• What is Molecular Gastronomy?
  • What is Molecular Gastronomy?
  • What is Molecular Gastronomy?
  • What is Molecular Gastronomy?
  • What is Molecular Gastronomy?
  • What is Molecular Gastronomy?
  • What is Molecular Gastronomy?

Molecular gastronomy practices, which is an original, creative and innovative technique that can be defined as "preparing and presenting food and beverages in different shapes and flavors by going through biochemical and physico-chemical processes", started to make a name..

Molecular Gastronomy Concept & Molecular gastronomy Gastronomy education
Menekşe CÖMERT "A" 
Osman ÇAVUŞ "B"
The rapid development of technology has enabled the use of different equipment and techniques in the field of gastronomy, as in many other fields. In this study, it is aimed to examine in detail the concept of molecular gastronomy, which has become very popular in the gastronomy world in recent years. As a result of the study, it is seen that not only chefs benefit from molecular gastronomy techniques, but also many people such as the food industry, scientists and students benefit from these techniques. 
It is also understood that molecular gastronomy techniques are still used by the world's famous chefs by constantly developing them. Chefs who apply molecular gastronomy techniques are among the most successful chefs. It is observed that most of these chefs are educated in the field of gastronomy and they are working in collaboration with universities to apply molecular gastronomy techniques. It is thought that it will be important for the development of gastronomy in our country to include more in the curricula of the schools providing education on this subject in our country and it will come to a position to compete with the world gastronomy.
Nutrition has become a pleasure rather than a necessity, as people's income levels rise and technology provides the opportunity to produce new products with more advanced machines and methods. Thus, new gastronomic trends were born with changes in the traditional cuisine (McGee, 2004; Mielby and Frost, 2010). With the increasing interest in food and cooking, the desire to understand the chemical and physical principles that determine the nature and interactions of what we eat has also increased. In the face of these developments, especially in order to maintain their competitiveness in the globalizing economy, food and beverage businesses have always been in search of applying new products and different cooking and serving techniques to these products in their kitchens. (Santich, 2004).
Molecular gastronomy practices, which is an original, creative and innovative technique that can be defined as "preparing and presenting food and beverages in different shapes and flavors by going through biochemical and physico-chemical processes", started to make a name for itself in world cuisines in the 1990s (Santich, 2004). Today, the whole culinary world, especially Michelin-starred restaurants, are trying to outdo each other by using these techniques. 
In Michelin-starred restaurants, they have started to offer many new products such as artificial caviar made from various vegetables and fruits, foam made from seaweed and plants, spaghetti made from jelly instead of pasta, corn made from foie gras (Akerdem, 2009; Aduriz, 2012). With this in mind, chefs have made efforts to constantly renew themselves in their kitchens and to present their art more freely. As a result of this situation, businesses have had the opportunity to meet the expectations of their guests seeking different and different tastes. This new trend has become a new culinary trend that is talked about and attracted attention all over the world (Tüzünkan and Albayrak, 2015).
The fact that molecular gastronomy takes place in the kitchens so quickly, that chefs using these techniques introduce their businesses and their own names to the gastronomy world, and that many gastronomy schools in the world include these techniques in their own curriculum have demonstrated the importance of molecular gastronomy once again (Sarıoğlan, 2014).
The Concept and Development of Molecular Gastronomy
The word “gastronomy” was first used in Ancient Greece. It is formed from the combination of the Greek words "Gastro" meaning stomach and "Nomos" meaning rule or regulation. The Sicilian Greek Archestratus wrote a book, Gastronomia, in the 4th century BC, which was the first food and wine guide to represent the Mediterranean region. Archestratus made many trips to discover what is best eaten and drunk and where they are found, and he found the first relationship between tourism and the concept of gastronomy (Santich, 2004).
There are many different definitions in the literature, but the first person to define gastronomy was Brillat Savarin, who lived in the 17th century and is known for his book, The Physiology of Taste. According to Brillat Savarin, the concept of gastronomy is "the systematic examination of everything related to human nutrition."( Yılmaz and Bilici, 2013) Historically and etymologically, gastronomy is; where, when, how, and in what combinations, advice and guidance on what to eat and drink. 
Gastronomy is also a life art that increases the pleasure of eating and drinking, and has knowledge and skills about food, beverage and their selection (Santich, 2004). Gastronomy in its broad sense; It is a comprehensive knowledge of all matters concerning human nutrition. The purpose of gastronomy; It is the protection of people and the enjoyment of life with the best possible nutrition. Function of gastronomy; Based on basic principles, it also provides guidance to all who seek, provide and prepare anything that can be turned into food (Sánchez-Cañizares and López-Guzmán, 2012).
In the 1980s, the introduction of molecular gastronomy was considered very necessary. At that time, science only considered the chemical composition of food ingredients or industrial processes. There was almost no study of the daily food produced by humans. For example, books like Classical Food Chemistry contained almost nothing about kitchen transformation.(This,2013)
Molecular gastronomy, on the other hand, brings food and science together and examines the transformation of foods into each other during cooking (Vega and Ubbink, 2008). In other words, this trend focuses more on the science behind good food (Snitkjaer, 2010). Therefore, it is thought that it is wrong to see molecular gastronomy as only a type of cooking (Vega and Ubbink,2008; Yılmaz and Bilici,2013).
Professor, who was the head of the physics department of Oxford University in 1969, made the first studies of molecular gastronomy, whose main purpose was to improve the current situation, to develop new food preparation methods, and as a result, to ensure that the taste of the prepared product is the same every time. He started by teaching "Physics in the Kitchen" at the Nicholas Kurti Royal Institute. 
To express that the culinary adventure, which has been going on for centuries, developed on a traditional, not scientific basis during this lesson, "As science, we know the temperature inside the stars, but unfortunately we do not know the temperature inside a soufflé." said (Yılmaz and Bilici, 2013). 
The reason for this is that people have an important reflex in the food field, such as being afraid of new things, so there are very slow and small changes when considering the food field (This, 2013). prof. Kurti later met Hungarian physicist Herve This, who determined the most suitable temperature for cooking eggs, and they organized many studies together (Yılmaz and Bilici, 2013). 
In 1988, Herve This published a book called 'Casseroles et Eprouvettes' in French and translated into English as 'Molecular Gastronomy'. A few more books have been published on this subject (Linden, 2008). According to Herve This; As three components of culinary activities; that is, we need to consider the scientific program of the discipline in three parts, knowing that it is social, artistic and technical. These; (1) to discover the technical component of the kitchen, (2) to scientifically explore the artistic component of culinary activities, and (3) to discover the social component (Linden, 2008).
With regard to technique, a distinction is made between the description of the dishes (for example, jam is made by thermally processing the fruit with water and sucrose) and sensitivities (lemon juice is added to keep the fruit white) and a third part, which includes cultural discussions and miscellaneous information of a non-technical type (This ,2013). 
One of the other important names who have worked in the field of Molecular Gastronomy, in a communiqué he gave in 2004, defined gastronomy as "The scientific study of the properties of food and beverages that give people pleasure and pleasure", in other words, "the science of being delicious". Harold McGee (McGee, 2004; Mielby and Frost, 2010). A good example of the systematic analysis and collection of basic information on cooking is in Harold McGee's 'On food and cooking: culinary science and science'. 
A different previous study in this direction was made by the French scientist Edouard Pomiane. (Linden,2008). Herve This, one of France's most famous culinary scientists, is one of the pioneers of this new culinary trend with his book 'Molecular Gastronomy: Exploring the Science of Taste' released in the USA. This person is also a chemistry doctor who is interested in the science of 'flavor'. 
Today, famous chefs such as Heston Blumenthal, Ferran Adria (el Bulli), Juan Mari Arzak (Arzak restaurant), Martin Berasategui, Andoni Luis Aduriz (Mugaritz restaurant), Pedro Subijana (Akalere restaurant), who are famous by applying these molecular techniques, laid the foundations of world-famous cuisines. . Created by Herve This et al. According to This, 'molecular gastronomy' means "preparing food and beverages in different shapes and flavors by going through biochemical and physico-chemical processes". 
This concept means the branch of science that examines how the flavors obtained from these traditionally defined food characteristics are explained physically and chemically, and how brand new flavors can be created (Kirim, 2009; Vegave Ubbink, 2008).
Only chefs and scientists were asked to attend the congress held in Erice (Sicily) in 1992 under the name of “International Molecular and Physical Gastronomy Workshop” and experimental presentations were made after each discussion. This congress led to the recognition of the name 'Molecular Gastronomy' among world chefs. 
Thus, communication between chiefs and scientists began for the first time. For example, Raymond Blanc, the chef of a famous restaurant near Oxford, observed that “when vinegar is boiled, its acidity decreases” and called Kurti and This and asked them to explain this. However, as a result of laboratory studies, it was concluded that it would not be possible to say anything about boiling will reduce acidity, since the contents of different vinegars will be different (Krim, 2009; This, 2011).
With the congresses held in this field and the participation of more restaurant chefs and scientists to these congresses, the interest in molecular gastronomy has increased rapidly day by day. In recent years, within the scope of molecular drinks, which is a branch of molecular gastronomy, some liquors and alcoholic beverages have been made to be eaten with cutlery on plates. Sometimes, whiskey pieces that are made into beads, such as small pearls, are placed in a glass filled with water and chewed while drinking the water. 
In the new culinary approach called molecular gastronomy, liquid nitrogen, enzymes and lasers can bring new features and shapes to foods and beverages. Experts describe these practices as "Scientific examination of the properties of food and beverages that give people pleasure and enjoyment and transforming them accordingly". For example, the subject of how the taste function of the brain is fulfilled and how to enjoy a meal with this information is the field of interest of molecular gastronomy. In other words, it can be expressed as "the science of increasing the taste" (Krim, 2009; Krigasa et al., 2015).
Molecular gastronomy, called a new culinary trend, is known to be the most exciting development of creative cuisine. Chefs say it's fashionable to offer their customers fake caviar made with sodium alginate and calcium, spaghetti made with vegetables, and ice cream made using liquid nitrogen. 
In the British Magazine Restaurant Magazine (2004), the top three among the 50 best restaurants in the world are El Bulli and its chef Ferran Adria from Spain, Fat Duck and chef Heston Blumenthal from England, and Pierre Gagnaire, who has a restaurant in Paris in France. . 
In 2005, Blumenthal took first place and Adria took second place. What is remarkable here is that all three of these talented and popular chefs have used molecular gastronomy techniques in their kitchens (This, 2006). In 2006-2007-2008, the first three places in the list of the best 50 restaurants in the world, once again famous for their molecular gastronomy practices, 1.El 121
Bulli/Spain, 2. The Fat Duck/England, 3. Pierre Gagnaire/France (William Reed Business Media Ltd , 2015). In 2009, 1. El Bulli and 2. The Fat Duck were in the first two places among the top ten, while Arzak/Spain was in the 8th place and Pierre Gagnaire was in the 9th place. In 2010, while El Bulli was in the 2nd place, The Fat Duck was in the 3rd place (E, Özkan, & AK, Kemer, 2016). 
In 2015, El Celler De Can Roca was placed in the first place, while Osteria Francescana was in the second place and Noma was in the third place. Today, Chef Massimo Bottura's Osteria Francescana ranks first in the world's 50 best restaurants in 2016, while El Celler De Can Roca is in the second place and Eleven Madison Park restaurant is in the third place, the chef of which is Daniel Humm. It is seen that the common features of these restaurants and chefs are to develop and use molecular gastronomy techniques.
Examples from Molecular Gastronomy Applications
The most important feature of this new kitchen is to play with the molecular structures of the materials by making use of the opportunities offered by technology and at the same time to present the materials that cannot be thought to come together. Examples are caviar ice cream and various desserts made from seaweed. In molecular gastronomy, chefs' approaches to cuisine and ingredients are very similar to that of a biochemist. For example, the following techniques are used in cooking: 
Pulverization (substance changing from gaseous state to liquid state or dissolving in water), emulsifiers (substances that help to obtain a heterogeneous mixture formed by dispersing a liquid in another liquid without dissolving), centrifuge (revolving at high speed creates centrifugal force and with this force, it is made of materials with different specific gravity). It is the process and tool for separating the formed homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures) (Bluementhal and Lister, 2005; Crimea, 2009). 
Chef Ferran Adria has developed the famous "foam" method and with this technique, for example, carrots or lemons or seaweed, for example, breaks the molecular structure and turns them into a soap bubble. As a result, the aromas of the materials used become more intense and the flavor increases excessively (Kirim, 2009).
Using molecular gastronomy techniques; spherical liquids (fruit and vegetable flakes), creating intense flavors in foods, foods made using liquid nitrogen, serving foods at unusual temperatures, serving foods using foaming technique, foods prepared by sous-vide technique, and hot jellies can be prepared. Examples of these applications can be listed as follows:
Spherical Liquids (Fruit and Vegetable Bursting)
Pureed or liquefied food materials can be given excellent 'spherical' shapes. A wrapping material such as a ball can be formed on the outside and a liquid material can be found inside. In this way, when the ball thrown into the mouth is bitten, the ball may burst and a liquid flavor can be spread into the mouth. As an example of the first applications in this field; El Bulli's Melon Caviar, Mugaritz restaurant's strawberry blast and Arzak restaurant's chocolate waterfall can be given (García-Segovia et al2014;Aduriz,2012).
Intense Aromas
Unusual aromatic techniques such as serving the shrimp on warm natural vanilla beans, processing the steak with apple wood chips or smoking the pheasant with straw-apple burn are used in these modern kitchens (Aduriz, 2012).
Liquid Nitrogen
Nitrogen gas is a colorless and odorless gas that makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere, also known as nitrogen gas. Liquid nitrogen, on the other hand, is obtained from the liquefaction of nitrogen gas of this gas. Liquid nitrogen, which has a temperature of about -196 °C, is used in many sectors, especially medicine, due to this feature. 
But recently, thanks to world-renowned innovative chefs, this substance has been used frequently in kitchens. They use this method to freeze food and drink immediately, creating steam, fog, and impressive clouds when exposed to air. This method is mostly used in making quick ice cream and in various visual presentations (Jones2011; Comfort Zone, 2014).
One of the most famous applications of the culinary school called molecular gastronomy is ice cream made in liquid nitrogen. This recipe was first published in Scientific American in 1994 and its title was described as "Chemistry Cooking". In later periods, especially in Spain, some chefs used liquid nitrogen to cook some meats and vegetables. As it is known, nitrogen provides very rapid cooling. Therefore, it can be very dangerous, chefs who will work with liquid nitrogen must have a certain knowledge about this substance.
Unusual Temperature
Another application of the Molecular Gastronomy school is to serve frozen foods that are expected to be consumed hot, and to serve hot products that should be consumed cold. For example; It offers extraordinary practices that are difficult to accept at first, such as serving gelatin hot and fuagra (foie gras) frozen (Kirim, 2006).
Foam Technique
Food sauces in foam form are a technique applied by the chefs of El Bulli restaurant in Spain, Ferran Adria, Arzak and Andoni Luiz Aduriz. The chefs who first applied this technique surprised their guests; However, as a result of the development of technological kitchen equipment (Thermomix, Pacojet), everyone can now obtain the cube of the fruit and vegetable they want by using very little natural lecithin (Aduriz, 2012).
Sous-Vide Technique
Sous Vide is a French term and it is defined as a cooking technology in which foods are cooked in vacuumed plastic bags and at low temperature for a long time by applying the desired temperature. Sous Vide or vacuum cooking method technology emerged in the early 1960s and is now widely used in restaurants, catering services and the food industry, especially when it comes to meat-fish and their derivatives. This technique was first used by George Pralus in 1970. It was tested by applying low heat to the raw product. 
Then, the product was cooked by putting it in heat-proof vacuum bags by Ready (1971) and different time/temperature applications were tried on the technique created. It is thought that healthy and delicious meals can be prepared by everyone by using basic knowledge and appropriate devices with Sous Vide technology, which is essentially a kind of cold storage technique for ready-to-eat foods. 
Chief Chefs can enrich their menus by creating excellent dishes with more advanced knowledge and technological devices. Especially Michelin starred chefs use the sous vide technique to keep the temperature at the desired level and offer very different products. For example, truffle sauce was injected into the yolk of a poached egg and a different flavor and presentation was started with egg yolk (Espinosa et al, 2015; Roldán et al, 2015).
Hot Jellies
One of the most used techniques by molecular gastronomy chefs is to serve jellies hot. Normally used food jelly materials take the form of jelly after the food has cooled. However, by using substances called agar-agar or Calcium Alginate, it can be ensured that the food item maintains its jelly form even when hot. The best examples of this are the hot jelly of various liqueurs prepared by Spanish chefs.
Some Additives Used in Molecular Gastronomy Applications Agar-Agar
Agar-Agar is obtained from red algae and sea grass. This substance, which has been used in Asian cuisines for centuries, has no odor or taste. It is used to present foods in jelly form. The code for natural food additives is E 406. The World Health Organization and many countries have allowed it to be used as a natural additive in foods. 
Agar-agar, a natural polysaccharide, is produced by different seaweeds of the Rhodophyceae family (Gelidium amansii, G. cartilagineum) in the USA and Japan (Sharma, 2015). It has thickening and emulsifying properties. It is used in many different products. There is no limit to the acceptable daily intake. 
However, high concentrations cause gas and bloating due to the fermentation of intestinal microflora. Agar-agar can be consumed by all religious groups, only vegetarians who do not eat meat, and vegetarians who do not eat milk and dairy products in addition to meat (Freitasa et al., 2012). The healthy use of agar-agar in food production is guaranteed by the experience of more than 300 years of use in some countries. It is accepted and approved for use by the laws of England, Germany, Russia, France and Poland. 
The US FDA (Food and Pharmaceutical Association) organization has given agar-agar a GRAS rating. (“Generally considered healthy.”). It is mostly used in aspic, jelly, ice cream, jam, yoghurt, confectionery and dairy products. The agar-agar added to the liquid mixture is heated and condensed, then removed from the fire and poured into molds in different forms and left to cool at room temperature. It takes the shape of these molds and becomes jelly. It is mostly used for thickening pie fillings, decorating gels, meringues, cake coating candies, cookies, cream cheese, fermented dairy products (Freitasa et al., 2012).
Algin (Algin)- Alginate (Alginate)
Algin (Algin)- Alginate (Alginate) Alginates isolated from brown seaweed are used for multi-purpose in the food industry. It is the sodium salt of alginic acid (E400), a natural polysaccharide (Freitasa et al., 2012). Alginic acid, which is its source, is produced by different seaweeds of the Phaeophyceae family (Macrocystis pyrifera, Laminaria digitata, L. cloustoni, Ascophyllum nodosum) in the USA and England (Freitasa et al., 2012). It has thickening and emulsifying properties. 
It is used in many different products. The acceptable daily intake is not specified. It has no known side effects at the concentrations used. High concentrations cause a decrease in iron intake (as it binds iron). 
Alginic acid and alginates can be consumed by all religious groups, vegetarians who do not eat meat only, and vegetarians who do not eat milk and dairy products in addition to meat. It is used as a stabilizer in ice cream, sherbet and cheese, as a gelling agent in milk pudding and gel-formed juicy desserts, as a thickener in soft drinks, as a foam stabilizer in beer, and as an emulsifier in mayonnaise. It is also used as a film-forming agent in the coating of meat, fish and other similar products. 
Alginates were first used in canned goods for sailors in the 1920s. Alginate gels are heat resistant. Due to its ability to form gel without heat exchange, sodium alginate is used in cake fillings to increase the resistance of ornaments to melting during baking. It can remain stable against melting during pasteurization and baking in the preparation of fruit pies. 
It functions as the preservation of the structure of the fruit pieces placed in cakes and cakes during baking and as a foam stabilizer in low-fat cream (Krigasa et al., 2015; Aliste et al., 2000). In molecular gastronomy, alginates are used to make liquid substances bead or to gain the appearance of caviar.
Xanthan Gum (Xanthan Gum)
It is a high molecular polysaccharide chain produced by a pure culture fermentation of carbohydrate with Xanthomonas campestris. As a gum it is classified as hydrophilic colloids and derivatives. Xanthan Gum, known by the code E415, is used as a stabilizer and thickener additive in food production. One of the most remarkable features of xanthan gum is that it can increase the consistency at a high rate even at very low concentrations. 
It is used at a rate of 0.5%, even 0.05% in many food products. Chefs generally use this product; bakery products, bakery stuffing, gel and mixes, batter mixes, biscuit fillers, brine solution for bread, ham injection, cake mixes, muffins, canned foods, spread cheese, chewing gum, chocolate sauce, coleslaw garnishing, candies, cottage cheese , cream cheese, dairy products, sweet cream, sweet mixes are also used (Aduriz, 2012).
Scientific and Practical Role of Molecular Gastronomy
An important role of molecular gastronomy is to bridge the gap between art, craftsmanship and science. Kitchen; It can be considered as a meeting place where chefs known for their artistry, creativity and mastery can communicate with scientists who are known for their experimentalism, rationality and commitment to scientific methods. Creative chef and food science are thought of as separate pursuits. One of them is mentioned with its creative and craftsman character, while the other is mentioned with its rationality. At the same time, successful scientists and chefs unite to achieve excellence in their chosen field. 
While scientists are trying to discover how things work at the most basic level, chefs are trying to create unusual, delicious flavors (Vega and Ubbink, 2008 ). 
Chefs trying to create modern dishes use their creativity to create new food forms, compositions and flavors using traditional and non-traditional ingredients and tools. While revealing these new dishes, they play with the ingredients of traditional and forgotten dishes and present them to people in a different way by making use of molecular techniques. 
In fact, the factor that makes chefs successful is the presentation of flavors that people know beforehand in different forms with the help of scientists. The best example of this is the scientific studies that Mugaritz restaurant chef Andoni Luis Aduriz has done with food technology institutes of many universities (Aduriz, 2012; Virginia Navarroa et al., 2012).
In molecular gastronomy, the subject of interest for chefs is taste and presentation. The aim of the chefs is to surprise their guests with both taste and different presentations by using these different techniques. For example; They are interested in the 'taste' of foie gras and attract the attention of the guests by pressing the foie gras into a corn mold cut in half, and then using various chemicals to give the foie gras the color of corn. 
They approach the concept of cooking, which is perceived as an art rather than a science, from a scientific point of view. Topics range from simple (the role of salt in cooking vegetables) to complex (gas chromatography of volatile flavors in foods) and entertainment (smoke from the mouth and nose in the consumption of products produced by the use of liquid nitrogen as a refrigerant) (Blumenthal 2005; Vega and Ubbink, 2008).
Molecular gastronomy provides communication between artists, scientists, students and society. The dissemination of correct knowledge from the academic field to the educational bodies and the transfer of knowledge at different levels can be in various ways. In this context, chefs can be told not only with the eyes of a cook/chef, but also with the perspective of looking at the products from the perspective of a scientist. 
He first started doing this practice in his lectures at the Harold McGee French Culinary Institute. McGee argued that the success of individuals does not depend on the amount or type of knowledge they have acquired during the course, but instead introduces them to different ways of thinking and approaching problems (McGee, 2004; Mielby & Frost, 2010). 
This different way of thinking can be called hypothetical thinking with solution-oriented approaches based on basic knowledge rather than specific knowledge about a particular product or material. This general knowledge can offer solutions to realize his creative thoughts. Especially in recent years, molecular gastronomy has started to take its place in the curriculum as a course in many schools of the world in order to bring this idea to the students who will work in the field of gastronomy and receive this education (Virginia Navarroa et al., 2012).
Another feature of molecular gastronomy has been the reason for bringing academics and chefs together. Today, many academicians use the kitchens of famous chefs as a working area and assist the chefs, and in the same way, chefs assist academicians in the application parts of the courses. The best example of this can be shown as the fact that all the teachers of the Busque Culinary Center in San Sebastian are composed of chefs (Aduriz,2012; Garcia-Segovia et al.,2014).
Sectors Benefiting from Molecular Gastronomy
If molecular gastronomy continues to evolve as a serious field of study, the presence of scientists, chefs, society and strong adherents spanning the food industry will also influence this development. Therefore, it can be said that molecular gastronomy has a role in the development of all of these areas. 
Molecular gastronomy offers chefs a better understanding of the processes during the preparation of dishes, the preparation of new dishes by chefs, as well as the option to improve the ingredients and preparation rules of many traditional dishes. 
Molecular gastronomy enables scientists to put their specialist work in a wider context and to appreciate the importance of what they do. It shows cooperation, communication and integration. It provides the raising of questions and problems for future studies. Considering the benefits for students; molecular gastronomy makes education fun. 
However, as students learn to reveal different presentations and flavors, their self-confidence increases. It also offers students more study areas and creates a research area for thesis studies (This, 2011).
Molecular Gastronomy Sustainability
Molecular gastronomy has recently emerged as a term frequently used in the field of food and beverage. However, when we look at the purpose and application areas of molecular gastronomy, people used such techniques centuries ago to reach the same result, even though today's technological equipment and food additives were not available. 
For example, using some thickeners (flour, plant roots, etc.) to thicken liquids, boiling some herbs in nature to improve the smell and appearance of some dishes, and mixing them into dishes are considered for the same purpose as today's practices. Today, it is thought that this technique is gradually developing and that it appears under the name of molecular gastronomy because it arouses more excitement in people than it sounds good to journalists and some scientists. 
The point that should not be forgotten is that chefs have to constantly improve themselves and their techniques in order to survive in free market competition. Therefore, it may appear in the future under a different name, not molecular gastronomy. What should not be forgotten is that it can evolve and appear in different forms (Virginia Navarroa et al., 2012).
Conclusion and Recommendations
The rapid development of technology has increased the use of new equipment and products in the food and beverage sector, as in all areas. In addition to these developments, there has been a rapidly increasing interest in the phenomenon of eating and drinking in the society with the interest of the written and visual media. 
The best example of this is scientists' interest in cuisine (Snitkjaer, 2010). As a result of this interest, the concept of molecular gastronomy was born as a result of the work carried out in the kitchen by scientists such as Nicolas Kurti and Herve This in the 1980s (Vega and Ubbink, 2008 ). Thanks to molecular gastronomy, chefs and scientists have started to work together in the kitchen, this situation provides the chefs, that is, the products with competitive power by making special presentations, while providing new study subjects to the scientists (Aduriz, 2012; Virginia Navarroa et al., 2012).
One of the important results of this study is that molecular gastronomy techniques are frequently used by world-renowned chefs and restaurants. Looking at the top 50 restaurant categories in the world, it is seen that restaurant chefs, who have been in the top 10 in the last 10 years, use molecular gastronomy techniques by developing them. In addition, by using these techniques, these chefs surprise their guests with different flavors and extraordinary presentations, and they make great economic gains by turning their countries and regions into a gastronomy center. 
For example, until 20 years ago, when the gastronomy center was mentioned, Italy and France came to mind first. However, today, chef René Redzepi (Noma restaurant) has started the world not only with the name of the Noma restaurant, but also with the trend of northern cuisine (Nordic Cusine) with the extraordinary menus he applies. At the same time, restaurant chefs in the city of Lima, Peru, modernized local products using molecular gastronomy techniques, making them amongst the top 50. As a result of this, Peruvian cuisine has started to be talked about in world gastronomy (Gürs, 2016).
As can be understood from the studies, it is seen that the chefs who apply molecular gastronomy techniques are among the most successful chefs. It is also known that many of these chefs are trained in the field of gastronomy. It is also known that chefs collaborate with universities on the application of molecular gastronomy techniques (Aduriz 2012).
It is understood from the literature that a certain education should be taken in this field in order to apply molecular gastronomy techniques. It is seen that molecular gastronomy lessons are given in the curriculum of schools that provide gastronomy education in the world. With this study, it is aimed to examine the concept of molecular gastronomy in detail. 
In the study to be carried out in the continuation of this study, it is thought that it will be useful to examine the education levels of students studying gastronomy in Turkey on molecular gastronomy and their perspectives on this technique. In addition, it is thought that the results of the study to be carried out may be important for Turkish gastronomy to compete with world gastronomy.
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As the head chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR, I see the source:
Ms. I sincerely thank Menekşe CÖMERT "A" and Osman ÇAVUŞ "B" for their academic studies titled "Molecular Gastronomy Concept & Molecular gastronomy Gastronomy education" and wish them success in their professional lives. It will definitely be considered as an example by those who need it in professional kitchens and the gastronomy and culinary community.
*** You can contact me through my contact information for more information on the subjects specified by labeling, taking into account my professional background in the above article, and to get support for Gastronomy Consulting in the titles within my Service Areas. ***
Turkish Cuisine Chefs, Turkish Chef, Restaurant Consultancy, Kitchen Consultancy.