• The Importance of Street Tastes in Gastronomy Tourism
  • The Importance of Street Tastes in Gastronomy Tourism
  • The Importance of Street Tastes in Gastronomy Tourism
  • The Importance of Street Tastes in Gastronomy Tourism
  • The Importance of Street Tastes in Gastronomy Tourism

As seen in the definitions, although they are mostly seen as flavors sold on the streets, some food and beverage businesses make a difference by including these flavors in their menus. Even food and beverage businesses that offer only street flavors have started to take place..

What is the Importance of Street Tastes in Gastronomy Tourism?
Street delicacies, one of the important components of food culture, have become a trend in many parts of the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) treats street foods as food and beverages consumed at the time of sale or after sale, by presenting to consumers the food prepared in advance or at the point of sale in streets and similar public spaces (WHO, 1996). The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), on the other hand, defined street food as “ready-to-eat food and beverages that are fixed at one point in streets and similar public spaces or are prepared and sold by peddlers” (FAO, 2009). 
As seen in the definitions, although they are mostly seen as flavors sold on the streets, some food and beverage businesses make a difference by including these flavors in their menus. Even food and beverage businesses that offer only street flavors have started to take place in the sector. Apart from this, various festivals are organized for street delicacies and it is made an attraction especially for gastro tourists. In this section, street delicacies, the history of street delicacies, examples of street delicacies from the world and Turkey are given and evaluated within the scope of gastronomic tourism.
Street Flavors
Street delicacies include ready-to-eat foods sold in bazaars, markets and streets. Street flavors, which have a place in the food culture of many countries , attract consumers to experience these flavors with their rich options and diversity (Kyung and Jee, 2021). Steyn and Labadarios (2011) study street food; divided into four basic categories as snacks, meals, fruits and beverages. The World Health Organization, on the other hand, taking into account the place where street delicacies are prepared; small-scale business or traditional workshops, at home, in the market place and made the food prepared in the streets. 
In line with the definitions and classifications made, it is seen that street flavors include food and beverage providers other than markets and restaurant businesses. Considering these classifications, all food and beverages that can be bought from the counters of vendors such as fruits, beverages, snacks, as well as cooked and processed foods are included in street flavors (Karsavuran, 2018).
Street delicacies sold on busy streets with wheelbarrows, fixed counters, kiosks, boats or motor vehicles; Sometimes it is sold at a certain time and place, and sometimes it can be sold in different places and at different times depending on the regions where the crowd is dense, such as event and festival areas. At the same time, due to the fact that social activities continue until late in urban settlements, there are also vendors serving only during these hours (Henderson, 2017). Street vendors place their stalls under an easily accessible roof on the street or outdoors, and these delicacies are usually served with simple equipment such as disposable forks, knives and glasses.
Looking at the global research, it is known that 2.5 billion people consume street delicacies every day. With the impact of events such as urbanization and population growth, the consumption of street delicacies and the number of street food vendors are increasing in many countries. Street food vendors start this business at a lower cost compared to other businesses and usually with family members. The most important factor that enables street food vendors to start this business is the idea of ​​earning high income with low capital investment (Solunoğlu and Nazik, 2018; Henderson, 2019).
Consumption of street delicacies varies according to countries or regions. These flavors, which are consumed by many countries, are consumed with interest by many people, especially in countries such as North America, thanks to the new street flavors brought by both tourists and immigrant food vendors (Choe and Kim, 2018). In Southeast Asian countries such as Singapore, Thailand and Malaysia, street flavors are thought to be an effective factor in the country's economy. Managers and officials in these countries accept the street flavors unique to the region as an important touristic resource and carry out various social, cultural and economic studies to increase the positive effect of street flavors on regional tourism. 
At the same time, street foods in these regions meet a large part of the daily food needs of low- and middle-income local people (Chavarria and Phakdee-auksorn, 2017). According to a study conducted in Bangkok (Thailand); 67% of the locals cook at home only once a day and consume at least one or two meals of street food every day (Fellows and Hilmi, 2011). Restaurants and street food vendors in Thailand are located in such a way that tourists and locals can easily reach them. This is due to the fact that local people meet most of their food needs with these street delicacies due to reasons such as intense work tempo and limited time. thai vendors,
Street flavors; In addition to many advantages such as providing employment to women and disabled individuals, being easily accessible and affordable, there are also disadvantages such as difficulty in tracking unregistered sellers, environmental pollution and food poisoning. The most important of these disadvantages is the threats that street flavors pose to public health. The fact that street food vendors do not comply with the hygiene rules or do not have sufficient knowledge about hygiene also brings about food-borne diseases. At this point, with the administrative and legal regulations to be made by governments, training should be given to street food vendors, and the production and sales process of foods should be brought under control with mandatory inspections (Privitera and Nesci, 2015; İrigüler, Öztürk and Güven, 2016; Henderson, 2017). government in countries such as Malaysia or Singapore; It has set standards for street tastes and has managed to control the street food industry by training food vendors (Chavarria and Phakdee-auksorn, 2017).
Some countries have developed various projects related to street food. National and local authorities in Thailand developed a street food project in 1994 to increase the safety of street food, and within the scope of the project, street vendors were trained by experts on personal hygiene, cleaning of the equipment used, methods of preservation of food, and environmental cleaning. After the trainings, field officers regularly inspected the food vendors. 
According to the results obtained with the completion of the project, the fact that food sales were made in a clean environment created consumer satisfaction, which motivated street vendors to comply with hygiene and sanitation rules in order to increase the safety of street food (FAO, 1994). In Turkey, the “Taste Points Project” was developed by Adana Metropolitan Municipality in 2018 in order to protect public health and reduce environmental pollution. Within the scope of the project, seminars on communication and hygiene were given to street food vendors by psychologists and food engineers. While the food vendors participating in this training program were given certificates, the street food market in the city was tried to be controlled by registering the vendors at the same time (AHM, 2018).
History of Street Tastes
Looking at the historical process of street food, it is known that its origins date back to Ancient Greece. The ancient Greeks experienced the fried fish sold in the port of Alexandria and brought this flavor to the street, creating the first street food phenomenon. The street food culture that emerged in Ancient Greece was inherited by Ancient Rome, and as a result of the findings, it was determined that the Ancient Romans developed street flavors and made them a part of daily life (StreetFoody, 2014). The lack of stoves and ovens in many houses during the Ancient Roman period made street foods widely consumed (Davinder, 2015).
During the gladiator wars held in this period, the Romans consumed street delicacies such as sausage or fried fish while they were betting on who would win in the areas they used as socializing and sports grounds (Kargiglioğlu, 2019). A painting depicting people participating in gladiator games was discovered in 59 AD during excavations in the ancient city of Pompeii. There are also street vendors and food sales areas around the amphitheater in the picture. However, the picture, which was destroyed over time, was insufficient to understand the food products sold by the sellers. At the same time, as a result of the excavations carried out around the amphitheater, it was determined that the signs and ground traces made by the food vendors to determine the locations of their stalls have survived to the present day (Holleran, 2016).
During the excavation work in Pompeii, many "thermopolia" were discovered, which are considered to be the first examples of today's street food stalls and which allow various dishes to be served hot. It has been determined that these buildings are also a kind of kitchenette facing the street directly (StreetFoody, 2014). It is known that in ancient China, there was a stove and oven in the houses of wealthy people and the meals were prepared by the servants. In this period, street delicacies were generally preferred by the poor, and sometimes wealthy people who wanted to consume street delicacies consumed them at home instead of buying food from the street, fearing that their status would lose value (Kargiglioğlu, 2019).
It is known that various street foods such as shish kebab made from fish species or grilled are frequently consumed in coastal cities in the Eastern Mediterranean geography stretching from Egypt to Lebanon. In the work called “Viaggia” written by the Florentine traveler Leonardo di Niccolo Fresco-baldi in 1384, there are inns etc. where tourists visiting Cairo can stay. It was mentioned that there were no structures. For this reason, it has been stated that people carry picnic covers and eat rice, kebab and fried vegetables that they buy from street vendors on these covers. At the same time, inspections made to prevent diseases that may be caused by street food are also mentioned in the work (Snodgrass, 2004).
Street flavors from the Middle Ages to the present have spread to a wide geography with the effect of global migration events, wars and exchanges. Immigrant societies sometimes ensured the preservation of the roots of these flavors belonging to their cultures, and sometimes could not prevent them from being exposed to various changes. America, one of the representatives of this situation, started to receive immigration in the 16th century, and this migration mobility increased in the 17th and 18th centuries, especially with other migrations from Central and Southern Europe (Aydın, 2020)
With the intensification of urbanization in North America, the increase in the number of food vendors on the streets caused the administrators to take various measures for this situation. A regulation enacted in 1691 restricted the working hours of street food vendors in New York. In 1707, adverse situations such as traffic disruptions caused by street food vendors led to a complete ban on selling food on the streets of New York (Solunoğlu, 2018). 
In the 18th century, with the spread of restaurants, wealthy people turned to more comfortable restaurants with higher service quality instead of streets to meet their food needs. This has led to a decrease in the consumption of street delicacies. After industrialization with the industrial revolution, there was a great increase in the number of workers in the 19th century. The workers, called blue collar, preferred street flavors for reasons such as limited time and financial opportunities, so there was an increase in the consumption of street flavors again (Calloni, 2013).
In Turkish society, it is known that street flavors started to take place in the food and beverage culture in the Ottoman period. Evliya Çelebi stated in the first volume of his book Seyahatname that street vendors are named as traveling tradesmen, and that these wandering shopkeepers are easily recognized by their colorful appearance and their distinctive shouts. 
In this period, when the restaurant culture was not yet formed, street flavors became a preferred option when people were socializing or working outside. Many demonstrations were held at festivals, weddings and before the army went on a campaign in places such as Çırpıcı Çayırı, Kağıthane, and Veliefendi where people frequently visit in Istanbul. Many street food vendors of the period, such as liver, sherbet and paste makers, took part in these demonstrations and met the food needs of people (İrigüler and Öztürk, 2016; İrigüler et al., 2016; Aydın, 2020).
Street flavors were first introduced by Sultan II. It was examined during the Beyazıt period and was included in the history. At the same time, the Ottoman state was the first state to regulate street food in 1502. In the Ottoman period, fish, liver, herbal sugar pastes, sherbet, rice, pudding, various breads, boza, simit and borek are among the well-known street delicacies. Each of these street delicacies has often been sold by people of particular origin. Liver was sold by Albanian sellers, börek by sellers from Safranbolu, and mobile breads by Armenians. It is known that during the Renaissance period, hot meats such as roasted chicken and lamb were sold by many street food vendors. (Irigüler et al., 2016; Aydın, 2020; Bozkurt, 2021).
Street Flavors in the World
Street delicacies made in almost all cities in the world and consumed by many people include ready-to-eat foods and beverages. These delicacies can be distinguished from each other according to the traditions, religious beliefs and climatic characteristics of the region, as well as being specific to the country where they are made. There are certain differences in street food even among the regions of countries such as America, India and China, which have a wide geographical area (İrigüler et al., 2016; Güzeler and Özbek, 2017). Various street delicacies from different continents and countries of the world are given in Table 1.
Table 1: Street Food from Different Countries of the World



street flavor

Definition of street flavor



Injera and wot

Thin sourdough bread with veal, chicken, goat meat, lentils, chickpeas, berbere (Ethiopian spice mix)


fufu, banku, kenkey

Steamed cassava / banana porridge with chicken



Toasted donut made from peanut butter or almonds with coconut milk



Red spiced lamb or beef sausage


chin chin

Sweet bun made from wheat flour or egg and cowpea



Steamed banana puree on banana leaves served with peanut sauce



Peking duck

Crispy duck skin and roast duck in thin pancake wrap


Skewered or roasted lamb, pork, beef or chicken



Various street food and chutney with intense spice (lemon, salt, pomegranate seeds, tamarind)

aloo tikki

Chickpeas and curry with deep fried mashed potatoes and masala (Indian spice mix),


Nasi putih

Fried long grain rice with chicken, pork and goat meat cooked in coconut milk


Pad Thai

Stir-fried rice noodles with egg, fish sauce, tamarind juice, chili, bean sprouts chicken or shrimp

South Korea


Rice and fish wrapped in seaweed


Dough stuffed with meat

South America



Deep-fried brioche stuffed with beef, fish, vegetables or cheese


Pao de queijo

Traditional Brazilian cheese bread



Tortilla bread made from folded/wrapped corn or wheat flour, filled with many flavors


carne mechada

Shredded beef with red pepper, tomato or pickled octopus

Middle East



A dish made by deep frying the dough made from boiled chickpeas or broad beans in the form of balls.



Boiled egg, eggplant, tahini and mango pickle in pita bread

Source: Fellows and Hilmi, 2011.

Many tourists, who are looking for a different tourism and want to experience local flavors during their travels, also research the street flavors of cities before their travels. (Kowalczyk, 2014). Table 2 shows the 10 cities that best represent street flavors in the world (Travel Weekly, 2019; Griffin, 2018; Fisher, 2016; Heelan, 2014; New York Daily News, 2013).
Table 2: Top 10 Cities for Street Flavor in the World

Travel Weekly, 2019

Griffin, 2018

Fisher, 2016

Heelan, 2014

New York, Daily News, 2013

Hong Kong




Hong Kong




Tel Aviv

Rio de Janeiro

Ho Chi Minh


Mexico City









New Orleans

new York

Mexico City





Hong Kong

Mexico City

Tel Aviv

Hong Kong


Kuala Lumpur







Mexico City

Mexico City

Los Angeles





Ho Chi Minh



Created by the authors.
When Table 2 is examined, the city of street flavors in all five studies is Mexico City. In addition, the cities included in the four studies are Hong Kong, Bangkok and Istanbul, while Rome, Sydney, Portland, Honolulu, Durban, New Orleans, Cairo, Chicago, New York, Austin, Los Angeles, Kuala Lumpur, Rio de Janeiro, Boston and Fukuoka cities are the best street food cities according to only one study.
Street Flavors in Turkey
Anatolia, which has hosted many civilizations from the Hittites to the Ottomans throughout history; With the influence of factors such as climate, geographical location, migration and exchanges, it has a rich culinary culture . Turks, Bosnians, Greeks, Levantines, people from Western Thrace, Albanians and Arabs enriched Turkish cuisine with different food cultures. This situation was also reflected in the street flavors of the country and allowed various flavors of different cuisine cultures to be sold on the streets (Kraig and Sen, 2013; İrigüler and Öztürk, 2016; Yıldız, 2020). In Table 3, street tastes specific to Turkey are given according to certain categories.
Table 3. Street Tastes Unique to Turkey


street flavor

Information about street food


The fish


The origin of this street flavor, which is especially identified with the province of Istanbul, dates back to the Ottoman period. Fish and bread boats, which first served near the Galata Bridge, were moved to the Eminönü coast 12 years ago. Fish bread is usually grilled mackerel fish between bread and served with onions and lettuce. In addition to this flavor, pickle juice or turnip is often consumed. Not only in Istanbul, but also in many regions of Turkey, various types of fish are sold on the streets, especially during the winter months (Aydın, 2020; Bozkurt, 2021).

Chicken and chickpeas rice

Rice with chickpeas, which is sold in special mobile vehicles with windows, is usually made by using Osmancık rice and vegetable oil or margarine. It can be served with boiled chicken breast upon request. Rice with chickpeas, which is mostly sold in the evening, is seen in many parts of Turkey (Şeker, 2018).


Simit, a traditional street delicacy unique to Turkey; It is a bakery product made with baker's yeast, flour, water and salt. By adding ingredients such as black cumin, molasses and sesame on the kneaded dough, it is baked in the oven and its unique taste is obtained. There are various types of simit belonging to many regions in Turkey. Some regions have also ensured that their simits are registered by taking geographical indications. These are Samsun Simit (2013), Ankara Bagel (2017), Manisa Taban Bagel (2018), Rize Bagel (2019), İzmit Bagel (2019) and Kastamonu Bagel (2019). It is known that bagel is the most consumed bakery product after bread in Turkey and 2.5 million people consume bagels every day. Bagels, which are generally sold in patisseries and on the streets with mobile vehicles, are among the most preferred street flavors (Şeker, 2018; Özbay, 2020).


The kokoreç, which is prepared by wrapping the bumbar (large intestine of the sheep) and the intestine in bottles, is cooked horizontally over the charcoal fire. Kokoreç, which is chopped coarsely or finely, is served between bread with the addition of salt and optionally spices such as cumin, thyme and red pepper (Yıldız, 2020).

Chicken/meat doner

Meat cut into leaf thinners or minced; It is marinated with a sauce obtained by mixing salt, onion juice, yoghurt and various spices. After the meat is rested for a while, the bottle is arranged and cooked vertically by turning it in front of the heater working with gas, charcoal or electricity. After the cooked meat is cut thinly, it is served between bread or with rice, if desired. At the same time, the fact that this traditional street flavor is suitable for the Fastfood approach ensures that it is consumed in many countries, especially in the Middle East and Europe (Bostan et al., 2011).

Raw Meatballs

Çiğköfte is made using meat in its original recipe. However, when examined within the scope of street delicacies, the raw meatballs sold on the street are made without meat due to the long sale period and health problems that may occur due to raw meat. In making Çiğköfte, first of all, garlic, onion, isot, pomegranate syrup, ground walnut kernels, pepper and tomato paste are mixed in a copper or steel bowl until it reaches a paste-like consistency. Then, fine bulgur for raw meatballs, spices, tomato juice and oil are added to this mixture and kneaded thoroughly. Çiğköfte is ready to be served with the addition of parsley. Thanks to its fast service and affordable price, it is frequently consumed at any time of the day. At the same time, Şanlıurfa raw meatballs (2008) and Adıyaman meatless raw meatballs (2018) were registered with geographical indication (Turkish Patent and Trademark Office, 2021; Şeker, 2018).


The word Kumpir means potato in Bulgarian. It is known that in the 20th century, cooked potatoes were consumed with salad in Yugoslavia and this was called "krumpir". This flavor brought to Turkey by the Bulgarians has been enriched and developed according to the Turkish taste. When making kumpir in Turkey, first the roasted hot potato is opened and the butter and cheddar cheese are melted in the potato. Then, it is made ready for service by adding various ingredients (corn, salami, barley, olive, sausage, pickles, etc.) according to the consumer's request. It is possible to see Kumpir-like flavors in many countries of the world, such as the "Baked Potato" made in England (Özden, 2015).



This street flavor, which we see on the streets mostly in winter and also called chestnut kebab, is encountered in many places, especially in city squares. While making chestnuts, they are first kept in water for a while and then cooked by scratching them. Street vendors selling chestnuts in their private cars every season can also use humorous words such as "eating chestnut kebab" while selling the chestnuts they cook (Yıldız, 2020).

Stuffed mussels

Dishes made with shellfish in Byzantine cuisine influenced the Turkish culinary culture and led to the emergence of flavors such as stuffed mussels. Stuffed mussels was first consumed in coastal areas, but is now a street delicacy in many cities of Turkey. While stuffing mussels, first the mussels are cleaned. Then, the mussels stuffed with rice, onions, salt, sugar, spices and sunflower oil are tightly closed, cooked in their own steam and ready to be eaten. Stuffed mussels, which are usually served with lemon on trays by street vendors, can also be served as an appetizer in restaurants (Güngörr and Bostan, 2019; Aydın, 2020).

Cotton candy

Cotton candy, which is a street flavor especially enjoyed by children, is made by mixing granulated sugar with food coloring and pouring it into a heated special tool that runs on tube gas and rotates rapidly. This special tool enables the sugar to turn into cotton form and therefore it is called cotton candy. It is a street flavor that is frequently encountered in school circles, amusement parks and busy streets (Çavuşoğlu & Çavuşoğlu, 2018).



Iced almonds, which are generally consumed in the evening hours in city centers, are a frequently preferred snack. Street vendors offer their iced almonds, which they pile on a large ice tray in their glassed-in cars, for sale throughout the four seasons, especially in the summer months. It is also known that there were Jewish iced almond sellers around the open-air casinos in Izmir in the 1930s (Yıldız, 2020).




Ring dessert; It is made by deep frying the dough made with flour, butter, semolina, starch, salt, oil and water into a ring. The fried dough is poured into syrup and kept for a while. The ring sweets taken from sherbet are stacked on top of each other and sold on the streets or in confectionery shops by mobile vehicles. The ring dessert, which is made in many regions of Turkey, is also known as yellow burma, ring, honey with honey and musebbek (Tarınç, 2019).



Damascus dessert, also called Şambali or şammali, is a street delicacy that is frequently consumed in Turkey, especially in İzmir, Tekirdağ and Adana. While making Damascus dessert, a dough is prepared from sugar, semolina and milk. The prepared dough is poured into the tray and given to the oven by adding peanuts on it. The dessert, which is taken out of the oven close to cooking, is sliced into a rectangular shape and continued to be cooked. Finally, the syrup is poured into the cooked dessert and it is ready to be served (Yıldız, 2020).


The word "lokma" is derived from the Arabic word "lukma", which means a mouth or a piece. Lokma, one of the sherbet desserts that were consumed frequently in the Ottoman period, is both made at home on special occasions and sold by street vendors. While making the Lokma dessert, the dough obtained by mixing flour, water, yeast, salt and warm water is brought into a round shape and fried in hot oil. Afterwards, the fried dough is thrown into the cold syrup and kept until the syrup is absorbed. The bites that are ready to eat are served hot or cold (Alyakut, 2020).


Bici bici, which is a free dessert in Adana, is a delicacy that is often consumed in summer. Bici bici dessert is made from starch, water colored with natural food coloring, powdered sugar and finely grated ice. In the production of Bici bici, first of all, starch and water are boiled, poured into the tray and left to cool. The cold water is kept in a cold environment for a day to rest. The rested bici bici tray is taken to the counter and cut into 5 cm squares by street vendors. The bici, which is cut into squares, is again chopped into cubes and served by adding ice, powdered sugar and bici sherbet, respectively. At the same time, "Adana bici bici" is among the flavors registered with geographical indication (Turkish Patent Institute, 2020)



Boza, whose history dates back 9000 years, was first produced by the Turks. Boza; It is made by grinding various cereals such as millet, corn, rice, cooking by adding water and fermenting it by adding sugar. Boza, which is usually sold on the streets in winter, can also be consumed with cinnamon and roasted chickpeas (Demirkol, 2015; Levent and Cavuldak, 2017; Demirci et al., 2020).


Sherbet is a street flavor inherited from the Ottoman period. It is stated in the records that there were 600 mobile hops and 300 hop shops in Istanbul in the 16th century. Sherbet is made by squeezing the juice of the fruit and adding sugar to it. Carrying barrels with taps on their backs, mobile sherbet vendors sell sherbet by singing various mani and are usually seen on busy streets. Sherbet shops sell hot sherbets in winter and cold sherbets in summer. It is possible to see mobile hops selling licorice sherbet with their local clothes in Gaziantep (Sezgin and Durmaz, 2019).

Turnip juice

Turnip juice, a drink unique to Turkey, is a sour, delicious and red colored fermentation product made with bulgur flour, black carrot, salt, sourdough, turnip radish and water. Ornamental pepper is also used in making spicy turnip. This flavor, which cools in the summer and gives energy in the winter, is served by the street vendor with 2-3 pieces of purple carrots, which are filled into large glasses and optionally thrown into it. Turnip juice is frequently consumed especially in Adana, Osmaniye and Mersin provinces. At the same time, "Tarsus turnip" (2007) unique to Mersin and "Adana turnip" (2020) unique to Adana are among the geographically indicated flavors (Demirkol, 2015; Turkish Patent and Trademark Office, 2021).


Prepared from the tubers of the orchid plant, salep is a beverage inherited from the Ottoman era. In 1638, it was recorded that there were 200 salep sellers in Istanbul. It is known that salep tubers brought from Bursa during the Ottoman period were pounded in a mortar, cooked by adding sugar and honey, and consumed by adding ginger. Today, in the cold winter months, there are street vendors selling salep with special salep hoppers on the streets. Sellers usually add cinnamon to the hot salep they fill in a glass and serve. At the same time, salep, which is an herbal drug, is used in the treatment of many diseases such as calcification, malaria, cough and headache (Erzurumlu and Doran, 2011; Işın, 2019).

Created by the authors.

In addition to the street delicacies mentioned in Table 3, meatballs and bread, tantuni, liver skewers in the early morning and other types of kebab (Adana kebab, Urfa kebab, onion kebab, etc.) preferred at all hours of the day are among the street foods commonly consumed in Turkey. Ayvalık toast and various sandwiches bought from the kiosks in the busy streets, pastries sold by mobile pastry shops, pickles, pastries and pancakes are especially preferred for breakfast. Apple candy, Ottoman sugar paste and wafer wafers, inherited from the Ottoman period, are among the street delicacies most loved by children. 
In summer, boiled or roasted corn, ice cream and various summer fruits (such as plum, strawberry, cherry) are street delicacies that can be seen in every region of Turkey. At the end of summer, fresh shelled hazelnuts, peeled fresh walnuts, purple and green fresh figs are the fruits sold by peddlers on the streets. Freshly squeezed fruit juices are sold on the streets or in kiosks during all four seasons, and freshly squeezed orange juice is consumed frequently, especially in winter (Fellows and Hilmi, 2011; Kraig and Sen, 2013; İrigüler et al., 2016; Şeker, 2018). In addition, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the 10 street flavors that best represent Turkey are “chestnut kebab, corn, fish bread and pickle juice, ice cream, chicken rice, simit and börek, kokoreç, stuffed mussels, doner wrap & raw meatball wrap and pies. Kumpir” (Goturkiye, 2020).
Gastronomy Tourism and Street Tastes
The Importance of Street Tastes in Gastronomy Tourism
When the recent developments in the tourism sector are examined, it is observed that tourists want to experience different and special tourism experiences instead of mass tourism, and in this context, they turn to various alternative tourism types. Gastronomic tourism , which is one of these alternative tourism types , provides tourists with different taste experiences and promotes destination-specific food culture and contributes to destination marketing (Ballı, 2016). United Nations World Tourism Organization, city of Gastronomy Concepts gastronomyand tourism is defined as “the whole of experiential activities in gastronomic destinations related to food and beverage”. These activities may include experiencing authentic, traditional or innovative food cultures as well as related activities such as food festivals, cooking classes and visiting local producers (UNWTO, 2021).
Nowadays, many people travel to different countries of the world to experience various trending street delicacies. These delicacies can also be associated with a certain city or a certain country where they are famous (like Turkish kebab). At the same time, many street delicacies belonging to a certain region are made by different countries and can be adapted to the food culture of the country where they are made. For example, Indian food made in Poland is often made less spicy than its original flavor. 
This situation shows that street tastes are regionally famous, but the production of these foods has become universal thanks to the desire for taste. Even though the street flavor unique to a particular region is produced in many parts of the world, tourists still want to experience local flavors in the region where they belong in order to taste the original taste, understand the ethnic origin of the food, interact with the local people and get to know the food culture of the region (Kowalczyk, 2014; Chavarria). and Phakdee-auksorn, 2017; Henderson, 2019).
Street food contributes to the regional economy and sustainable tourism by using local resources. At the same time, it ensures the preservation of the cultural identity and authenticity of the region and creates an opportunity for social interaction for the people of the region. The interactions between gastro tourists and local people, especially those who come to experience the local tastes of the destination, create an emotional bond and thus have positive effects on the destination image. In addition , local people, who realize the curiosity and interest of tourists in local food during activities for gastronomic tourism , try to preserve and maintain the culinary culture of the region (Ballı, 2016; Çavuşoğlu and Çavuşoğlu, 2018).
Especially in Southeast Asia, street food is accepted as a component of the tourism industry by the local people and the government, and for tourists going to these countries, street food is seen as a region-specific tourist attraction (Jeaheng and Han, 2020). Studies conducted in this context (Karim and Chi, 2010; Tsai and Wang, 2016; Choe and Kim, 2018) reveal that local tastes consumed in the travel region are an important factor affecting the motivation and travel intention of tourists.
Another point that highlights the street flavors that directly reflect the culinary culture and authenticity of the region to the tourists is the street food vendors. It is known that especially in Thailand and Singapore, street vendors attract as much attention as street delicacies, and many tourists form long lines in front of the counters to experience the street delicacies made by famous street vendors in these countries (Netflix, 2019). In Thailand in 2018, Raan Jay Fai was rated as the first female street food vendor and street food stand to be awarded a Michelin star. 
Raan Jay Fai, who has been in this business for 70 years, is frequently visited by many gourmets and tourists, especially with the seafood dishes he prepared in a deep pan (Michelin Guide, 2019). This situation can be considered as an important source of praise for Thailand in the context of its touristic image. At the same time, street flavors in Thailand are covered in various television programs and take part in many promotional activities for tourism purposes (Karsavuran, 2018).
The Importance of Street Tastes in Gastronomy Tourism
When the studies in the literature are examined, it is seen that street flavors are generally discussed on food health and food safety issues (Aluko et al., 2014; Vieira-Cardoso, Santana and Dantas-Guimaraes, 2014; Raza et al., 2021). With the increase in the consumption of street food in societies, an increase in food-borne diseases has also been observed. This situation has revealed that food safety practices for street food should be made compulsory for the society and governments. In particular, the exposure of foods to inappropriate storage and processing conditions and the lack of knowledge of sellers about food hygiene have been effective in the increase of diseases related to street flavors (Solunoğlu and Nazik, 2018).
In addition to the studies on food safety, with the evaluation of street flavors as a new trend, research on street flavors has increased and street food sellers of street flavors (Privitera and Nesci, 2015; Samapundo et al., 2016; Polat and Gezen, 2017; Truong, 2017; Altunbağ & Yılmaz, 2019; Bayraktar & Zencir, 2019; Gözgeç & Aydemir, 2019; Fusté-Forné, 2021), street food consumption (Solunoğlu & Nazik, 2018; Ballı, Bektarı & Çakıcı, 2019; Şahin & Solunoğlu, 2019) ; Yıldırım and Albayrak, 2019), gastronomy (Gönülgül and Durlu Özkaya, 2017; Akdağ et al., 2018; Yıldız, 2020) and gastronomy tourism (Ballı, 2016; Karsavuran, 2018; Çavuşoğlu and Çavuşoğlu, 2018; Jeaheng and Han, It has been determined that it has been discussed from different perspectives such as 2020).
Street delicacies, which are loved and consumed with their rich content and diversity, are seen as an important gastronomic value of the region. Gönülgül and Durlu Özkaya (2017) considered street food as a gastronomic value in their study and examined street food in Los Angeles and Toronto from a gastronomic perspective. Yıldız (2020), on the other hand, evaluated street delicacies as a gastronomic product and determined that İzmir street delicacies are an important part of the gastronomic value of the region.
Street flavors introduce the food culture of the destination and also offer tourists the opportunity to experience local flavors by communicating with the locals. Street delicacies that contribute to the dynamism of gastronomic tourism in the destination, gastronomy tourismseen as an important attractive factor. In many countries, especially in Southeast Asian countries, street flavors are considered as a destination-specific attraction. In their study in Thailand, Jeaheng and Han (2020) evaluated street food as an attractive element for tourists coming to the region and investigated the expectations of tourists from street food. Çavuşoğlu and Çavuşoğlu (2018), on the other hand, designed a website that promotes the street foods of the region in order to attract gastro tourists to the destination.
Consumption of street delicacies, which have become a part of daily life, varies according to countries, consumer profiles and wishes. While street flavors are generally preferred by singles, young people, low income and university graduates; it is not preferred by people with high income, advanced age and postgraduate education (Ballı et al., 2019). At the same time, it is necessary to examine the consumption of street delicacies by the tourists and lead the developments to be made in this regard. 
In the study conducted by Yıldırım and Albayrak (2019), it was found that tourists are generally satisfied with the street food sold in Istanbul, but they are concerned about the clothes of the employees, the cleanliness of the places where they are sold, and the nutritional value of the street food. In this context, tourism authorities in destinations need to find solutions to the factors that may create dissatisfaction by taking into account the consumption of street delicacies.
Considering the increasing interest in street flavors in gastronomic tourism, various events such as street food festivals and street food days can be organized to contribute to the tourism image of the region in order to promote local tastes in destinations and attract tourists to the region. 
Participants in the Eskişehir street flavors festival, which has been held in Turkey since 2017, show great interest in local flavors and thanks to this festival, many economic and social benefits are provided to the region (Demirci, Yılmazdoğan, and Yavaşmezkalender, 2020). Considering this situation, it is thought that activities related to street tastes should be done by many destinations. In order to ensure the international promotion of street delicacies, food competitions with the theme of street delicacies can be organized in the country and abroad. In addition, brochures can be prepared to introduce street food to tourists who come to the region with various package tours, so that tourists can be informed about the street flavors of the region.
The Importance of Street Tastes in Gastronomy Tourism
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As the head chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR, I see the source:
Mr. Barış DEMİRCİ, I sincerely thank Merve KARACAOĞLU for her academic studies titled "The Importance of Street Tastes in Gastronomy Tourism" and wish them success in their professional life . It will definitely be considered as an example by those who need it in professional kitchens, related research and the world of gastronomy.
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