• Culinary Rituals in Religions
  • Culinary Rituals in Religions
  • Culinary Rituals in Religions
  • Culinary Rituals in Religions

It can be said that there are many factors that determine the culinary cultures of societies. These factors are generally effective in determining the social life rules of societies. Religion is one of the most important of these factors. Both concepts have come to the fore as an important complement to human history since the earliest times...

On Religion-Gastronomy Interaction: Culinary Rituals in Religions
Eating and drinking comes first among the physical needs that are as old as the history of humanity and that the individual needs to survive. Although the flavor, taste, form and varieties have changed with the dominant cultural characters depending on the time and environment, this requirement has never disappeared. Eating and drinking habits, which have continued to develop with the history of humanity, have been in mutual interaction with culture throughout history. 
With this interaction, all kinds of dynamics that feed the culture have contributed to the shaping of the cuisine at certain levels.
It can be said that there are many factors that determine the culinary cultures of societies. These factors are generally effective in determining the social life rules of societies. Religion is one of the most important of these factors. Both concepts have come to the fore as an important complement to human history since the earliest times. In this respect, it is inevitable for religion and cuisine phenomena, which have a history equivalent to the history of humanity, to interact. In this interaction process, religion has generally influenced the cuisine. Products prohibited by religions are not used by people who follow those religions. Products that religions encourage consumption are generally consumed more frequently.
The interaction between religion and cuisine is present not only for religions believed in today's societies and large human communities, but also for beliefs that have emerged in certain small regions in history and have a short lifespan. In many ancient beliefs, worship is performed in large areas, accompanied by banquets. Today, many religions shape cuisines and food consumption in terms of product-based or consumption patterns. The interaction between the two cases necessitates academic studies on the subject. In the light of this information, in this study, it is aimed to determine the culinary rituals in languages ​​from the past to the present . Thus, this study, which is based on literature review, aims to reveal the interaction between religion and gastronomy.
Relationship between Culture and Gastronomy
Gastronomy has gained a serious momentum after the 2000s and has become one of the most important concepts of the modern world. The concept is becoming widespread at the global level, as well as in a way that brings locality to the fore. Gastronomy deals with and deals with cultural assets that include intangible assets locally. This local mission of gastronomy regarding culture also has an international character. In this sense, gastronomy creates cultural diversity at the international level and sheds light on the societies living in the world in terms of parameters such as lifestyle, culture and history (Işkın, 2020).
The interaction between History Of Gastronomy and culture from the past to the present can be expressed in two ways. The first of these is that gastronomy is influenced by culture, including tradition, and the second is that gastronomy has some effects on the shaping of cultural patterns that may occur at the social level. In this respect, gastronomy has a structure that feeds both culture and culture. 
Every different cuisine experienced as a result of gastronomic experience is an example of a different culture. Therefore, the motivation of gastronomy encourages tourists to try and learn the cultural values ​​of different societies. It should be stated that motives such as cultural curiosity are a driving factor for the development of gastronomy. One of the clearest examples of gastronomy and culture interaction is seen here (Fields, 2002). Seymen (2019) draws attention to this interaction in his study and highlights culture as one of the elements that gastronomy is most intensely related to in a society. The first defining element of a city's local culture and the first way to understand a city (culture) is through the kitchen.
The increasing prevalence of the concept of gastronomic tourism has a great impact on the clear emergence of the relationship between gastronomy and culture. In fact, gastronomy tourism itself has come to the fore and developed as an alternative tourism type that constitutes an important dimension of cultural tourism. Therefore, the main purpose of tourists in gastronomic tourism interacts with the culture of the region. In this way, the idea of ​​establishing a bond with the past, traditions and customs, customs and traditions, history and cultural heritage of the societies is dominant. 
Because it is known that traditions fed by production and social structure are the most important dynamics of cultural heritage. Thanks to gastronomic tourism, the distinctive aspects of the regional culture are witnessed by seeing the production and social structure of certain regions. Thanks to this type of tourism, regional cultures are learned by associating them with their economic, social and environmental contexts (Corigliano, 2002: 168).
The factors considered as culture in a certain period consist of the sum of all kinds of memories that may be related to the culture up to that period. The sum here may consist of special preferences, in which political, political and socio-cultural institutions, especially the state, society and media, have a decisive role. However, the global point of the world makes the idea that it consists of a broader perspective prevailing. 
As a result, at the point where the world has come, culture has gone beyond the perception of local production. Culture can often have an identity that includes a part of the memory expressed here and that has become natural, carries the traces of previous cultural experiences and influences, is not limited to a local region, but transcends borders (Tomlinson, 1991). As a matter of fact, Işkın (2020) states that international gastronomy can be at least as important as local gastronomy when the issue is considered from the point of view of cultural memory.
The most prominent cultural element of international gastronomy, whose social effects have come to the fore, is Fast-Food-dominated consumption patterns. Especially the emergence of large Fast-Food companies and their spread throughout the world paved the way for the formation of an important modern culture in terms of international gastronomy (Hall and Mitchell, 2002). When the issue is viewed as a major consumption change movement, it can be seen that the eating habits in the world have gained a homogeneous identity (Ripe, 1996). 
Even if it is taken in a simple way, the idea of ​​homogeneity here has a complex structure. Because with such cultural integrations, there is a large group of people who oppose the emergence of the world as a single identity. Modernization movements underlie these concerns in efforts to homogenize culture and food in nutritious or cultural forms. Because the western-style capitalist culture sees the homogeneity problem here as a threat to the global culture, it seeks to integrate it into their own culture with the thought that it can give a feeling of diversity and richness (Tomlinson 1991).
The developments in international trade have an important role in the emergence of the international cultural identity of gastronomy. Because the food market, which primarily constitutes the raw materials that provide the development of gastronomy, is gaining a global identity. In this way, the same product is offered for consumption in different parts of the world at the same time. Thus , in the context of culinary culture , local and regional models that make up international gastronomy remain the same, and sometimes even grow (Hall and Mitchell 2002). 
Thanks to the developments in gastronomy, international trade has a great share in the developments in culinary cultures that have an international character. For example, many traditional dishes in Anatolian cuisine have arisen out of necessity (causes of poverty, etc.) or problems related to access to raw materials. Culinary culture in Anatolian geographyMost of the gastronomic values ​​that make up the world have emerged from the effort to evaluate the materials that are in time. Keledoş dish, which belongs to the Eastern Anatolia region, is one of the best examples of this. The ingredients used in this dish are hot tandoori bread, yogurt, garlic and oil. Each of these materials used in the meal is either the production of people in rural areas or the basic (oil for this meal) ingredients in the kitchen. The compulsory combination of these ingredients in the past has brought a traditional dish to today's gastronomy.
The increasing prevalence of gastronomy and the role it plays in the national and international sense have caused non-governmental organizations carrying out activities at national or international level to be interested in the subject. The objectives of these organizations are to ensure that cultural diversity is made sustainable in general, and to ensure that cultural values ​​are registered and protected.
These organizations work to protect these cultures by registering them in order to ensure the continuation of cultural diversity that represents different local cultures around the world. The gradual development of the concept of gastronomy has attracted the attention of these NGOs and they carry out some activities for the protection of cultural values ​​in regions rich in culinary culture . These activities are as follows (Kara, et al., 2017);
• To be a resource for preserving local cultures
• Helping to eliminate inter-regional development disparities by providing regional development
• To meet the needs of today's tourists while ensuring sustainability
Fine (1996) discusses the interaction between gastronomy and culture in the definition of restaurant. While Fine describes restaurants as the organization of a group of labor, he emphasizes that the organization is based on the joint production of cultural and physical elements. Through this definition, restaurants have assumed a cultural mission by going beyond the perception of simple businesses offering food. Professional food production, which forms the general framework of research on gastronomy, is one of the most important pillars of the culture industry. In this sense, as a cultural phenomenon, each of the elements of the kitchen such as production, design, preparation and presentation constitutes a part of this culture (Scarpato, 2002: 65).
Montanari (1994) presents a critical problem regarding the interaction between gastronomy and culture in his study. According to this study, it is emphasized that many products that have the ability to represent the highest level of culture lose their importance over time. Because the developments in gastronomy have led to an increase in commercial concerns on the subject. All these developments have paved the way for the emergence of experimental experiences and artificial patterns in the face of the popularity of gastronomy, which has the ability to represent the culture. The emergence of gastronomic tourism can be expressed as one of the most important reasons for this situation. The increase in standard production patterns in dishes has accelerated the emergence of international forms of gastronomy, moving away from the local.
Ravenscroft and van Westering (2002) discuss the interaction between gastronomy and culture with a universal evaluation. In this evaluation, it is emphasized that there is no limitation for owning the gastronomic culture. This ownership belongs to the users, and the duration of ownership can be determined depending on the use of the gastronomic culture. Beyond this, the intellectual property rights related to gastronomy and the branding of the regions where the gastronomic values ​​are located has an important place in how much the relevant gastronomic values ​​belong to the region. Therefore, embodying a gastronomy-based intellectual property is essential. Concretization of the intangible cultural characteristics of gastronomy through products can help this. In the opposite case, it can make it difficult.
Culture-Religion Relationship
There is a great interaction between religion and culture. Because the belief philosophy of many religions or beliefs is based on common arguments. Many religions and beliefs are closely concerned with the individual's inner peace and social order as a common value. Differentiating elements are their understanding of worship and their methods of solving problems. For example; In many religions or beliefs, fasting takes its place as a form of worship or a diet that disciplines the body. However, worship envisages different diets according to religions and the periods in which religions live. Similarly, while sacrifice is an important worship for many religions or beliefs, there are significant differences in practice. So much so that, according to some beliefs, plants are sacrificed, and there are even beliefs that people are sacrificed (Beşirli, 2017).
Religion and culture are expressed by Cebeci (2008) as the two basic building blocks of society and it is emphasized that these phenomena have similarities in terms of meaning and function. The existence of both concepts is basically possible with the existence of human beings and they come to life as an activity of people. In this sense, in the relationship between these two phenomena, there is a basic feature of human being as input and output. In addition, it can be said that these two interactive concepts, which have intense connections with people, have a structure that affects each other. It can be concluded that both the interaction between the two concepts and the relationship between the two concepts and the human being have an important role in the construction of the identity of the human being.
The religion-culture relationship constitutes one of the most important subjects of the anthropology of religions. This relationship is included in the field of study of many social and human sciences such as philosophy, psychology, economics and sociology. The fact that each branch of science, which has different methods and research efforts, provides predictions about the relationship between these two concepts, reveals the importance of this relationship. In addition, it is a necessity to lay the foundations of the relationship between these two issues, to study their use among societies in very different ways with their meanings in these disciplines (Özmen, 2018; Tanrıverdi, 2018).
The fact that some social norms are a common value for both religion and culture causes the relations between these two concepts to become more intertwined. One of the most important of these social norms is morality. The concept of morality is one of the most important virtues of religion and culture. Both religion and culture adopt the principle of building a moral individual and therefore a moral society. These two structures also draw an image that supports each other through social norms. For example; religion and culture give mutually supportive reflexes for eating habits, dressing styles and social events. For example; Religiously (in the case of Islam) elements that are considered haram or halal come to life as rules adopted or not adopted by social norms.
The relationships between these two concepts may differ in different societies. Because as societies differ, it is likely that culture and religion will also differ. In this sense, the point of view of a Muslim, a Jew or a Mani, who have different beliefs and practices of worship, on any social issue may differ due to cultural and religious differences (Freyer, 1964).
Religion-Gastronomy Relationship
It is known that there is food consumption in some religious ceremonies. Similarly, there are religious practices related to some products that can be consumed as food. In this respect, it can be said that gastronomy and religion are in a mutual interaction. It starts from the primitive tribal religions and continues in religions and beliefs until today. The main purpose of gastronomy-based practices in religions is to give thanks to the supreme god, to look nice, to give gifts and to gain his approval. Thus, the understanding that evil can be fought is dominant. The Qur'an is at the forefront of these practices in almost all beliefs and religions. 
While animals are sacrificed in some religions, it is even seen that plants are sacrificed in others. Even though it is not related to the phenomenon of gastronomy, it is even seen that people are sacrificed in some ancient beliefs. In gastronomy, it is possible to see the relationship between religion and gastronomy, especially through sacrificed animals. It is known that bird species such as pigeons and animals in the group of large and small cattle are sacrificed in blood sacrifice worship. 
In addition, in some beliefs, sacrificed plants are consumed as food (Akkuş, 2014; Küçük, et al., 2018). In some religions, sacrifice worship is practiced as a means of social solidarity. For example; Sacrificed animal meats in Muslim societies are distributed to people who have economic problems because they are expensive as food. In fact, some of the meat is distributed to people in need outside the countries where it is sacrificed (Işkın, 2020).
It is a known fact that the phenomenon of religion, which is as old as human history, affects societies in many ways. Gastronomy (eating and drinking) is one of the subjects where this effect is felt most clearly. The strong relationship between religion and gastronomy continues today as it was in the past. It is possible to come across the best examples of this interaction, especially in some events. 
The festival, known as the Young Crop or Young Cassava Festival, takes place every year on the first Saturday of June, and festival-specific foods are prepared. These foods, blessed by the priest, are then consumed. In these dishes, the plant known as "cassava" is generally used. In some other dishes, "maum" birds and "silabey" fish are roasted. One day before the festival, sugarcane juice, ammonia flower and pineapple drink are made. After dances and prayers, the prepared food is served to the stereotypical community (Sinclair and Marcus, 2015: 301). This practice in the Christian tradition reveals the interaction of religion and gastronomy .
In some religions, prohibitive provisions regarding food come to the fore as one of the most prominent examples of the interaction between religion and gastronomy. Consumption of some food models in different religions or beliefs is prohibited, while others are not welcomed. The use of these prohibitive provisions in religions is also different. The religious consumption of these prohibitions, which are handled with the concepts of haram in Islam, is not appropriate. These rules, which are also effective in shaping the diets, are included in the holy books or written texts of religions (Kılıç and Albayrak, 2012: 708). On the one hand, people have to obey these prohibitive rules while performing the worship of the religions they believe in.
It is a past where food and beverages have undergone a great change from the past to the present. Therefore, it can be said that a significant part of these rules regarding today's food consumption continues even though religions or beliefs are very old in origin. In religions, there are foods that have been forbidden to be consumed and rendered haram for a long time. These prohibitions are still valid today. For example; According to Islam, it is considered haram to consume all kinds of products related to pork, carrion meat and alcoholic beverages, and their consumption is forbidden religiously. Similar unlawful practices are also found in Judaism. 
The most important similarity between Judaism and Islam is manifested in food consumption. In particular, the concept of “kosher”, which describes the prohibitive rules in food consumption, bears important similarities with the understanding that is forbidden in Islam and expressed as “haram”. As a matter of fact, pork is an animal that is forbidden to be consumed in both religions (Kılıç, 2011).
Some Culinary Rituals in Religion or Beliefs
Regardless of the place of worship, holy feasts are held in the last part of the worship that starts with purification and continues with prayer. At these festivities, shows known as "naorai" and "kami" (the sacred, powerful, feared being above human comprehension) are performed together with what is known as a meal that is eaten. At the end of the worship, treats are brought and when it is time to eat, they are consumed. These offerings are prepared and purified in special rooms. Then, they are placed on trays in a ceremonial manner and placed on the presentation tables (Küçük, et al., 2018). It is clear that there are strong relations between the religions of societies and their gastronomic values. 
However, as in this ritual in Shintoism, the fact that the images related to the kitchen are during the worship shows the relationship between these two issues more clearly. In this sense, according to Beşirli (2017), people who die need those who live. It is rumored that on this occasion, the living were happy to offer treats to the dead and to leave food and drink in the graves of the dead.
One of the four basic elements of worship in Shintoism is related to the food offered to the "kami" (Supreme Being). This ritual is shaped according to the cooking status of these dishes. In this belief, foods such as vegetables, fruits, seaweed, fish, rice, cereal and cake have an important place. The presentations are prepared in special rooms and with care. Even today, it is witnessed that meat products are served in temples associated with Shintoism. The food rituals in the temples are quite dominant. Prepared food is served on a wooden table (Ono and Woodard 2011).
The social structure of Hinduism is shaped around the caste system. The caste system is a social hierarchical system that divides the social structure into four classes and where social class discrimination is felt at the highest level. In the caste system, society is basically divided into four classes: clergy-scholars (Brahmans), princes-soldiers, (Kisatriyas), farmers (Vaisyas) and Workers-peasants (Cudras) (Hero, 1965). Slaves were also included in the lowest class known as chudras or sudras. In addition to these four castes, a non-caste class called Puryas is also mentioned (Yemenlioğlu, 2016). In the caste system, members of the castes acquire this right from birth and there is no transition or privilege between the castes. The social life regulatory role of the caste system is also reflected in the culinary rituals.
In Hinduism, there are some culinary rituals in funeral-related practices. After the corpses of the deceased are cremated, sweets are offered to facilitate the soul's entry into another (new) body. These offerings take place on the 10th and 20th days after the death, and are repeated throughout the year. These treats should be made completely by a male child or male relative of the deceased (Küçük, et al., 2018).
Some of the virtuous behaviors of the Manichaean belief are related to the kitchen. For example; According to the Manis, not drinking alcohol and not eating meat are some of the basic elements of life. People of this belief consume plant foods instead of meat and meat products. The plant has a very serious weight in culinary rituals. Even in the consumption of plant foods, religion has priority, and cucumber melon and watermelon are among the most preferred products. Manis take maximum care not to step on the grass and trample the crops. 
In addition to this general information on foods, "general meal" is one of the most important religious rituals in Manichaeism. In this daily ritual, meals are prepared by the audience for the elite. The services rendered by the audience are considered atonement for their sins. Cucumber, watermelon, melon, some fruit juices and wheat bread are consumed in these meals (Küçük, et al., 2018).
It is known that there are some rituals related to food and drinks in the belief of Cainism. In this belief, the measure in eating is generally that the food is clean, devoid of meat products, and the food is eaten without praising the person who cooks it (Raju et al., 2002). In addition, Cainists adopt the principle of not harming any living thing. For this reason, adherents of this belief are generally vegetarian, albeit different from its modern form. Since the point of difference is considered alive in plants with stem cells, they are not consumed either. The philosophy that the plant is not destroyed when the apple is eaten, but when the root vegetable is consumed, is presented as a justification for this (Beşirli, 2017).
In Sikhism traditions, some culinary rituals are encountered, especially in weddings. For example; Sweets are served to the groom on the wedding day. On the wedding day, the bride's family welcomes the groom and his family, who go to pick up the bride. Tea, snacks and food are served here. When the bride, known as "Laavan", which is accepted as the last ceremony of the wedding, will leave her family's house, many guests are having fun with food and drink (Yemenlioğlu, 2016).
In Judaism, it is forbidden to consume animal products at the same time. In fact, it is forbidden to take another animal food into the body after a certain period of time has passed. For example, it is forbidden to take meat and dairy products into the body without a certain time interval. For this reason, plant-based oils such as olive oil, peanut oil, cottonseed oil, corn oil or sesame oil are often used instead of butter or other animal fats (Roden, 2003). 
In Judaism, there is also the existence of culinary rituals that they apply in feast or commemoration celebrations. In these rituals, the consumption of products that are generally accepted as a means of celebration is encountered. It can be said that these products, which are considered sacred foods, have a mission such as maintaining the cultural values ​​of the Jewish community (Kılıç, 2011).
An important culinary ritual in Judaism is observed during the holiday known as Passover. This festival, in which lambs are sacrificed, is also called Passover Festival. During the feast, only breads made from leavened dough are consumed. Fermented or swelled products are never consumed during the feast. Cereals (wheat, oats, barley, rye, millet, etc.) or products made mainly from cereals are not kept in homes. There are bread made from unleavened dough called seder, bitter herbs, sacrificial meat, red wine and boiled eggs on the tables (Özkan, 2009).
In Christianity, there is a religious ritual called Apocria. This ritual is a carnival that includes pre-fasting and mostly eating and drinking activities. In the old period examples of entertainments where different costumes and masks are used, especially in Anatolian geography, these traditions are ended by consuming milk and dairy products and eggs (Atilla, 2017).
Within the Christian tradition, the Armenian community carries out celebrations or traditional activities on the day of Christmas celebration and on New Year's Eve, where the cuisine is at the forefront. At Christmas, all members of the family gather at a table and eat together. Buttered rice and fish are usually consumed in the meal. 
Similar activities are also observed on New Year's Day. During the New Year's Eve feasts are feasted on dishes such as stuffed mussels, stuffed mussels, stuffed leaves with olive oil, and topik, especially turkey. On the first day of the year, the pomegranate ritual is encountered. With the thought that it brings abundance, pomegranate is kept in many areas, especially in the home and workplace. In the first days of the year, pomegranates are broken at the doors of workplaces and scattered on the ground (Özkan, 2009).
There are seven sacred practices known as sacraments that are considered sacred in Christianity. The second of these sacraments in Christianity is the rite of bread and wine, which is related to some gastronomic items. This ritual St. It is a prayer of thanksgiving celebrated in commemoration of the meal known as the last supper, which Jesus ate with his 12 apostles before the crucifixion. Before this ritual, dishes called Agape or Evharistiya are eaten. According to the information in the Bible, he divided the bread and gave it to his disciples, saying this is my meat, and the wine in a bowl is my blood. The church has transformed this event, which was interpreted by St. Paul, as a rite of bread and wine (Küçük, et al., 2018).
The Greeks bake a special pita on the feast day they call Protohronia. Brandy and mastic are put into the pita called Vassilopita. Since the dough is a little too much, it is usually done by men because kneading requires power. Before cooking, a coin is placed in the pita. It is believed that the new year of the person who comes across this money will be auspicious. On this special day, fountains are opened to bring blessings and pomegranates are broken and rice is sprinkled at the entrance of the houses (Atilla, 2017)
Islam is one of the religions that will talk about the most culinary rituals among religions or beliefs. The first effect of religion, which is one of the important cultural phenomena, in Islamic societies is related to the regulating rules related to cuisine. These regulatory rules regarding food and drink are followed by reference to religious sources such as the Qur'an and the Sunnah. At the beginning of these rules are prohibitive elements. In this sense, the distinction between halal and haram forms the basis of culinary rituals in Islam. For example; The use of pork and all other main or by-products and additives related to it is prohibited in Islam (Zaouali, 2016). However, it can be said that the oldest traditions, especially for the Islamic belief, are mostly preserved in the Anatolian geography.
Religious holidays are one of the most important events in which culinary rituals are practiced in Islam. Today, in some Muslim societies, children visit their neighbors to collect nuts and sweets on Arafah. Thus, from the day of Arafah, the feast celebrations begin with the sharing of some food products (Güldemir, 2016).
Another important event in which cuisine-themed sharing is made in Islam is oil lamps. There are some traditional practices related to food and beverage in oil lamps. For example; In the lamp of acquittal, bite is poured and distributed to the neighbors. In fact, candlesticks are distributed at all oil lamps. It is also known that halva and bread are distributed in more rural areas (Halıcı, 2013). In most of the oil lamps, bites are poured and candlesticks are distributed to neighbors and relatives (Güldemir, 2019).
Fasting is a religious practice performed in most beliefs, although in different ways. However, fasting has a very prominent place in Islam and includes some important rituals in the religion. For example; It is recommended to consume light meals as much as possible during the month of Ramadan. One of the most important features of Ramadan fasting is resting the stomach and body and giving thanks to Allah. In iftar, people invite each other and perform this worship together and in solidarity. In addition, special foods and drinks for this month decorate the Ramadan tables.
Conclusion and Evaluation
Although not in the modern sense of today, the past of the cuisine is equivalent to the past of humanity. Because, as a feature of living forms, humans have needed nourishment since their existence. Due to nutrition, which is a physiological requirement, people need nutrients as soon as they exist. The main character of hunting and gathering, which are the two main fields of activity of the primitive tribal communities, is aimed at obtaining the nutrients needed by man. As time progressed, people's diets have also changed, and when it comes to today, it has become quite diversified. So much so that nutrition, in addition to being a physiological need in the global world, has become a tool of elements such as status, prestige and vanity, which are in a strong relationship with self and ego concepts.
With the great change in eating habits, the point it has reached today has not been easy. Socio-cultural characteristics of societies have a large share in this great change. Every element that feeds the culture has a role to play in this change. Based on this , it can be said that there is a strong interaction between the phenomenon of religion and culinary culture and therefore the concept of gastronomy. In fact, the interaction is based on the common relations of the concepts of cuisine-culture-religion. For this reason, it has been possible to encounter culinary rituals in many religions or beliefs.
Culinary rituals in religions or beliefs take place in different ways. The first of these is related to the role of the foods that can be the raw material of the related dishes and the approach of the beliefs to these foods. In some beliefs, certain foodstuffs and meals made with them are prohibited, while the consumption of certain foods and meals made with them is encouraged and accepted as good. Another important ritual in religions concerns the role of food in some religious practices. The most well-known of these is fasting. 
This worship is directly related to eating and drinking acts, and the quality of the worship feeds the consumption of food and drink. However, food consumption in rituals in some religions can also be considered in this context. Another important ritual in the kitchen-religion interaction is funerals, weddings, etc. serving treats on special occasions. Regardless of the quality of these treats, it is assumed that they contribute to social solidarity.
Akkus, MS (2014). Sacrifices to the Gods in Ancient Mesopotamia, Journal of the School of History, 7 (17), 1-17.
Atilla, N. (2017). The Place of Cuisine in Anatolian Beliefs-1. Metro Gastro, 84, 72-76
Beşirli, H. (2017). Sociology of Food A Sociological View of Food and Cuisine. Ankara: Phoenix Publishing House
Cebeci, S. (2008). Religion-Culture Relationship in the Context of National Identity. Journal of Academic Reviews, 3(2), 1-11.
Corigliano, MA (2002). The Route to Quality: Italian Gastronomy Networks in Operation. (Eds.) AM Hjalager and G. Richards, Inci Tourism and Gastronomy, (pp. 166-185). London: Routlandge Publishing.
Fields, K. (2002). Demand for the gastronomy tourism product: motivational factors. (Eds.) AM Hjalager and G. Richards, Inci Tourism and Gastronomoy, (p. 3649). London: Routlandge Publishing.
Fine, GA (1996). Kitchens: The Culture of Restaurant Work. Berkeley: University of California Pub.
Freyer, H. (1964). Sociology of Religion. T. Heartless (Trans.). Ankara: Ankara University. Faculty of Theology Publications
Guldemir, O. (2019). Effects of Religious Culture in Gastronomy. C. Avcıkurt and M. Sağlam (Ed.), In Sociological Perspective on Gastronomy, Ankara: Detay Publishing, pp. 71-84
Guldemir, O. (2016). Turkish Culinary Culture by Regions. In Culinary Culture. Eskişehir: Anadolu University Publications, Publication No: 32-86, pp. 106-139
Halıcı, N. (2013). Turkish Folk Cuisine, Our National Food Culture from Past to Present . Istanbul: Bookstore Publications
Hall, M. and Mitchell, R. (2002). The changing nature of the relationship between cuisine and tourism in Australia and New Zealand: from fusion cuisine to food networks. (Eds.) AM Hjalager and G. Richards, Inci Tourism and Gastronomoy, (pp. 186-206). London: Routlandge Publishing.
Iskin, M. (2020). An Exploratory Study on Determining the Suitability of a Destination for Gastronomy Tourism. (Unpublished Doctoral Thesis), Sakarya Institute of Applied Sciences, Graduate School of Education, Sakarya
Kahraman, A. (1965). History of Religions. Istanbul: Sumerian Printing House
Kara, E., Bingöl, Z., Karadağ, L. and Baysal, K. (2017). Bringing local products to tourism within the framework of gastronomic tourism: The example of Marmaris Honey House. (Eds.) Düriye Bozok, Cevdet Avcıkurt, Murat Doğdubay, Mehmet Sarıoğlan, Göksel Kemal Girgin, Researches on Gastronomy in It, (pp. 413-426). Ankara: Detay Publishing.
Kilic, R. (2013). A Philosophical and Theological Evaluation on the Relationship between Religion and Culture. Fatsa, M. (Ed.). From the Past to the Present in the Religious and Cultural Life Symposium in Giresun –I (pp. 16-21). Giresun: Giresun Special Provincial Administration Culture Series-2.
Kılıç, S. and Albayrak, A. (2012). Food and Drinks in Turks Before Islam. Turkish Studies, 7 (2), 707-716.
Kilic, S. (2011). Food and Drinks in Divine Religions. Ankara: Pendulum Publications
Közleme, O. (2012). Turkish Culinary Culture and Religion. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, Marmara University Institute of Social Sciences, Istanbul.
Küçük, A., Tümer, G. and Küçük, MA (2018). History of Religions. Ankara: Berikan Publishing House
Montanari, M. (1994). The Culture of Food. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Ono, S. and Woodard, WP (2011). Shinto: The Kami Way. Tokyo: Tuttle Publishing Özkan, A. (2009). Sister Holidays and Special Days. Istanbul: İnkılap Publishing House Özmen, N. (2011). Culture and Religion: The Turkish-Islamic Example. Manisa Celal Bayar University-
Turkish Journal of Social Sciences, 16(1), 673-678.
Ravenscroft, N. and Van Westering, J. (2002). Gastronomy and Intellectual Pro-
perty. (Eds.) AM Hjalager and G. Richards, Ince Tourism and Gastronomy, (p. 153165). London: Routlandge Publishing.
Raju, TP, Chan, WT, Kitagawa, JM, and Faruki, İ. R. (2002). Asian Religions. A. Davudoğlu (trans.), Istanbul: İnkılab Publications.
Ripe, C. (1996). Goodbye Culinary Cringe. Sydney: Allen and Unwin Publishing.
Roden, C. (2003). Jewish Food in the Middle East, Middle Eastern Cultures. Istanbul: History Foundation Yurt Publishing
Scarpato, R. (2002). Gastronomy as a Tourist Product: The Perspective of Gastronomy Studies. (Eds.) AM Hjalager and G. Richards, Ince Tourism and Gastronomy, (pp. 51-70). London: Routlandge Publishing.
Seymen, S. (2019). Göztepe-Karşıyaka: The Two Sides of İzmir. Atlas Geography Journal of Tourism Discovery, 12 (321), 86-101.
Sinclair, D. and Marcus, C. (2015). Aboriginal Food Traditional dishes surviving in the fast food era. P. Solan, W. Legrand and C. Hindley (Eds.), In The Routledge Handbook of Sustainable Food and Gastronomy, (pp. 288-316). iBooks.
Tanriverdi, H. (2018). An Evaluation on the Religion-Culture Relationship. ODU Journal of Social Sciences Research, 8(3), 595-601.
Tomlinson, J. (1991). Cultural Imperialism: A Critical Introduction. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Yemenlioglu, MM (2016). History of Religions. Istanbul: Tradition Publishing
Zaouali, L. (2016). Islamic Cuisine in the Middle Ages. B. Baysal (Trans.), Istanbul: Food for the Soul Books.
As the head chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR, I see the source:
Mr. Dr. I sincerely thank Ümit ŞENGEL for his academic studies on "Culinary Rituals in Religions" and wish him success in his professional life . It will definitely be considered as an example by those who need it in professional kitchens and the gastronomy and culinary community.
*** You can contact me through my contact information for more information on the subjects specified by labeling, taking into account my professional background in the above article, and to get support for Restaurant ConsultingKitchen Consulting  in the titles within my Service Areas. ***
Turkish Cuisine Chefs, Turkish Chef, Restaurant Consultancy, Kitchen Consultancy.
The original text, which is accepted as a source, is as follows. Google translation was used for the necessary language change.