• Anatolian cuisine culture
  • Anatolian cuisine culture
  • Anatolian cuisine culture
  • Anatolian cuisine culture

Hunter Gatherer Nutrition Process: It is the process from the appearance of man on earth to the settled order (Neolithic Period). In this process, people provided their nutrition by eating the plants and animals they collected from nature and hunted. After the First Settlement in Anatolia...

Development Of Traditional Anatolian Cuisine Culture From Past To Present...
Galip AKIN,
Man has met his nutritional needs in various ways from past to present. Accordingly, we can evaluate the emergence and development of the Traditional Anatolian Culinary Culture, which constitutes our subject, in 5 main groups.
1- Hunter Gatherer Nutrition Process: It is the process from the appearance of man on earth to the settled order (Neolithic Period). In this process, people provided their nutrition by eating the plants and animals they collected from nature and hunted.
2- After the First Settlement in Anatolia (9-8 thousand years ago BC),
The Process Until the MSX Century; In this process, many settlements and states were established in Anatolia. The most important of these are Hattians , Hittites and Urartians. The main products of their diet were cereals and cereal products, legumes, and sheep, goats, cattle and poultry.
3- Anatolian Seljuks and Principalities Period: The information about the culinary cultures of the Seljuks, who came and settled in Anatolia in large groups, especially since 1041, was given by Mahmud of Kashgar. Divanu Lügati't Türk (1072), by Yusuf Has Hacip We can find it in Kutatgu Bilig (XI. Century), Mevlana's works (Mesnevi, Divan-ı Kebir, Mektübat , Mecalis - i Seb'a , XIII. Century) and Dede Korkut stories that were written in the 14th century. In this period, the culinary culture brought from Central Asia became integrated with the cultures of the people settled in Anatolia.
4- Ottoman Empire Period: This period covers the period from the foundation of the Ottoman Empire (1299) to the foundation of the Turkish Republic (1923). In parallel with the development of the Ottoman Empire, the culinary culture also developed. In the kitchen, the cooks contributed to the enrichment of the Ottoman Culinary Culture by competing with each other in order to prepare the dishes that would be pleasing to the sultan and the dignitaries of the palace, and to make the feasts more spectacular.
5- Republican Period (1923-Present): Although the sources related to Anatolian culinary culture belong to Istanbul cuisine in the beginning, we can say that it has developed and enriched over time with the increase in communication due to economic and technological developments. Depending on the development, regional dishes have become known in other regions as well.
Today, the traditional Anatolian Culinary Culture has been affected more by technological developments.
Refining of oils , replacement of butter and tallow with margarines, intensive use of sugar instead of honey and molasses as sweetener, use of white flour instead of whole wheat flour by purifying wheat, introduction of canned foods, food additives and sweeteners into the kitchen, changes in cooking tools Reasons such as the introduction of GMO products to the market are the main factors that play a role in the change of Traditional Culinary Culture .
It is possible for a person to grow, develop, reproduce and perform all kinds of activities as desired, only if he obtains sufficient energy. Like every living thing, human beings obtain the energy they need from the foods they live in. Nutrients that are essential for life and found in our food make up our food. Getting the nutrients that a person needs is called nutrition. Nutrition is the ability of a person to take the nutrients they need in a regular and balanced way according to their genetic and body characteristics, gender, age, working style and environmental conditions such as climate, topographic structure and altitude.
More than 50 nutrients needed by humans are found in nature. More than 50 nutrients necessary for human life are collected in six main groups as proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and water. While a person needs some of these nutrients in terms of 20-25 grams (for example, protein), some in milligrams (calcium), and some in micrograms (copper), an adult person needs an average of 2-2.5 liters of water per day. The amount of need for these nutrients varies from person to person and depending on conditions ( Nussbaum , 2005; Applegate , 2010; Baysal, 2012).
In order for our body to benefit from these nutrients, it must first be digested and taken into the tissues and cells. Some of these nutrients taken into our body serve as constructive-repairing (for example, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, water), some as energizers (proteins, fats, carbohydrates) , and some as regulators (vitamins, water and minerals) (Akın, 2010).
In order for our body to benefit from nutrients in the desired way, it must receive these nutrients in a sufficient and balanced manner. When the nutrients are taken less or more, or when it is spoiled and unhygienic, disruptions in all kinds of vital activities, regressions in growth and development begin to be seen. For example, when nutrients are taken less, the body becomes weak. Since the immune system is weakened, many disruptions in the body follow each other.
When the nutrients are taken in excess, many problems arise. First of all, energy-giving foods accumulate in the body by turning into fat and cause obesity ( obesity ). Obesity causes the internal balance of the body ( homeostasis ) to deteriorate and is the cause and trigger of many malfunctions. For this reason, regular and balanced nutrition and the intake of nutrients into the body with the desired properties are indispensable for a healthy, quality and long-lasting life .
The Importance of Obtaining and Preparing Foods for a Healthy and Quality Life
For a healthy and quality life, the process from growing food in the field to reaching our table is of great importance. In order to obtain a quality food, the plant foods to be grown must be clean and suitable, from quality seeds and good and well-maintained fields to the air and water of the place where the field is located. Again, the effects of the processes from harvesting, collection and storage of the grown product to the cleanness, quality and freshness of the product are indisputable. On the other hand , the method of preparation of the food from these foods, the amount of nutrients put in the food and their ratios relative to each other are also effective on the taste of the food.
Here, starting from the pots in which the food is cooked, the temperature and duration of cooking the food on the fire also have a great influence on the appearance and taste of the food. Even the preparation of the table, its appearance, and even the environment in which the food is eaten are indisputable. For example, because the food to be cooked is not hygienic or has lost its freshness, that food will not give its true taste and smell no matter what conditions it is made.
When we cannot adjust the ratio of salt, tomato paste, oil and water with the main food to be added to the meal, the meal (cooking) will lose its taste again, and we will not be able to taste it. Even when we cook the food over high heat and in thin containers, we cannot get the real taste of the food. Especially if we overcook and burn the food, it may even be harmful rather than beneficial. We cannot expect the food to be delicious and healthy if some parts of the food are eaten by pests or are dusty and soiled (Akın, 2010; Alparslan, 2010).
The situation is not different for animal foods. All conditions, from the feed that the butchery animals eat, to the air, water, soil and barns of the places where they are fed, have a direct effect on the quality of the meat of the animals. If the grass that animals eat, the structure of the soil they grow, the water and air of the place where the animals grow are not clean, we cannot say that their meat is healthy and fresh (Altuğ, 2009; Applegate , 2010).
Today, it has become almost impossible to find healthy and fresh plant food due to the excessive amount of artificial fertilizers, growth hormones and antibiotics given to plants. The same can be said for some animals. More interestingly, the growing prevalence of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) gives the impression that it is almost impossible to obtain healthy and natural food from these plants and animals. From these explanations we made briefly, we can say that one of the basic conditions of a healthy, quality and long-lasting life is a regular and balanced diet ( Adizel et al., 2010).
Importance of Cooking Method in Nutrition
We can easily say that the method of cooking has a direct effect on the appearance, taste and smell of the food. In addition, the effect on the nutritional value of the food cannot be ignored. In the selection of the foods to be included in the meal, the suitability, type and amount of the foods should be adjusted so that the appearance, taste and smell of the meal should be specific to that meal. In other words, the nutrients should be able to become a unique meal by affecting each other.
In addition to its unique appearance, taste and smell, such a dish is easy to digest (Baysal, 2002). The fact that the pot in which the food is cooked is made of copper, bronze, aluminum, steel, enamel, ceramics and clay, their thickness and the ingredients in their preparation are also effective in the quality of the food. Cooking the food in the pot in wood, charcoal, lignite coal, bottled gas or natural gas also affects the appearance, taste and smell of the food . In addition, the fact that the fire is hot or low and the cooking time on the fire has a great effect on the quality of the food (Akın, 2012; Baysal, 2012).
Development Process of Traditional Anatolian Culinary Culture
Humans need to be fed in order to survive. In general terms, the kitchen is the place where the nutritional needs of a person are met, and even the term that expresses the nutritional need. The way of meeting the nutritional needs of man from the first time he was seen on earth to the present day has survived through many stages and gradually developed in accordance with the place and lifestyle of every society.
In the beginning, only a hunter-gatherer culture shaped the way of life for a very long time, but after the settled order, culinary cultures emerged depending on the environmental conditions and development levels of the societies. Especially in the last 100-150 years, the spread of industrialization in the world and the facilitation of communication have increased the trend towards globalization in nutrition ( Uhri , 2011; Özbek, 2013).
The nutritional needs of human beings have been met in various ways from the beginning to the present day. The emergence and development of the Traditional Anatolian Culinary Culture, which is the subject of this study, can be examined by basically dividing it into 5 groups.
1. Hunter - Gatherer Feeding Process
It covers the process from the appearance of man on earth to the settled order (Neolithic Period). In this process, which took a long time, all people in the world obtained their food by collecting plants and animals in nature or hunting in order to continue their lives. By gaining experience over time, they learned the foods that are beneficial to them and diversified their meal menus. By starting to use fire consciously, they managed to live in the cool and cold parts of the world, and they also made their lives easier by cooking the plants and animals they collected and hunted.
In this process, they obtained their food by collecting or hunting plants and animals that could be food for them in the environment they lived in and continued their lives in difficult natural conditions ( Sahlins , 2010; Merdol Kutluay, 2012).
2. The Process from the First Settlement in Anatolia ( 9 - 8 thousand years BC) to the ADX Century
At the beginning of the Neolithic Period, with the settlement of humans, they managed to domesticate grains such as wheat, barley and lentils from plants, and pigs, goats and sheep from animals. Over time, by domesticating chickpeas, corn, bean, deer, cattle, chicken and others, it has expanded its food menu with each passing day. During this period, it has learned to store it for times when food is not available ( Bellwood , 2008).
As the food menu expanded, the culinary culture specific to the region continued to be formed and diversified as societies began to tame and breed plants and animals specific to the places they live. The local cuisine culture has been enriched over the centuries, especially with the success of making pottery from clay and starting to store the food in special food storage wells. Later, with the introduction of copper, bronze and iron, and the inclusion of wooden pots, the culinary cultures of the regions have diversified and enriched (Özer et al., 2010; Driveroğlu and Özçelik, 2011).
Anatolia has different microclimate features with its different topographic structure . In addition, Anatolian Culinary Culture continued to diversify and enrich with the interaction of many different local and immigrant communities in the long term (Arıhan, 2010).
In this process, many small or large, regional or widespread communities and states lived in Anatolia. The societies that lived in order in this process are as follows: Hattians (2500-630 BC), Hittites (2000-1200 BC), Persians (2000 BC - 651 AD), Phrygians (1200 BC ) 7th century BC), Urartians (900-600 BC), Lydians (700-547 BC), Romans (1st century BC - AD 476), Byzantines (395 -AD) 1453).
to give information about the culinary cultures of these states that lived in Anatolia , both in terms of technique and time. However, let's give an example of the culinary culture of the Hittites, who lived in Anatolia for a long time and spread more widely, and we have more information about their nutritional culture (Belli, 2011; Arıhan, 2012).
Nutrition in the Hittites
Kitchens and dining halls have been identified in palaces and temples in their capital, Boğazköy. Stoves and ovens were found in their homes for their food and bread baking needs. The Hittites had a rich variety of foods and foods. In particular, there are many flour products such as bread, pies and donuts. Nearly 180 flour products are mentioned in Hittite texts. Various pottery pots were also found in their houses .
Among domestic animals, cattle, sheep, goats and pigs were fed, respectively. Deer, roe deer, wild sheep, wild goat, wild boar and rabbit were hunted from wild animals. Duck and partridge were hunted mostly from birds. It is understood that the Hittites ate less meat than the previous societies. Fishing did not occupy an important place in the Hittites. They made cheese, cottage cheese and butter from the animal milk they fed. Halanye slurry made from slurry in a tablet was introduced as a royal dish.
In addition, the expression "5 pieces of cheese bread" in a ritual text brings to mind that the bread was made with cheese additives.
During the Hittites period, wheat, barley, beans, pea varieties, lentils, chickpeas, vetch, onions, cucumbers, leeks, cabbage, garlic, cumin, sesame, grapes, apples, apricots, hawthorn, pistachios, dates, cherries, pomegranates, olives were grown.
Oil and honey had a very special place in the Hittites . Anatolia pioneered Mesopotamia in beekeeping and honey production, just as it did in winemaking.
The cuisines and culinary cultures of the Hittites had a rich diversity compared to their period (Arıhan, 2012; Şensoy, 2012).
3. Anatolian Seljuks ( 1077 - 1308) and Principalities
( 1227 - 1521) Period
Some of the Great Seljuk Empire communities established in Asia came and settled in Anatolia in groups at intervals. Especially in 1041, a large group came and settled. After the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, a large part of Anatolia passed into the hands of the Seljuks and in 1077 the Anatolian Seljuk State was established. With the settlement of Seljuks in Anatolia, information about culinary cultures began to take place in written sources.
The most important source of these is the Divan-u Lügati-t Türk of Kaşgarlı Mahmud . In this work, the basic foods of the Seljuks, their cooking methods and the recipes of some dishes are given. At the same time (11th century), Yusuf Has Hacip 's work Kutadgu Bilig contains information about the ceremony, feast and table setting. Also XIII. The works of Mevlana, who lived in the 19th century, are also important sources. One of the sources belonging to the Seljuks is XIV. Dede Korkut Stories, which were written down at the end of the century. According to these sources, the culinary culture brought from Central Asia during the Seljuk period began to integrate with the cultures of the previously settled societies in Anatolia.
Sheep comes first among the animals whose meat is eaten by the Seljuks. This is followed by goats and cattle. The liver, heart, kidneys, head, tripe and intestines of slaughtered animals were also cooked in a well called tandoor (made of stone or clay) and over fire. The remaining meat of the animal was roasted in the fire to be eaten in the future, filled into cubes and covered with the melted fat of the animal. Another storage method was to dry the shredded bony meat of the animal by hanging it on tree branches and use it to make a stew (such as chickpea, bean stew) in winter (Baysal, 2012).
Sheep, cow, goat and mare were fed as dairy animals. Yogurt, ayran, kefir, kurut, kumiss and cheese were made from milk. Kumys made from mare's milk was very well known in Seljuk and Asian societies. Butter was obtained by churning excess yogurt in churns made of animal skin or wood. The remaining buttermilk was made into toyga vaccine and soup. By adding some salt to the remaining buttermilk and boiling it, cottage cheese (kes) is obtained. Excess yoghurt was used to make egg-sized lumps in the open air, dried, dried, soaked in water and softened in winter, and used to make soups and meals (Arıhan, 2012).
Among the vegetable foods of the Anatolian Principalities established after the Seljuk and later, wheat and barley are among the grains. Ears of unripe wheat were ironed over fire and then beaten and eaten. Ripe wheat is collected and beaten at the threshing floor with a heifer drawn by horses and oxen. Part of the wheat separated from its chaff by blowing is moistened slightly in stone mortars and beaten with wooden mallets, and splitting (beating) is obtained by separating it from the wheat bran.
This split toyga was used to make vaccine, soup with yoghurt, keskek and ashure. After the wheat was cleaned, boiled and dried, bulgur was obtained by breaking it between two stones rotated by hand or water power. Wheat was ground into flour by finer grinding in these mills. After the wheat flour was mixed with water and turned into dough, it was rolled out in different thicknesses with a rolling pin and baked on a sheet to make phyllo dough, sebit , katmer and flatbread. In Divan-u Lügati-t Türk, the words bread, yufka, katmer as well as casserole, skewer, sheet are found. After the wheat and barley were crushed, they were fermented in the dough that had been waiting, and boza was made (Kaşgarlı Mahmut, 1989).
Seljuknames written during the Seljuk and Anatolian Principalities that pilafs, boranis, stews, kebabs, helise, as well as sherbets, soups, holding, tirit, slurry, bread and vegetable dishes, halva and kadayif are given.
It is known that fruits such as apples, plums, grapes and quince are grown from fruits, and that they are both eaten fresh and dried and then made into compotes with juicy molasses in winter, called kak. Light desserts such as flour halva, almond halva, zerde and paluze were made from molasses. Honey and molasses were used as sweeteners. Vinegar and wine were also made from grapes.
Among the vegetables, eggplant, spinach, radish, turnip, carrot have been known and used in the kitchen since ancient times. In the spring months, kiwi, manger, watermelon, töhmeken were collected from fields and gardens and eaten.
While legumes and lentils have been known since Central Asia, chickpeas and beans took place in Seljuk cuisine after they settled in Anatolia. Spices are thought to have come from the Arabian Culinary Culture to the Seljuks Erdoğan, 2010); (Arıhan, 2012, Baysal, 2012.
4. Ottoman Empire Period ( 1299 - 1922)
During this period of approximately 623 years, the Ottoman Palace and the rich mansions of the period played an important role in the development and diversification of the Ottoman Cuisine. Especially during the reign of Mehmet the Conqueror, the kitchen and its annexes were enlarged, and the cooks competed with each other to produce dishes that would please the sultan and those in the palace, and to make the banquets given in the palace more spectacular, and contributed to the enrichment of the Ottoman Cuisine .
According to the writings of foreign observers, in the feast given for the ambassadors in the palace during the reign of Fatih, meat and meat dishes, especially rice, various vegetable dishes, desserts and sweet sherbets were served. Seasoned soup, lamb kebab, tandoori kebab, fried chicken, artichoke stew, leaf wrap, stuffed eggplant, stuffed apple with meat, stuffed egg, rice pilaf, noodles, cheese pie, baklava, apricot compote, rice pudding, asure and various dishes served in the mansions. syrups are included.
Cumin, saffron, mustard, coriander and cinnamon are among the most used spices in the Ottoman Empire. Mint, parsley, basil, basil, garlic, onion, and tomato paste and pepper were used in the years after the discovery of America (1492) in palace, mansion and public cuisine. In foundation soup kitchens built to feed the hungry, soup, meat and vegetable dishes, and rice were usually served alongside bread.
During Ramadan and Friday , sweets such as honey dessert, halva and zerde were added to them and presented to the poor.
As a result of the Ottomans' increasing communication with Europe, dishes such as noodles, dolma, wrap, yoghurt, ayran and baklava began to be seen in Europe. On the other hand, cake entered the Ottoman Empire from France and pasta from Italy. After the discovery of America, foods such as tomatoes, peppers, turkey, potatoes and corn entered the Ottoman diet.
After the discovery of America, with the introduction of foods such as tomatoes, peppers, potatoes, corn and turkey, whose homeland is America, into the Ottoman cuisine, the variety in the dishes also increased Öztürk, 1999; Driveroglu , 1999) (Baysal, 2012).
5th Republic Period ( 1923 - Present)
In the first years of the Republic, dishes specific to certain regions were preserved due to the inadequacy of communication and technological developments. In addition, in the first years of the Republic, written sources about Turkish cuisine mostly consisted of Istanbul cuisine.
Meals in the Republic of Turkey are the dishes formed by the blending and interaction of the culinary cultures of all communities and states that have lived in Anatolia before. It is unthinkable that previous societies and states did not affect the next culinary culture. Because it is inevitable that societies living together in the same place for a long time will be affected by each other. Olive oil, obtained from olives grown in the Aegean and Mediterranean Regions, as in tomatoes, peppers, potatoes, corn, and turkey , was used in the dishes made in palace and mansion kitchens, then it became widespread by taking place in restaurants and public kitchens, and olive oil started to be used in dishes in almost every region.
As communication and technological developments increased, the dish that was unique to a region could be made using a certain way of cooking or different sweeteners, and could even be named differently (Baysal, 2002; Merdol Kutluay, 2012).
On the other hand, developments in education and technology have affected the Traditional Anatolian Culinary Culture in various ways. Namely, depending on the development of oil refining techniques, it started to use margarine and flower oils instead of butter and tallow, sugar instead of honey and molasses, white flour instead of whole wheat flour. The introduction of canned, prepared foods and food additives has affected culinary culture.
After the eighties, the use of growth hormones, antibiotics and excessive artificial fertilizers in plant and animal breeding continued. Especially since 1996, the production of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) all over the world and the gradual increase played a negative role in terms of both nutrition and the preservation and continuation of Traditional Anatolian Culinary Culture.
In addition, the use of excessive sauce, ketchup, ready-to-eat foods, food additives and sweeteners, the use of cooking tools such as natural gas, tube gas, and electric ovens to store the dishes and cook the dishes were effective in the change of the Traditional Anatolian Culinary Culture and created significant difficulties in its preservation (Baysal, 2007). 2002; Adızel et al., 2010; Kiple, 2010).
The Reasons for the Richness of Traditional Anatolian Culinary Culture
Traditional Anatolian Culinary Culture has emerged as a result of hundreds or even thousands of years of efforts. This is the undeniable share of many communities that came from the beginning at different times and times. Because the culinary culture of each of the communities from different places and different times influenced the development of Anatolian Culinary Culture and played an important role in its diversification.
Turkey has a geographically different topographic structure. Altitude changes even in short distances, the structure of the soil may be different in different regions depending on the geological structure. Different climates can occur in short distances due to the change of topographic structure. As a result of these , very different plants and animals can grow in places with different topographic structure, altitude and climate. This situation explains the reason for the originality and richness of the Traditional Anatolian Cuisine Culture. The most striking proof of this is that about 3 thousand of the 12 thousand flowering plant species in Anatolia are endemic (specific to Anatolia) (Baysal, 2002; Akın, 2010).
Importance of Traditional Anatolian Culinary Culture in terms of Nutrition
Plants planted or grown in ancient times, when Traditional Culinary Culture was widespread, were natural plants that were adapted to that region because they were produced in that region for hundreds or even thousands of years. Since the animals fed for their meat, milk, eggs and skin also ate natural plants adapted to the region and roamed in the clean countryside, their meat, milk and eggs were healthy, natural and nutritious. The processes for the collection and storage of the obtained nutrients retained their appearance, structure and contents, as they were processed by hand and natural processes, preserved and stored in jars, wooden barns and food storage wells.
Cooking the dishes slowly in wood or charcoal in pots made of clay, porcelain, thick, tinned copper and because the natural structure of the food was preserved, the appearance, taste and smell of the dishes were pleasant and beautiful. Flavoring and aromatic plants such as onions, garlic, lemons, tomatoes, peppers, oil, salt, mint, parsley, thyme, leaves and red pepper added to the meals were also hygienic and fresh as they were grown in natural environments in that region. Fertilizers from domestic animals, known as natural fertilizers, were used as fertilizers. The soil, air, and water of the environment in which the breeders were raised played a fundamental role in ensuring that the food was pleasant-looking, fragrant and sweet (Özer et al., 2010; Akın, 2011).
Today, the fact that the soil, water and air in the environment where plants and animals are grown are not as clean as desired prevents the foods from being healthy, delicious and fragrant at the beginning. Since the environment where the plants and animals we grow for food are grown is polluted, the polluted air, water and soil in the environment accumulate harmful and toxic substances in the bodies of plants and animals over time, and when we use them as food, we take these polluted and harmful substances into our bodies. Due to these harmful and toxic substances that accumulate over time, we see harm instead of benefit (Çepel, 2008; Akın, 2009).
Especially after the second half of the 20th century, artificial fertilizers, which we started to use more, and the spread of pesticides used against parasites in plant and animal breeding, reduced the nutritional quality of the nutrients obtained from them. Later, the use of growth hormones and antibiotics, food additives for the sake of obtaining greater amounts of nutrients, further adversely affected the quality, flavor and odor of the food.
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), which have been used as food in increasing amounts since 1996, have made it difficult to find healthy and delicious food. On the other hand, the increasing air, water, soil pollution, the use of unhealthy cooking utensils and the use of bottled gas and natural gas have made it almost impossible to grow healthy food, cook healthy food, and eat naturally.
can show the acute and chronic effects of diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, and Alzheimer 's, which are becoming increasingly widespread in all societies and reaching alarming proportions, the biggest visible proof of our inability to eat healthy. We can all observe that all hospitals are always full, although the number of hospitals is increasing day by day, more than the population growth.
2.5 million years that has passed from the appearance of man on earth to the present day is beyond all kinds of appreciation. Especially from the beginning until the beginning of the Neolithic Period (9-8 thousand years BC) , when it settled down, it continued its life as a hunter-gatherer in purely natural conditions. There has been an increasing improvement and development in the quality of life, depending on the improvements in living conditions and the development of the technological level since it was settled.
The most important element that determines the quality of life and ensures the continuation of life is nutrition. A creature that cannot feed successfully cannot continue its life. Nutrition in the history of humanity can also be evaluated by dividing it into different stages depending on the knowledge and technological level of societies and the conditions of the place where they live.
Traditional Anatolian Culinary Culture can be analyzed by dividing it into 5 main phases from the beginning to the present day. It has been observed that the traditional Anatolian Culinary Culture is shaped by the unique characteristics of each period, depending on the development levels and environmental conditions of the societies living in Anatolia. The hunting-gathering period, which is the first period, is similar almost all over the world. The following periods showed changes and developments depending on the environmental conditions in which societies lived and the knowledge and technological level reached. Traditional Anatolian Culinary Culture has developed and shaped according to these conditions.
We can easily say that the most striking feature of these periods is that those with high income living in palaces and mansions are fed with foods of higher quality and high nutritional value. The majority of the people were fed with the foods they could find in the environment and flour and bakery products formed an important part of their food diet. Almost every period, we see that the majority of the people have not been fed regularly and adequately ( Driveroğlu , 1999; Yılmaz, 2004).
With the development of communication and technology, excessive population growth in our country and all over the world, unplanned industrialization, the use of excessive artificial fertilizers and pesticides have brought environmental pollution to the agenda at a global level. Since it is aimed to obtain more products to feed the increasing population in recent years, giving growth hormones and antibiotics to plants and animals, adding food additives to foods have made it difficult to eat healthy. Since the last 18 years, the increasing use of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) has made it impossible to have a healthy and high quality diet. The most obvious proof of this is that there is hardly an adult individual without any health problems in the society.
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As the head chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR, I see the source:
Mr. I sincerely thank Galip AKIN, Vahdet ÖZKOÇAK, Timur GULTEKIN1 for their academic studies titled "Development Of Traditional Anatolian Cuisine Culture From Past To Present" and wish them success in their professional lives. It will definitely be considered as an example by those who need it in professional kitchens and the gastronomy and culinary community.
The original text, which is accepted as a source, is as follows. Google translation was used for the necessary language change.
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