• How to Design a Kitchen?
  • How to Design a Kitchen?
  • How to Design a Kitchen?
  • How to Design a Kitchen?
  • How to Design a Kitchen?

One of the most shining sectors of the service industry is the hospitality industry. When the hospitality industry is mentioned, accommodation and food and beverage businesses that operate for more commercial purposes come to mind. However, today, this concept includes institutions..

How to Design a Kitchen?Factors to Consider in Kitchen Design in Food and Beverage Businesses
Nurten ÇEKAL
The kitchen is the most labor-intensive section in businesses that provide food and beverage services. Today, the kitchen; It is the area where food is produced in targeted quantities, quality and standards in food and beverage businesses. These can be food and beverage businesses, accommodation businesses, and commercial and corporate food and beverage businesses. Employees working in the How to Design a Kitchen should have knowledge about the kitchen from the cook to the busboy and even to the intern. In order to realize an efficient, effective and profitable production, kitchen design must be done very carefully. 
There is no ideal kitchen model that must be followed in kitchen design. Every organization has its own unique possibilities. However, as in all matters, there are some basic rules that must be followed. A random kitchen will lead to major disruptions and more expenses in the future.
One of the most shining sectors of the service industry is the hospitality industry. When the hospitality industry is mentioned, accommodation and food and beverage businesses that operate for more commercial purposes come to mind. However, today, this concept includes institutions and organizations that provide accommodation, entertainment, transportation and food and beverage services to people while they are away from their homes for various reasons [11]. It is the most active industry of the service industry, which demands quality service for the consumer in the hospitality industry, and is the most promising industry for the country's economy. When the hospitality industry is mentioned, mostly commercial accommodation, food and beverage businesses come to mind.
 Food and beverage businesses are businesses that are out of accommodation units and only serve food and beverage services to people. Food and beverage businesses are very important for both the institution and the customer. In the modern era, as people's living standards, manners and knowledge increase, their lifestyles change. No matter where or how people expect quality service[1].
The kitchen is the place where all kinds of food are prepared, cooked and sometimes consumed due to the nature of the business. The kitchen is the heart of a business. For this reason, its location and plan in the building is very important. In addition to providing better service to their guests, tourism operators and investors also attach importance to kitchen planning and benefit from the opportunities of developing technology to the highest extent. Thus, unnecessary details and differences in the kitchen are further reduced. 
The health and safety of the personnel who will work in the kitchen is extremely important in terms of kitchen planning . Because the kitchen is a place where a large group of people and business traffic are very intense. Every business kitchen has its own unique layout. But the main regulations are the same in all kitchens. These layouts and arrangements have emerged as a result of the collaboration of the architect and the kitchen chef, who have gained years of experience. The formation of a delicious, nutritious and timely meal is directly proportional to kitchen planning [8].
A faulty kitchen causes frequent personnel changes and requires high personnel expenses. It reduces the production quality and causes loss of customers. It creates a stressful work environment. It creates many more problems for the organization. For a proper kitchen design, the architect, the owner and the operator, the kitchen chef and supervisor, and the contractor should work together [13]. In this study, it is focused on what needs to be done to create a regular kitchen.
The kitchen is small compared to the work to be done, There are special working parts. Absence of division between special working parts. The corridors are narrow. The dining room is far from the kitchen and is on another floor. Inadequate ventilation of the kitchen: Kitchen ventilation is one of the issues that need to be studied in industrial kitchens and to reach the right solutions [9]. Incorrect installation of tools and insufficient. The height of the cooker or cooker and the workbenches and the distance between them is not in accordance with the rules. 
Insufficient storage space and freezers. Absence of sinks from Kitchen Units in sufficient and necessary areas . Lack of adequate and necessary sinks. Absence of sewage drains in certain areas. The kitchen floor is slippery and difficult to clean. Lack of special garbage room [13]. Incorrect and inadequate lighting; A bright kitchen is absolutely necessary for kitchen activities. It is not possible to make good use of a dark kitchen. Not being able to use kitchen tools and materials well, burning food, breaking plates or glasses, cutting fingers, etc. It requires good lighting to be protected from the inconveniences of not seeing well. 
At any time of the day, the cabinets, pots, oven, etc. The benefit of being able to see inside them is obvious [4]. Lack of WC, shower and cloakroom for staff. Lack or absence of safety device [13].
In the construction of a regular kitchen, first of all, what kind of establishment will the business be; Whether it will be a hotel, restaurant, kebab shop and customer potential should be determined first. Then the service system should be determined. Whether the service is set menu, à la carte or table d'hôte will determine the kitchen plan. The location of the business; Being in the city center, seaside or business center is important because the customer will determine it. The level of education that will work in the kitchen, the equipment to be used in the kitchen, the capital for the business, the revolving fund, the purchasing method, the storage are very important. In addition, it should be decided with whom and with which businesses and necessary permissions should be obtained from official authorities for the business [4 and 13].
Kitchen parts need to be placed to the north. Because the north side of the building is cooler. The dining hall should be in the south. Because daylight has a positive effect on human psychology. If possible, the kitchen and the dining room should be located on the same floor and on the ground floor. The size of the kitchen area: The most accurate area should be adjusted according to the work to be done in the kitchen [13]. The principle of regular progression should be followed in the kitchen layout. According to this principle, the ranking is as follows; receiving, storage, preparation, cooking and distribution. In this progress, great attention is paid to ensure that dirty, waste, garbage and other bad substances do not come into contact with food, are not stored in the same place, and are not compared [13].
Ceiling height (minimum):3,50m. Workbench height:0.85-0.90m. Minimum height of the walls to be tiled: 1.80m. Between the work bench and the cooker (minimum): 1.25m. Between two cookers or ovens (minimum): 1.50m. Required work bench area for each cook (minimum): 1.2 m2. In terms of safety and comfort, the floor should be covered with non-slippery tile or flooring, and tile should be chosen that is resistant to oils, acids and abrasion, and is easy to clean. The desired temperature in the kitchen; hot kitchen:+25±32oC, cold kitchen, butchery +20oC. Other parts should be +20±30oC. The garbage room should be +10oC. The polluted air expelled in the ventilation system should be 1m3 and the clean air entering should be 0.80m3. In general, the lighting for the kitchen should be 200 lux, and 300-500 lux in meticulously worked areas [13].
With the industrial revolution in the world, the idea that there is a relationship between health-disease-work in humans has started to gain weight and research in this field has been given importance. The branch of science created by these researches is called Ergonomics in many countries, especially in the United States [2] Employees interact with the workplace environment. The rapid development of the industry brought up the problem of protecting employees against work accidents and occupational diseases, on the one hand, and on the other hand, revealed the concept of "ergonomics". Considering that working individuals spend most of the day at their workplaces, the necessity and importance of eliminating various factors that negatively affect their health becomes clear [3]. Too long working time 
For this reason, it is of great importance to handle the way of using the kitchen, its design, working environment and conditions from an ergonomic point of view. Creating a suitable environment in the kitchen, taking into account the anthropometric characteristics of the employee, will be effective in meeting various requirements in terms of use and solving the problems that may arise in the future. The fact that the restaurant is not only visually qualified, but also has features suitable for the working personnel is also effective in ensuring job satisfaction and preventing fatigue [6 and 14].
Although kitchen equipment is very easy to manufacture and provides flexibility in planning, there is disagreement about what height to choose. Adjustability of the hardware is desirable because there is no single height that can be suitable for all users, but it is important to achieve this economically [10]. The design of the equipment suitable for individuals prevents the employee from getting tired and strained during the action, increasing comfort and work efficiency. Improper hardware design may cause some physical and mental disorders [6]. 
In addition, a hardware design that is not compatible with the worker in commercial kitchens means potential accidents and occupational diseases. These negativities have an impact on the work continuity and productivity of the Kitchen Staff and on the psycho-social dimensions. Studies have shown that the dimensions of the equipment used should be compatible with the physical structure of the employee [5]. The design and development of the field and equipment using scientific methods in actions related to food service and production not only makes the work easier and more efficient, but also increases the quality of products and services. 
It is of great importance to handle the design and usage characteristics of the kitchen, the working environment and working conditions from an ergonomic point of view. For this, in Kitchen Departments and Kitchen ManagementIt is beneficial to choose the appropriate materials and equipment that will reduce the necessary manpower in the product and food service, the selection, placement and space arrangement of the equipment, the factors and working methods that will increase the effort of the employee. Such an application not only increases the quality and quantity of the output, but also affects the cost, time schedule, the characteristics of the material used in production and the action system [7]. Since the basic principle in kitchen design is usability and the actions carried out here, focusing the design on functionality [12], creating an environment suitable for the anthropometric characteristics of the employee, meeting various needs in terms of use is the most appropriate way to solve possible problems [7].
Before making a kitchen design, a preliminary study should be done. There are big problems in kitchens that are made wrong. Many examples of this have been found and still are. The kitchen, which is made in an untidy way, needs to be redone and rearranged. Otherwise, an irregular kitchen leads to the loss of both customers and personnel.
In order not to encounter similar problems, first of all, the kitchens of similar businesses should be visited, information should be gathered by meeting with the kitchen staff and business owner working here, and necessary research should be done. While planning the kitchen, besides the factors such as how the business will be, the customer group, the type of service, the capacity of the business, standard dimensions that are scientifically accepted in the kitchen design should be used. 
1. Aktaş, A., (2001). Food and Beverage Management in Hospitality Service Businesses. Livane Printing House, Antalya.
2. Fatherhood, CF, (2007). Ergonomics for Engineers. Nobel Publication No:831.p.1
3. Demirbilek, S., Üç Doğruk, S. and Demirbilek, T., (1995). Statistical Analysis of Major Factors Leading to Occurrence of Occupational Accidents in Turkey. Fifth Ergonomics Congress. MPM No. 70. Istanbul.
4. Gokdemir, A., (2003). Kitchen Services Management. Detail Publishing. Ankara.
5. Kalınkara, V. and Öktem, Ş., (2002). “Ergonomic Evaluation of the Suitability of Kitchen Equipment for Employees in Hotel Businesses”. Tourism in Mediterranean from Past the Future. First Tourism Congress of Mediterranean Countries. (p.527-536). April 17-21, 2002. Antalya.
6. Kalınkara, V., Salman, M., Arpacı, F. and Doğan, M., (2001). "The Ergonomic Dimension of Kitchen Design and Users' Knowledge Level of Design". 8th National Ergonomics Congress, (p.193- 200). 25-26 October 2001, Izmir.
7. Kalınkara, V., Salman, M., Özmete, E. and Arpacı, F., (1998). "Kitchen Equipment Knowledge Level of Manufacturers: Ergonomic Approach". 6th Ergonomics Congress, (p.358-371). 27-29 May 1998, Ankara.
8. Kaya, A., (2000). Basic Culinary Knowledge in the Hospitality Industry.3. Edition. Güneş Offset Printing. Izmir.
9. Mavis, F., (2006). Hotel Engineering (A Research on Energy and Water Use). Detail Publishing. Ankara.s:58.
10. Saville, B., (1970). “Kitchen Worktop Heights”, The Architects Journal, 787-790.
11. Sökmen, A., (2003). Food and Beverage Management in the Hospitality Industry. Detay Publishing. Ankara: 19.
12. Turkki, K., (1987). “Location of Kitchen Work Areas with the Microwave Oven as the Main Type of Cooking Unit”, Journal of Consumer Studies and Home Economics, 11:71-85.
13. Turkan, C., (2005). Kitchen Services Management. Exchange Publications. Istanbul.
14. Ward, JS, (1971). “Ergonomic Techniques in the Determination of Optimum Work Surface Heights”, Applied Ergonomics, 2(3): 171-177.
Important note:
As Has Chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR, Ms. I would like to thank Nurten ÇEKAL for her work. I believe that it will definitely be useful in professional kitchens and gastronomy. 
*** You can contact me through my contact information for more information on the subjects specified by labeling, taking into account my professional background in the above article, and to get support for Gastronomy Consulting in the titles within my Service Areas. ***
Turkish Cuisine Chefs, Turkish Chef, Restaurant Consultancy, Kitchen Consultancy.