gastronomy and Seafood in Turkish Gastronomy
In general terms, gastronomy; It is defined as a comprehensive knowledge provided on every subject related to humans and their food (Dikel and Demirkale, 2019). In addition, gastronomy; It is also expressed as “the science and art of eating well” (Öney, 2016). Yazicioglu and Ozata 2018; defines gastronomy as a concept that incorporates art and science. Eren 2007 defines it as "a branch of science that covers all the artistic and scientific elements it contains, as well as the studies of understanding all the features of food and beverages in detail, starting from the historical development process, applying them and adapting them to today's conditions".
Gastronomy function; It can be expressed as guiding everyone who seeks, procures and prepares and presents all elements that can be used as food based on basic principles. (Dikel and Demirkale, 2019). Santich 1996 stated in his book that gastronomy has a special place in conveying the past cultural characteristics to the next generations.
The acceptance of gastronomy as a science is necessary in terms of including other branches of science. It has an important place in terms of combining parts of a whole in the sense of science and social sciences. Physics, chemistry, biology, psychology, folklore, history and economy can be counted as parts of the whole. Considering all these fields, it is a correct expression to say that “gastronomy is a versatile and multidisciplinary science”.
Geography and history stand out as the determining elements of today's gastronomy. The nutritional habits and health risks of people living in different regions are closely related to the diversity of climate, soil and vegetation due to agricultural practices. Turkey makes a difference in gastronomy in terms of these features. In this respect, seven regions of Turkey stand out because of their diversity in terms of culinary culture. For example; The abundance of fish species such as anchovy and red mullet in the Black Sea region causes the predominance of seafood in the cuisine of that region.
When the history of Turkish cuisine is examined; Seafood in Istanbul's culinary culture; While it was the capital of the Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman periods, it was formed by the eating habits of the Turks, Armenians, Jews and Greeks living here. Today's seafood cuisine was formed as a result of the migration of Turks from the Balkans to the region after the Republican Period. In the Ottoman culinary records, various fish such as carp, mackerel, swordfish, turbot, bluefish and eel, as well as lacquer, fish roe and caviar are mentioned within the scope of seafood. Apart from this, it is among the recorded information that dishes such as salting fish and fish soup are frequently made in the palace kitchen (Şengör and Ceylan, 2018).
It is stated that fish is among the delicacies consumed by the sultan and his surroundings in the Ottoman palace cuisine (Sürücüoğlu and Özçelik 2015). Despite the limited consumption of fish in the Ottoman Palace, Istanbul's fish richness took its place in the recipes found in the 19th century written sources. According to the expressions in all the books, the amount of fish used in the recipes is expressed as 7.7%. 
The absence of seafood such as mussels and scallops in the records of the palace cuisine indicates that these foods were not consumed much in the palace, but seafood such as mussels, scallops, oysters, shrimps and lobsters in the 19th century cookbooks show that these foods were used in the Istanbul cuisine of the period. Caviar and fish roe are among the foods consumed both in the palace and in Istanbul during the same period (Samancı, 2008).
Today's Turkish cuisine with regional differences; mainly consists of meat, vegetables and pastries. In addition, in coastal cities, where there are fresh water sources such as lakes and streams, more seafood dishes are consumed. Dishes prepared with fish caught from these seas or inland waters constitute the local flavors of Turkish cuisine. Examples of these special delicacies are “Hamsichus” of the Black Sea cuisine, “Stuffed Carp” made from carp from Lake Eğirdir, “Stuffed Mackerel” made from mackerel from the Marmara Sea, or “Waxed mullet caviar” prepared from balled mullet eggs from the Aegean Sea ( Şengör and Ceylan, 2018).
Annual per capita fish consumption rates in our country; According to TUIK data (2000-2017), it varies between 8.6- 5.4 kg (BSGM, 2018). According to FAO 2018 data, it is stated that an average of 20.3 kg of fish was consumed per person in the world in 2017, and this value is predicted to be 20.5 kg for 2018. Compared to the consumption rates of other countries, this rate remains quite low in Turkey (FAO Year Book, 2018). Consumption rates of seafood products in our country; It is thought that it should be increased in order to provide balanced and adequate nutrition and to raise individuals with high mental and physical development for future generations.
2.2 Nutritional Value of Seafood
The nutritional and commercial value of fish depends on the structure of different fish and seafood meats and edible parts. The main chemical components of fish are water, protein and fat. These components make up 98% of the fish meat and affect the nutritional value, sensory quality and storage stability of the fish. The other 2% consists of carbohydrates, vitamins and mineral substances. Although its rates are low, it is very important because of its sensory and nutritional values ​​and its contribution to health (Sikorski, 1990). 
The chemical composition of fish varies depending on the species, age, sex, habitat and season. The protein amount of fish meat is quite constant and does not show any deviation between different species, but the effect of the nutrition and maturity level of the fish is observed (Varlık et al., 2004).
Full; It is a very good food in terms of nutritional value and especially high quality protein, vitamins, minerals and growth factors. Low energy value makes fish stand out in low calorie diets. Factors such as being easily digestible, having the most appropriate amino acid content, richness of vitamin and mineral content and the importance of fish oil in terms of nutritional physiology make fish meat a high-value food (Sikorski 1990, Martin and Flick 1990, Göğüş and Kolsarıcı 1992, Shahidi and Botta). 1994). With three D factors (high nutritional value, low saturation value, dietetic value), fish and other aquatic products reveal the feature of being a high value food (Varlık, Erkan, Özden, Mol, & Baygar, 2004).
The protein ratio of fish is between 11-24% and these proteins contain amino acids necessary for the regeneration and repair of body tissues. These essential amino acids are also found in vegetable proteins. Unlike vegetable proteins, fish proteins contain higher amounts of methionine and lysine amino acids. Meat, fish, eggs and milk contain the same nutritional value of protein (Turan, Kaya and Sonmez, 2006).
The vitamin content of fish differs from species to species, as well as within species. The amount of water-soluble vitamins C and B group found in aquatic products and the amounts found in terrestrial animals are approximately the same, while fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K are generally higher (Sikorski 1990, Martin and Flick 1990, Shahidi and Botta 1994).
One of the most important elements that makes fish valuable is that it contains fats, which are an important nutrient that gives energy, in appropriate and significant amounts. 
Factors such as the season in which the fish are caught, nutrition, sexual maturity, and the size of the fish affect the amount of oil. Fish are divided into oily or non-oily fish according to the amount of oil they contain. Those containing less than 5% fat were classified as lean fish, and those containing 5-30% fat were classified as oily fish. In addition, according to another classification, those containing less than 1% fat were considered as lean fish, and those containing 1-25% oil were considered as oily fish. 
It has been reported that fish oils contain large amounts of unsaturated fatty acids (Sikorski 1990, Martin and Flick 1990, Shahidi and Botta 1994, Varlık et al. 2004).
Two of the most important polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA): Eicosapentanoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and Docosahexanoic acid (DHA;22:6n-3). Especially marine fish (salmon, tuna, herring, mackerel and anchovy) are very rich in EPA and DHA.
Lean fish meats contain less than 1% fat, usually structural fats, of which 8% are n-3 PUFA-rich phospholipids. In medium-fat and oily fish, fats are stored in the muscles and also in the subcutaneous fat layer during feeding periods. When salmon migrate to lay eggs, they form an oily hump, which is successfully replaced by water during migration (Sikorski, 1990).
Fish store oils in different parts of their bodies, depending on their needs and the situation in which they will be used; For example, it differs according to periods of hunger, long winter conditions, rapid movement, breeding and development periods. During ovulation periods, fats are transferred from the liver and muscles to the ovaries. A rapid decrease in fat content is observed during the spawning period. After spawning, the fish feels an intense sense of nourishment, so the fat content in its liver and muscles increases while its ovaries begin to decrease. 
The variations in variations depend on fat metabolism, maturity period, ambient temperature, food availability, stress, and various other factors. The amount of fat in oily fish is in a wide range, such as 1-25% by wet weight. (Sikorski, 1990).
The fatty acid compositions of aquaculture lipids are more complex than those of land plants and animals. The different fatty acid content in fish oils is due to many reasons; nutrition, geographic location, environmental temperature, season, body length, fat content, etc. The lipid composition in freshwater fish is between terrestrial and marine fish. (Sikorski, 1990).
EPAs are of typical marine algae origin and DHA is of zooplankton origin. The ratio of these two fatty acids in lipids is related to the dietary habits of marine organisms. Many fish that feed on zooplankton contain more DHA than EPA in their oils. On the other hand, many crustaceans contain either EPA or equal amounts of both fatty acids. Fish living under glaciers in Antarctica and feeding on algae have more EPA than DHA (Sikorski, 1990).
2.3 Importance of Seafood for Health
The first research on the fatty acid composition of fish oils started in 1952. Studies carried out in the following years have led to a better understanding of the structure of fish oils, and the contributions of fish oils to human health have increased the interest in fish oils with studies conducted in recent years (Kaya, Duyar and Erdem, 2004).
Studies in primates and newborn babies have shown that DHAs are used for normal functional development of the retina and brain; It plays a very important role especially in premature babies. The balanced n-6/n-3 ratio in the diet is essential for normal growth and development and is effective in reducing cardiovascular diseases and other chronic diseases and improving mental health (Simopoulos, 2000). The ratio of n-3/n-6, which should be taken with the diet for a healthy life, has been reported as 1:1-1:5 (Osman et al., 2001).
The benefits of feeding fish-rich diets are that it can prevent heart diseases, thrombosis, as well as tumor formation and cancer. This type of diet includes appropriate HD/LD protein ratio, low triglycerol and cholesterol components, and small amounts of very low density blood serum lipoproteins. It is recommended to replace some of the n-6 PUFAs in the diet with n-3s. Therefore, 8% should be obtained from saturated lipids, 12% from monounsaturated and 10% from n-6 and n-3 PUFAs in order to prevent more than 30% of the energy required to be taken from fats. Also 5g daily. It is recommended to be consumed in fish oil (Sikorski, 1990).
Various studies are carried out on products enriched in terms of n-3 PUFA, which is important for health. Various studies have been carried out to obtain products with increased fatty acid profile by enriching the rations of various animals with n-3 fatty acids during the breeding phase and by adding n-3 fatty acids as a food enrichment element during the production phase.
Dal Bello, Torri, Piochi and Zeppa (2015) investigated the reflection of α-linolenic acid content by using oils obtained from various plant seeds during the yoghurt production stage. It was observed that n-3 PUFA concentration increased in all products.
During the most risky first months of pregnancy, ARA and DHA are needed for the growth and development of cells (Çilingir, 2012). Fish oil and increased fish consumption during pregnancy prevent pregnancy-induced hypertension, miscarriage or premature birth, and increase birth weight. This information supports the view that the amount of DHA that should be taken during pregnancy is 0.1–0.4 g/day (Anonymous, 2008).
Prevention of pre-eclampsia (Öksüz, Alkan, Taşkın, Ayrancı, 2018) is significantly possible with the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on blood triglyceride levels and low blood pressure. Maternal blood pressure responses depend on the ARA/EPA ratio in the vessel walls. As a result of studies conducted in different centers, it has been seen that EPA is very beneficial for the mother's heart and circulatory system, and DHA is very beneficial for the development of the brain and nervous system of the fetus (Anonymous, 2008).
DHA is in the structure of the brain and called the cerebral cortex; It is located in the structure of the gray colored substances that surround the brain and consist of neurons. A developed signal network is seen between the cerebral cortex and subcortical structures. All this information flow is done to perform the sensory, motor and other functions of the brain. For this reason, it is stated that there is a strong link between the degree of development of living things and the cerebral cortex (Anonymous, 2008, Fidanbaş, Bilgin, Ertan 2015, Anonymous, 2020). 
For this reason, the need for DHA increases during the last 3 months of pregnancy, when the development of the nervous system and vessels of the fetus is very intense. The mother's diet high in DHA also increases the amount of DHA in the newborn baby's blood. The n-3 fatty acids taken during pregnancy prolong the pregnancy and contribute to the best level of brain and cognitive development of the baby (Fidanbaş et al., 2015).
It is stated that ALA, EPA and DHA fatty acids reduce the risk of postpartum depression, manic-depressive psychosis, Alzheimer's diseases, high blood pressure and diabetes (Fidanbaş et al., 2015).
Many studies show that the risk of heart diseases and heart attack is closely related to EPA and DHA fatty acids (Fidanbaş et al., 2015). Fish oils rich in omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to have benefits such as lowering blood pressure, lowering blood density, regulating rhythm disorders, and lowering blood cholesterol (Mol, 2008).
Oily fish contain large amounts of long chain n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids; They contain EPA and DHA. It has been reported that the low incidence of coronary heart diseases in different populations that consume fish at a high rate is due to the protective effect of these types of fatty acids. For example; The mortality rate from coronary heart diseases was found to be very low in those who consumed large amounts of fish and whale meat (400-500 g/day, 14 g./day n-3 fatty acids) in England and fish eaters in Japan. 
30g per day in the Netherlands. Fish consumption is said to reduce the death rate from coronary heart diseases by 50%. In healthy subjects, there is a positive correlation between increased consumption of long-chain n-3 fatty acids and a decrease in serum concentration of triglycerides (Prichard et al., 1995).
In studies conducted on 2033 male patients with myocardial infarction, fatty fish (300g/week or 0.35g of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) reduced the overall mortality rate by 29% and death from coronary heart diseases by 1/3. Fish oil; lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and directs the interaction between blood pallets and vessel walls (Prichard et al., 1995).
It is known that n-3 fatty acid supplements reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but studies in this direction are mainly carried out on men. A study has shown that fish oils rich in n-3 fatty acids prevent the risk of CVD in postmenopausal women. 
In this study, 36 postmenopausal women (some of whom are also on hormone therapy) were told to regularly take eight capsules a day of fish oil supplements and a placebo. After 28 days, those who took fish oil had an average of 26% decrease in serum triglyceride levels and a 28% decrease in serum triglyceride ratio of HDL cholesterol. 
An average of 19% reduction was seen in women receiving hormone therapy, and an average of 36% in women who did not receive hormone therapy. Researchers say that the risk of CVD is reduced by 27% and they report that long-term fish oil intake is effective in this (Boyd, 2000).
The potential benefit of omega-3 supplements (EPA/DHA in fish oil concentrates) also plays an important role in modifications in serum lipid/lipoprotein levels and other important risk factors in postmenopausal women (with or without hormones) (Anonymous, 1998).
In a Canadian study, it was observed that garlic powder and fish oil supplement combinations caused positive changes on the lipoprotein profile in men with hypercholesterol. It is stated that the use of fish oil reduces triglyceride concentration, treats hyper-triglyceridemia and reduces risk factors in the treatment of thrombogenic diseases due to its tendency to increase LDL level. 
It is stated that the combination of these two elements (garlic and fish oil) is not a recommended practice in terms of its effect on cholesterol, which is one of the risk factors of coronary heart diseases, since garlic has the same therapeutic effect (Anonymous, 1997).
In a study, omega-3 fatty acids were used as an adjunct treatment in bipolar mood disorder (bipolar disorder), and omega-3 fatty acids were observed to be effective in bipolar disorders. Findings regarding schizophrenia are contradictory. Most of the evidence indicates that the most important effect is improvement in adverse symptoms (Maidment, 2000).
Dietary compositions known to reduce risk in chronic physical disorders may also be useful in the treatment of mental disorders. Early studies focused on the fact that omega-3 fatty acids may have anti-depressant and mood-regulating properties. The most abundant omega-3 fatty acid is ALA itself, which is found in canola oil, soybean, flaxseed, wheat germ, and fish. 
But some of the benefits attributed to omega-3 are; It is due to the two main derivatives, EPA and DHA, which are less common in the diets of modern industrial countries, including their effects on mental disorders. The most concentrated source is especially oily fish such as salmon, tuna and mackerel. The human body converts ALA to DHA and EPA in small amounts. Although there is insufficient evidence, the ratio of omega-6 fatty acids to omega-3 fatty acids in the diet is also important, especially when considering mood disorders. 
If the diet is poor in omega-3 fatty acids, their derivatives are replaced by omega-6 fatty acid derivatives in cell membranes, including in brain cells. 20% of brain weight contains EPAs and especially DHAs, play an important role in faulty signaling mechanisms in mental disorders including depression and bipolar disorder. There is some evidence of a linear relationship between omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratios in heart disease and dietary imbalances; these are seen to be higher than the average values ​​in people suffering from depression (Anonymous, 2001).
Two comprehensive studies were conducted to examine the relationship between nutrition and depression, and it was observed that people who ate fish were less depressed. 
A study published in 1998 described the link between national fish consumption and people with high rates of depression. A 2001 study of more than 3,000 Finnish adults, particularly among women, showed this link. These links do not prove that low intake of omega-3 fatty acids is the cause of depression, because the cultural, economic and hereditary characteristics of those who consume fish also play a role in depression. However, some clinical trials and studies show that this connection is more than a coincidence. 
Many studies have found low levels of omega-3 fatty acid derivatives or higher than average omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids in the blood cells of patients with depression. In one experiment, a mixture of EPA and DHA was observed to be beneficial in some patients with bipolar disorder. A comparative study was conducted in May 1999 with four months of sham therapy. In this study, patients were given daily supplements of EPA (6.2gr.) and DHA (3.4gr.) in addition to stabilizing drugs, and it was determined that these patients showed less depressive symptoms (Anonymous, 2001).
Recommended daily doses for omega-3 fatty acids have not yet been confirmed, researchers 100-200mg daily. DHA and 200-400mg. They state that EPA is sufficient for adults. This requirement is 50% higher in pregnant and lactating women. One serving of salmon contains 1 gram of EPA and 2 grams of DHA. The American Health Organization recommends consuming fish with limited amounts of saturated fat, at least two meals a week. It is stated that those who want to consume more and reduce depression can take 5-10 grams daily (Anonymous, 2001).
It has been reported in many places that there is a significant positive relationship between dietary fat intake and cancer death. However, fat intake is not always correlated and is stated to be specific to some organs. Because liver and stomach cancers do not generally correlate with fat intake. It is thought that the effects of dietary fat on cancer formation depend on the type and amount of fatty acids consumed (Karadeniz, 2001).
In laboratory studies, it has been shown that an increase in lipid intake, regardless of fat form, increases the frequency of tumor formation. While calorie restriction is effective in the inhibition of all types of tumors, it is clearly seen that the inhibition effect of dietary fat intake on tumor is much more selective. At least, polyunsaturated fats increase tumor formation more than saturated fats. On the other hand, it is interesting to see that epidemiological data reveal a strong positive association between cancer exposure and saturated fat intake, with little or no association with unsaturated fat intake. 
This difference between epidemiological and laboratory studies is said to be related to the minimum required amount of unsaturated fatty acids to increase tumorigenesis. 
Moreover, the total amount of calories may be more important than the source of calories. Recent findings on the protection afforded by n-3 fatty acids cast doubt on the generalization that all unsaturated fatty acids are equally effective. Although the initial stage of cancer has not been investigated in detail, it is reported that this stage is altered by the type and amount of fat consumed. 
It has been reported that changes in membrane fluidity, hormonal environment, immune system adequacy, formation of biological active intermediates or by-products of fatty acid metabolism may be the cause of cancer induction by lipids. In order to reduce the contribution of fat to total caloric intake (this ratio is 38% today, it should be 30% or lower) until more information is available. 
In summary, it is necessary to be cautious about the ratios of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids to be taken in a balanced way, until more precise information is obtained about the long-term benefits or risks of changing the dietary fatty acid ratios (Karadeniz, 2001).
Many recent studies show that n-3 and n-6 ​​PUFAs are effective on colorectal cancer. In vitro studies did not show effective differentiations between n-3 and n-6 ​​PUFAs (Dommels et al, 2002).
Studies in animal models have shown that n-6 PUFAs have an accelerating effect on tumorigenesis, with n-3 PUFAs dominating the environment during the post-initial phase. On the other hand, n-3 PUFAs may have a protective effect against colorectal cancer in both the initial and post-onset phases. Population-based studies show little or no association between n-6 or n-3 PUFA intake and colorectal cancer occurrence. In short-term biomarker studies in humans, it has been shown that fish oil supplements containing high amounts of n-3 PUFAs have a protective effect against colorectal cancer and that n-6 PUFA supplements may increase this risk. Epidemiological studies show a strong relationship between diet and cancer risk. 
For example; An increase in the death rate from colon cancer has been observed in people who immigrated from Japan to the United States. This is because western diets contain high levels of n-6 PUFAs (Linoleic Acid). Like the Japanese, the Inuit has a lower incidence of colon cancer. Both populations consume large amounts of fish (1000-3000mg/day), which is rich in n-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA). In fact, the rate of n-3 PUFA in western diets has been stated as 100 mg./day (Dommels et al, 2002).
Experimental studies show that dietary fish oils have a protective effect against colon cancer. In a study, the effects of mucosal membrane fatty acids and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and fish oils on rectal cell proliferation (biological intermediates determining cancer risk) were investigated on 12 healthy volunteers. Diets containing fish oil or corn oil as a test element, as well as a basic control diet, were administered in two to four week periods. According to the results obtained, it has been hypothesized that dietary fish oil has a protective effect against colon cancer (Bartram et al., 1993).
Long-chain PUFA deficiency has been observed in patients with advanced cirrhosis. In the treatment of such patients, it is recommended to follow a PUFA-rich diet and to consume PUFA-enriched oil capsules. It has been reported that this application has a protective effect in order to prevent worsening of liver dysfunction. In a study, dietary habits and plasma fatty acid compositions of cirrhotic patients living in two different regions in Japan were compared. 
The polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio was high and the n-6/n-3 ratio was found to be low in the region where people with high fish consumption and low consumption of milk and other daily products live. Fish consumption increases plasma DHA levels in patients with cirrhosis. Serious decreases in plasma DHA levels have been observed in patients with cirrhosis, a brain condition associated with jaundice, and since DHA is the most common fatty acid in phospholipids found in neural membranes; DHA plays an important role in the formation of hepatic encephaly. 
For this reason, it is stated that fish consumption may play a role in the prevention of this disease. Diets rich in DHA and EPA enrich plasma phospholipids with these fatty acids and simultaneously reduce arachidonic acid levels. Attenuation of the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid may be an important factor responsible for the low plasma level in liver cirrhosis. For these reasons, not only EPA and DHA but also AA supplements should be used to correct the plasma fatty acid profile of cirrhotic patients (Okita et al., 2002).
3 Conclusion and Recommendations
Today, especially in developed countries, people pay great attention to their nutrition and take care to choose foods suitable for health in their nutrition regimes. In particular, it tries to support healthy people by changing the diet, consuming foods enriched with certain nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and omega-3 fatty acids, or foods obtained by removing elements that are harmful to health (such as reduced salt, fat-free). In line with this need in the food industry, new product development practices come to the fore.
When Turkish culinary culture is considered in terms of gastronomy, the importance of Seafood in Gastronomy is quite high. It has a special place in terms of the presence of rich seafood, the richness of its nutritional content and its appeal to different tastes. Fishery products, which have been an indispensable part of our kitchens since ancient times, have increased their importance recently, especially in developed countries, as people pay close attention to their nutrition and take care to choose foods suitable for health in their diets. The fact that fish and other aquatic products are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids in their composition is the most prominent feature of this interest.
As a result of the researches (26-48%), it is clearly seen that fishery products are very important sources for PUFAs. In terms of health, positive effects are seen in terms of prevention and prevention of diseases. As a result of many studies, it has many positive contributions such as reducing the risk of death in cardiovascular diseases, positive effects on the immune system, positive effects in diseases such as cancer and AIDS, being useful in the treatment of disorders in mental diseases, lowering cholesterol, playing an important role in retinal and brain development, especially in premature babies. has.
In order for polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are so important for health, to be used more widely, the food industry is working to meet the need for n-3 essential fatty acids from these foods by enriching various foods with n-3 fatty acids. The omega-3 fatty acid contents of eggs, chicken meat, pork, beef, salami types and daily products can be increased by changes in the diets of animals. In addition, bread, pasta, soft drinks containing fruit juice, snacks, margarines can be given as examples of this type of food products.
The contribution of dishes prepared with fish caught in our seas or inland waters and other aquatic products to the local tastes of Turkish cuisine and Turkish gastronomy is undeniable. The contribution of seafood, which has taken its place in Turkish cuisine from past to present, is important in terms of gastronomy. It is of great importance to preserve and transfer the existence of traditional, seafood dishes in our local cuisines to future generations. In short, these values ​​need to be passed on to future generations and kept alive. For this purpose, food recipes need to be brought to light, modernized and passed on to future generations.
Considering the geographical location of our country, it is not desirable that the consumption of fishery products be less than expected. In this sense, special measures and practices should be brought to the agenda to increase the consumption of fishery products, especially considering their contributions to health and our culinary culture.
Anonymous (2015). Turkey Nutrition Guide (TUBER). TR Ministry of Health, Public Health Institution, 2016, Ankara. Republic of Turkey Ministry of Health Publication No: 1031.
Anonymous (1997). Combination of garlic powder and fish oil has a positive effect on lipids. Modern Medicine, June 97, Vol:65, Issue 6, p47, 4/5p,1c.
Anonymous (1998). Preventive Health (Nutrition), Women's Health Weekly, 09/21/98,22-24. Anonymous (2001). n-3 fatty acids in the treatment of depression. Harvard Mental Health
letter. Oct., Vol. 18, Issue 4.
Anonymous (2008). Omega-3Facts,“Heathy Living, the natural way” Web address:
http://www.omegaplus.nf.ca/fact4.htm Access Date: 13.04.2008.
Bağıran Özşeker, D. (2017). Functional foods. Ed. Assoc. Dr. Hulya is offended. Gastronomy
Trends Millennium and Beyond (151-177). Detail Publishing, Ankara.
Bartram, HP, Gostner, A., Scheppach, W. and Reddy, BS (1993). Effects of fish oil on rectal cell proliferation, mucosal fatty acids, and prostaglandin B release in healty subjects.
Gastroenterology, 105, 5, 1317 – 1322.
Boyd, L. (2000). Fish oil cuts cardiac risk in post menapousal women. RN., Oct.2000, Vol. 63,
Issue 10, 20.
BSGM (2018). Fisheries Statistics, Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock,
https://www.tarim.gov.tr/sgb/Belgeler/SagMenuVeriler/BSGM.pdf. Date of access:
Çılgınoğlu, H., Aliu, D., Aliu A. (2019) Spices in gastronomy and culinary art
and the use of aromatic herbs. https://ssrn.com/abstract=3304469
Locksmith, YA, (2012). Fatty acid and its importance in trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Centenary
Journal of the University of Science and Technology, 17(2):118-123.
Dal Bello, B., Torri, L., Piochi, M., Zeppa, G. (2015). Healthy yogurt fortified with n-3 fatty
acids from vegetable sources. J. Dairy Sci. 98:8375-8385.
Dikel, S., Demirkale, I. (2019). Gastronomy in seafood. International Science and Research
Congress (SR Congress) 08-10, February 2019.
Dommels-Yvonne, EM, Link-Gerrit, MA, Blanderen, PJ Van and Ommen, B. Van. (2002).
Dietry n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and colorectal carcinogenesis: results from cultured colon cells, animal models and human studies. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 11, 297 – 308.
Ekşi, A., Karadeniz, F. (1996) Food fortification approach and its application in Turkey. Diet Journal, 25(2): 47-51.
Eren, S. (2007). Turkish Cuisine and HACCP System; Measuring HACCP Knowledge of Culinary Professionals. 1st National Gastronomy Symposium (pp. 73-83). Antalya. Access date: 13.11.2020.
FAO (2018) Fisheries and aquaculture statistics. FAO Statistics, Yearbook 2018, pg:XVII. Fidanbaş, ZUC, Bilgin, S., Ertan, O.O. (2015). Amino acid – fatty acid content of some marine fish and their importance in terms of nutrition. Egirdir Faculty of Fisheries Journal, 11(2):45-59.
Chest, AK and Kolsarıcı, N. (1992). Aquaculture Technology. Ankara University Agriculture
Faculty Publications: 1243, Textbook: 358. Ankara. Karadeniz, F. Functional Foods, Ph.D. Lecture notes. (2001).
Kaya, Y., Duyar, HA and Erdem, ME (2004). Importance of fish fatty acids for human health. E.U. Journal of Fisheries, Vol 21, Issue (3-4): 365-370, 2004.
Kayahan, M. (1998). Food Chemistry, Chapter 3 Lipids. Hacettepe University publications, edt. Ilbilge Saldamli, 107-191.
Kayahan, M. (2001). Fat consumption and health I. Journal of Food Engineering, 4(9): 11-16 Maidment, ID (2000). Are fish oils an effective therapy in mental illness- an analysis of the data. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 102, 1, 3 – 9.
Martin RE and Flick GJ, (1990). The Seafood Industry. An Osprey Book. Published by Von Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Mol, S., (2008). Fish oil consumption and its effects on human health. Journal of Fisheries Science.com, 2(4):601-607.
Ogan, Y., Ceyhun Sezgin, AE (2019) Evaluation of additive antioxidants in terms of gastronomy. Artvin International Congress on Social Science (AICOSS 19) April 2019, Conference paper.
Okita, M. and Sasagawa T., (2002). Habitual intake and polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency in liver cirrosis. Nutrition 18:304-308.
Osman, H., Suriah, AR and Law, EC (2001). Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of selected marine fish in Malaysia waters.Food Chemistry, 738, 55 – 60.
Öksüz, A., Alkan, S.B., Taşkın, H., Ayrancı, M. (2018). The importance of fish consumption for a healthy and balanced diet throughout life. Food and Health, 4(1):43-62.
Oney, H. (2016). An Evaluation on Gastronomy Education. Selcuk University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 193-203.
Özçelik, MM (2016) Some functional foods of plant origin. Journal of Biological Sciences Research. 9 (1): 57-68.
Prichard, BNC and Ling, KLE (1995). Fish oils and cardiovascular disease. British Medical Journal. 310, 6983, 819-820.
Samancı, Ö., (2008) Distinguished Ottoman Cuisine at the Center of Change; Istanbul and Ottoman Palace Culinary Culture in the Last Period of the Empire. https://eresearch.ozyegin.edu.tr/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10679/5812/19.%20y%C3% BCzy%C4%B1l%20%C4%B0stanbul%20ve%20Osmanl%C4%B1%20Saray 20%Kitchen%20 K%C3%BClt%C3%BCr%C3%BC.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y, Accessed on 19.11.2020
Shahidi, F. and Botta, JR (1994). Sea Foods: Chemistry, Processing Technology and Quality. Blackie Academic and Professional. Chapman & Hall.
Sikorski, Z.E. (1990). Seafood: Resources, Nutritional Composition, and Preservation. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, P. 288, Florida. 41-44.
Simopoulos, AP (2000). Human requirement for n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. PoultrySci. 79, 7, 961 – 970.
Driveroglu, MS, Ozcelik, A.O. (2015) Historical development of Turkish cuisine and nutrition culture. https://www.ayk.gov.tr/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/S%c3%9cR%c3 %9cC%c3%9cO%c4%9eLU-Metin-Saip-%c3%96Z%c3 %87EL%c4%b0K-Ay %c5%9fe- %c3%96zfer-T%c3%9cRK-KITCHEN-AND-NUTRITION-K%c3%9c LT%c3%9cR%c3%9cN%c3%9cN-TAR %c4%b0HSEL-GEL%c4%b0%c5%9e %c4%b0M%c4%b0.pdf, Accessed on 19.11.2020
Şengör, GFÜ., & Ceylan, Z. (2018) Aquaculture culture and its importance in Turkish cuisine. Acta Aquatica Turcica, 14 (4), 386-398. DOI: 10.22392/egir.414488
Turan, H., Kaya, Y. and Sonmez, G. (2006). Nutritional value of fish meat and its place in human health. E. U. Journal of Fisheries, 23, Appendix (1/3): 505-508.
Varlık, C., Erkan, N., Özden, Ö., Mol, S. and Baygar, T. (2004). Fisheries processing technology, Istanbul 2004. Istanbul University Publication No: 4465, Faculty of Fisheries No: 7.
Yazıcıoğlu, İ and Özata, E. (2018). Perceptions of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts Department Academic Staff towards Curriculum. 4th International Congress of Culture and Civilization, Congress Full Text Book, 65-74.
As the head chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR , I see the source:
Ms. I sincerely thank Nurten BEYTER for her academic studies titled "The Importance of Seafood for Health and Its Place in Gastronomy" and wish you success in your professional life . It will definitely be considered as an example by those who need it in professional kitchens, related research and in the world of gastronomy.
*** You can contact me through my contact information for more information on the subjects specified by labeling, taking into account my professional background in the above article, and to get support for Gastronomy Consulting in the titles within my Service Areas. ***
Turkish Cuisine Chefs, Turkish Chef, Restaurant Consultancy, Kitchen Consultancy.