• Gastronomy And Mythology
  • Gastronomy And Mythology
  • Gastronomy And Mythology
  • Gastronomy And Mythology
  • Gastronomy And Mythology
  • Gastronomy And Mythology
  • Gastronomy And Mythology
  • Gastronomy And Mythology
  • Gastronomy And Mythology
  • Gastronomy And Mythology

The use of the name "gastronomy" in the field of education is an important development. The awareness and awareness of the public and organizations on issues such as local production and local seeds has increased the importance attributed to "locality", and has brought..

Current Trends in Gastronomy
Gastronomy, food and beverage business, food, engineering, nutrition and dietetics, health, art, agriculture, tourism, history, marketing, archeology, belief, mythology, ecology, education, psychology, sociology, philosophy, physics, chemistry, biology, It emerges as a discipline that shows a multidimensional structure such as technology, cookery, tradition, culture and cultural heritage and can be handled with different aspects in this direction. 
As can be understood from this expression, gastronomy exhibits a tangible and intangible feature. Gastronomy not only points to a process for the production and dissemination of healthy foods, but also includes efforts to scientifically explain known falsehoods and to find ways to mass production.
It can be stated that important events or discoveries that can be evaluated in the field of gastronomy in the world begin with the existence of human beings. Let alone that the legends show themselves in art series and historical artifacts, allowing the information obtained to be compared with today, on the other hand, a certain accumulation has been provided thanks to the settled life after the hunter-gatherer period and the technological developments in each period, and especially in the 1700s, gastronomy has become the norm. It was an important turning point in terms of being handled meticulously. 
Both the effort to explain the behaviors of people on eating and drinking, which is among the mandatory needs of people, and the revealing of food and beverage production techniques and production areas have also increased the interest in this subject. From revealing cultural differences and similarities to making sensory and chemical analyzes; From gastronomy, which is curious as a value, to the provision of hygiene factors, the trend towards gastronomy has accelerated. 
COVID-19, on the other hand, has led businesses to integrate Ultra Violet-Ultraviolet (UV) rays, which they had not even thought of before, to their businesses, to review other technologies and to approach consumer preferences in a different way. 
The use of the name "gastronomy" in the field of education is an important development. The awareness and awareness of the public and organizations on issues such as local production and local seeds has increased the importance attributed to "locality", and has brought applications such as local seed museum and local seed exchange activities in order to spread local production.
It can be stated that studies in the field of gastronomy in Turkey started to come to the fore in the 2000s. Among the discussions about being healthy for gastronomy, the emphasis of functional food, for example, the creation of a list of products that should not be sold in educational institutions where children in the developmental / growing age continue their education, the production and marketing of products such as probiotic-containing products, were among the main important issues. 
Research on finding healing from nature, which can be examined under gastronomy, appears as another niche area. While tourists travel for purposes such as learning and tasting the food and beverage production process from farm to table, gastronomy tourism is among the tourism types, while the distinctiveness of products such as geographical marking and the realization of commercial activities for the protection of consumers make a separate contribution to societies. Now, gastronomic values ​​draw attention in cultural heritage lists. 
While it is thought that those who do not ignore neurogastronomy and personality traits for the gastro experience, who offer more personal plates and display vertical agricultural products can gain a different advantage in the competition, it will not be wrong to say that the studies of products such as artificial meat and vegetarian milk are surprising. 
On the other hand, it is a positive trend that efforts such as the prevention of wastes arising from food and beverage production point to sustainable approaches under the umbrella of gastronomy. According to all this information, the effects of gastronomy on societies and on gastronomy of societies should be revealed/discussed in terms of this broad and intricate structure. 
In this context, the realization of written, technological, visual and applied studies on gastronomy will shed light on the gastronomy literature. In this context, it is important to increase the resources that include printed, online and other scientific studies. This study was revealed with the contributions of authors from different fields of expertise in order to address the current issues of gastronomy needed in the field of gastronomy.
The study consists of a total of 15 chapters. The first part of the study was handled by Ms. Tulga ALBUSTANLIOĞLU and tried to explain the relationship between mythology and gastronomy under the title of "Gastronomy and Mythology". "Artistic Trends in Gastronomy: The Importance of Visual Representation and Contribution of Basic Art Knowledge to Effective Presentation Techniques", which constitutes the second part, was explained by Nurcan DURMAZ. 
In the third part, the subject of "Geographically Indicated Products and Cultural Heritage in Gastronomy" was examined by Mrs. Falla ÖNCÜ GLAUE. In the fourth chapter, "Trends in Local Production: A Study on Honey Production", examined by Ms. Elçin NOYAN, is presented.
In the fifth chapter, "Functional Food Trends" was written by Mr. İlkay YILMAZ.
"Current Trends in Gastronomy Tourism" examined by Mr. Mehmet Sedat İPAR constitutes the sixth part of the study. In the seventh chapter, "Trends in the Mass Food Sector" analyzed by Ms. Turgay BUCAK and Ms. Gizem AKÇURA are included. In the eighth chapter, "New Practices in Food and Beverage Businesses: COVID-19" discussed by Mr. Gürkan KALKAN is explained. 
In the ninth chapter, "Innovations in the Food and Beverage Sector", prepared by Ms. Gizem AKCURA and Ms. Turgay BUCAK, takes place. In the tenth chapter, there is the subject of "Cellular Agriculture Practice and Other Trends in Food Production Technology" examined by Ms. Burcu KAYA and Ms. Gözde TÜRKÖZ BAKIRCI. In the eleventh chapter, "An Alternative Protein Source: Artificial Meat" was studied by Mr. Haluk ERGEZER. 
The "Unique Plates" that make up the twelfth chapter: 
"Personalized Gastronomy" was discussed by Ms. Kübra KIRBAÇ and Ms. Tolga AKCAN. The thirteenth part consists of "Neurogastronomy and Gastro Experience" examined by Ms. Nihan GÖĞÜŞ BAĞIŞ and Ms. Ayşe KAYABAŞI. "Personality Traits Affecting Food Consumption of Individuals in Gastronomy" in the 14th section Explained by Gülşen BAYAT. 
In the last chapter, the fifteenth chapter, Ms. Şeyma ANDAŞ and Ms. Gözde TÜRKÖZ BAKIRCI presented a study on "Trends in Waste Management and the Freeganism Trend".
As the editors, we would like to thank the authors who contributed in the scope of "Gastronomy" and those who contributed to the publication of this book, which is prepared to be useful to readers who are interested in gastronomy and do research in this field.
Editorial Team
Izmir, 2021 Tolga Akcan 
Isparta, 2021 Günseli Güçlütürk Baran 
Izmir, 2021 Gamze Ozogul
The concept of mythology has been constructed as a combination of belief systems since ancient times. It is assumed that this concept began to be used with the emergence of man and has been shaped by the social structure of each period and has survived to the present day. It is thought that man believes in a power different from himself, especially in his war with nature, and sees it as the protector of nature and, in a way, of himself. It can be said that people started to shape nature according to their own structure, especially in their living space, and adapted more mystical concepts to their lives with the transition to agriculture. 
In the Neolithic period, human beings started to cultivate the soil and realized that the seeds they planted were at the center of their lives. They realized that the natural events, which they thought were necessary for the seed to sprout from the soil but could not be explained with a scientific point of view, that the product matured more quickly and was delicious due to factors such as rain and sun, they performed religious ceremonies called rituals to show their loyalty to the power that provides and maintains fertility. started to give them a share of their products. Over the course of time, these superhuman powers have been personified and names have begun to be given to them.
These mystical characters lived like humans, walked among them, ate and drank like them. The only difference was that they were immortal. Over time, protective characters of each agricultural product began to appear. Although these divine personalities were called by different names in each civilization or cultural community, the products they represented were almost common. 
This developing new mystical current flourished in different societies. In the relations of civilizations with each other, they found new homelands for themselves. Although gods and goddesses were immortal, they had to be fed because they lived like humans. Especially with the treatment of plants, which were considered as gastronomic elements in ancient times, but also called pharmacology, important nutrients for the field of medicine emerged. 
Products such as honey, olive-olive oil, grape-wine, barley-beer, which could not be perceived only as nutrients, were seen as divine products. As the number of gods and goddesses increased, so did the products. People began to eat and drink not only to fill their stomachs, but also at the feasts they organized in honor of gods and goddesses.
The best parts of these dishes were reserved for the gods. This mystical structure, which developed over time, has also deeply affected the food culture. Societies that held the power as civilization spread their mythological stories and food varieties with them into their spheres of influence. They built temples and minted coins for their mythological characters and the products that represented them, but most importantly they also created the containers in which these products would be stored, stored and cooked. 
The stories of gods and goddesses representing the product began to appear on these gastronomic containers as pictures. Besides gods and goddesses, demigods and heroes have been an integral part of this mystical gastronomy.
Man's relationship with food dates back tens of thousands of years. In the Paleolithic Age, which is called the hunter-gatherer period, although it is defined as primitive, food togetherness emerges as an important ritual in the social hierarchy. The game animals depicted on the cave walls in the Paleolithic period probably have a religious meaning and it is thought that the meat eaten in their living spaces is an effort to give a share to the power that they consider superior to themselves or to make them happy in a certain ritual. 
This ritual is not only performed to please a divine power, but it is also seen as a necessity for the subsequent hunts to be more fruitful and for life to be passed without any problems. In other words, human beings, who have passed from hunter-gatherer order to agricultural society and farming, have always seen the encounter with the soil, the planting of crops and the harvesting of them as a part of a ritual.
The concept of "Mother Earth" in mythology can be considered as a reflection of this belief. 
The "Earth" that produced the product always had feminine features. The "Mother Goddess" figures that emerged in Çatalhöyük make the shaped form of this concept even more concrete. In the feudal structure tied to the land, the woman not only depicted the land, but also symbolized fertility and productivity. The sprouting and harvesting of the soil and the seeds planted in the soil led to the emergence of many different rituals and new concepts depending on these rituals in the "Agricultural Process" called the Neolithic period.
The most important feature of these personified concepts is that they symbolize eternal life or are immortal. In the process that started with the Neolithic period, since all factors such as air, water, sun, wind, rain, which are necessary for the germination of the seed planted in the soil, are considered important for the fruitfulness of the product, each of them has been attributed divine features and personified with these features. 
All the elements involved in the food production of human beings have been identified with a god or goddess mythologically with divine thinking in order for the continuation of life and for people to be healthier. In today's gastronomy trends, it is one of the important trends to reflect the works, from a mythological and artistic point of view, on the products produced in food and beverage businesses, tools such as containers, plates, glasses, and souvenirs, especially in the revealing of products with a theme or a story, and providing cultural transfer, promotion and research. is one of the ways.
1. Gastronomic Elements in Prehistoric Mythology
The Mother Goddess of the Neolithic Period was transformed into the goddess Artemis in the ancient period and many products associated with her were attributed to this goddess. One of the abundance and fertility symbols of Goddess Artemis is related to honey and bee. Honey has also been used in agriculture, perfume making and cosmetics, and in other fields such as mummification. The remaining honeycomb parts of the honey have been the subject of wax production for different purposes from lighting to medicine and painting. 
Considering the divine values ​​attributed to this fragrant divine liquid, it also emerged as the main offering object in rituals. It has been an important source of income as a commercial object, especially in lands that were not suitable for agriculture in ancient times. Many written sources from the ancient period convey information on beekeeping and honey production (1).
Although there is no evidence of awareness of honey in Paleolithic Anatolia, it is thought to be a product that should be included in the diet. Located in Konya/Çumra, the characteristic center of the Neolithic period, BC. The depictions seen in Çatalhöyük frescoes dated to 7,000 BC constitute the earliest evidence that honey was consumed by Anatolian people in this period (2). 
Unfortunately, there is not much evidence of honey and beekeeping in the Old Bronze Age. It is possible to say that honey was included in the historical records as an important product in the Assyrian Trade Colonies and later Hittite Age, which entered the written history period. 
An Assyrian merchant “Pilah-Shtar” and his family are mentioned on a clay tablet in the Ankara Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, while the name honey is mentioned next to some products such as bread, beer, wine, oil and onions. provides information. It is understood from the fact that honey was an important product in the Hittite Age, and that they made laws about beekeeping and honey. 
Hittite cuneiform tablets prove that honey always took an important place among the foods offered to the gods. So much so that in the ceremonies of summoning the gods, it is desired that the gods return again from those distant places where they went by pouring honey on their way. In fact, in the myth of the "Lost God" of the Hittites, a bee was assigned to search for Telepinu, who took fertility and abundance with him. On the other hand, it is stated that the Hittites were important bread producers and bakers. 
NINDA.LAL, Hittite Milit, which is mentioned in the Hittite breads, is an important example of the type of bread made with honey, which is associated with the word honey. As far as we can learn from the Hittite texts, it is known that honey was used in the treatment of mental and physical diseases. Glucose and fructose, which make up the content of honey, are important sources of carbohydrates, and this feature was probably discovered by the ancient people. Again, especially when the meat is fried, it is marinated with olive oil and honey. (3).
Ancient sources, Plinius, Strabo and Heredotos, mentioned that beekeeping and honey production are as important as wine and figs in the vicinity of Aydın and Muğla, which are located in the Western Anatolia region today. The archive of a person named Zenon, who lived in the ancient city of Kaunos, located in the borders of Ortaca district of Muğla province today, is extremely important in that it is the earliest data that includes the existence of beekeeping activities in the Hellenistic Period in the Caria Region and that the honey produced was exported to Egypt. This data is also an indication that honey production has an important place in the economic life of the region (4).
The tradition of keeping the bees together by hitting a tin and making a sound by the god of wine Dionysus by ringing the bell, and the tradition of keeping the bees together by hitting a tin, and the use of honey by the famous physician Hippocrates from ancient times to the present, as well as the "honey flowing from his mouth", which is also called the art of eloquence in social life. It would be wrong to consider the fact that the expression "" has reached the present day as a coincidence. 
There is a bee depiction on the obverse of the coins found in the Temple of Artemis, Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World. This bee depiction represents Artemis Ehpesia, one of the Anatolian goddesses with native features, and Ephesus, the city of this temple. In fact, although the cult of the Mother Goddess is called with different names in all ancient Anatolian Civilizations, it is a reflection of the worship of the Mother Goddess, such as Kubaba in the Hittites and Kybele in Phrygia, and its origins date back to Çatalhöyük. 
An important group among the nuns of the Temple of Ephesus Artemis (Artemision) was the nuns called "Mellierai", which means "Bees". This group of nuns takes its name from the plural form of the word Melissa meaning "Bee" (1).
It would be correct to include some arguments here that the multiple breasts depicted in the Anatolian multi-breasted Artemis or Artemis Polymastos sculpture could also be a drone body or bee egg. When the sculpture is examined as a whole, lions, goats, bulls, griffins and bees stand out in the frame decorations on the lower part of her dress. 
Based on these descriptions, it is concluded that the sculpture represents abundance, fertility and productivity. In fact, there is a tradition in ancient Anatolian culture that connects the bee with mythology and religious rituals. It can be easily said that the bee's being seen as a sacred creature in Ionia and Caria regions has its origins in the Hittites and perhaps even more ancient traditions (5).
It would not be wrong to describe Artemis, the chief goddess of the city of Ephesus, as the “Queen Bee” in this sense. It should be said that bees are also sacred to Muses or Muses, the muses that are said to emerge as bees from time to time. In the ancient myth, it is mentioned that the fairy named Melissa discovered honey and taught the other fairies to mix it with water and use it as a drink. 
For this reason, it should not be regarded as a coincidence that the "Holy Bees" or "Bee Women" took place in a permanent religious structure in ancient Anatolia. It should be noted that the prophecy, mystery and Hymnos formed within the cult of the “Bee Woman” sometimes take place with rhythmic dances and costumes in the cult of the Mother goddess representing “Nature”. Recent research reveals that the rhythmic dance performed in rituals related to bees in ancient times created a choreography in the style of "Bee Dance" performed by bees while making honey (6).
When the Anatolian Neolithic Period is examined, women have always led the agricultural process. The fact that this ancient soil revealed the Mother Goddess in the Neolithic Period, Kubaba in the Hittites, or Kybele in the Phrygians, as a female representation, and that it created the Earth-Fertility-Fertility trilogy, which no civilization could and could not achieve, is perceived as truly extraordinary. 
The connection of women with the land must have started with the Paleolithic Period, long before the agricultural process we call the Neolithic Period. While the males hunted for weeks, their children and mothers remained tied to the ground around the caves for food.
2. Gastronomic Elements in Mesopotamian Mythology
In prehistoric Egypt, Sumer, and Anatolia, it was thought that the person who created the grain and bread was a goddess. In ancient Egypt, this woman was the goddess Isis. God Osiris, husband of the goddess Isis, was, in other words, the Nile River. Every year the Nile river flowed over the mother earth. With the waters of the Nile, mother earth would awaken and create the grains that would keep mankind alive. 
Also in Sumer, the patron goddess of beer was Siduri. The name of Siduri, the goddess of both beer and wine, is mentioned a lot in Sumerian mythology. According to the Sumerian myths, the Goddess Siduri lived "by the sea, in the garden of the sun", not in Sumer. Based on the description of the Anatolian coasts with these words in the Sumerian sources, the name "Siduri" is probably referred to the "Goddess of Fertility", Demeter, who is the Mother of soil and grain, and to Anatolia (7).
Before wine, the first drink was beer. Beer was produced soon after bread was found. Bread production started around BC. It is dated to 8000 years ago. According to the oldest records of Sumer and Egypt, BC. It is known that a wide variety of beers are made between 6000-5000. B.C. A Sumerian clay tablet dated 3,500 years ago describes sixteen types of beer being drunk and that brewing is a thriving industry every day. In Egypt, beer was sometimes sweetened with dates and honey and flavored with various herbs. 
It is also remarkable that the physician Galenos from Bergama (Pergamon), the father of herbal medicines, advised some of his patients to drink beer by mixing it with medicine (8).
On the Hittite relief, which also features the first known gastronomic product depiction in the world, found in Konya İvriz, King Warpalawas calls out to Tarhunza, the patron god of the Beer and Wine cult, with wheat ears and bunches of grapes in his hand: “I am Warpalawas, the sovereign and heroic Tuvana King. I planted these vines when I was a prince in court. May Tarhunza give them abundance and fertility" (9). The god Tarhunza in this relief is identified with Bakkhus or Dionysos at some point. The Hittites came to Anatolia long before 2000 BC and created a great Pantheon consisting of thousands of gods.
It is known in Hittite written sources that meat fried in fire was given to the gods as an offering. In these texts, especially fried meat has an important place. The aim here is to burn the fried meat a little bit and make the smoke rise to the sky and reach the gods. Thus, it was believed that the gods descended to the earth and mingled with the people. Olive oil mixed with honey was often poured over the meat to make it brown better and the smoke to emit a nice smell (10). 
Like the Hittites, in Mesopotamia, the Sumerians kept wine, legumes, grains, honey and beer in ceramic containers in a separate warehouse or cellar they created in their homes. There was also a burial chamber belonging to the family in these houses. A piece of the food and drink consumed at home was left in this burial chamber at every meal. They believed that if this was not done, the shadows of the dead would rise to the surface and roam the streets and attack people. 
In addition to these food rituals held at home, they had to bring food to temples called Zigurat on certain days. Thus, it was possible for both the gods and the priests working in the temple to be fed (11).
It is seen that food production and many related elements take place in the mythological stories of all societies that have created civilization or culture in the world, and in almost all of them, a woman is depicted as the source of life and the protector of agricultural products. The offering of food to the gods was in one place thought of as a ceremony to quell the gods' anger and increase food production. 
In ancient civilizations, the germination, maturation and death of seeds were identified with the cycle of human life and the renewal of the universe. Looking at the myths of all ancient civilizations, almost everything is a gift of the gods' generosity. The most important place in this gift is the information necessary to improve food production.
In the Sumerian myths, Enlil makes a hoe and gives it to mankind so that he can cultivate the land. In classical mythology, Athena brings out the olive tree from the depths of the barren land of Attica. The poem, written on a clay tablet in honor of Ninkasi, the goddess of beer, formed by the fermentation of Mesopotamian barley, tells that, thanks to her grace, the dough rises when brewer's yeast is added and the bakers add sesame seeds and herbs to the bread, which inspired Ninkasi. 
Beer has also been the subject of myths. In a poem Enki loses himself to drunkenness. “The inability to hold back one's drink” is regularly portrayed as a weakness, but the beer itself is never criticized; If he can't control himself while drinking, it's the drinker's fault. Beer was created to give lightness to the heart, and the goddess Ninkasi is responsible for this ascension. As with goddesses such as Nisaba (patron of grains, accounts, writing, and science), Ninkasi was both the maker of beer and the beer itself. 
Nisaba was not only the goddess of grain, but the true grain, and when she became the goddess of writing, she was not just an impartial overseer of the craft, but the craft itself; the same is true for Ninkasi. His spirit and essence infused the beer produced under his guidance. Ninkasi, and therefore beer, was associated with healing because while healing Enki, who was sick and near death, he was reborn thanks to the ancient knowledge of the Mother Goddess Ninhursag. 
For example, as Ninhursag uncovers Enki's troubles, a new god is born, among them Ninkasi. Each of the supernatural beings born in this way continues to bring great benefits to humanity, such as Nanshe, the goddess of social justice and prophecy, and in keeping with the Mesopotamian tradition where the clergy serving the god were same-sex, the chaplains of goddesses such as Nisaba, Nanshe, and Ninkasi were female. 
The Ninkasi nuns were the first brewers, and this is hardly surprising, since women often brewed beer at home until commercial production of the beverage began and men took over (12).
Most brewers clearly show them as females in both Mesopotamia and Egypt in ancient depictions, but when brewing became a commercial enterprise, men are shown to oversee female brewers. Whoever inspected or brewed the beer would not matter to the goddess herself; his responsibility was to the conclusion of the best possible drink.
Ninkasi was said to make the beer fresh each day with the best ingredients, and the nuns did the same, as the hymn was not only a song of praise, but also instructions on how to brew the beer. In an age when few people were literate, it provided Ninkasi with an easy way to remember the recipe for brewing with its divine, steady rhythm. 
Bappir made twice-baked barley bread and mixed it with honey and dates. After the bread had cooled in straw mats, it was mixed with water and wine before being placed in the fermenter. After the brew had finished the fermentation process, it was placed in the filtration vat and “fit into a collection trough” where the filtered beer was then poured into jars. According to the hymn, the pouring of beer was “like the Tigris and Euphrates flowing” (13).
In the epic of Gilgamesh, an important Sumerian myth, the goddess Ishtar asks her father, the god Anu, to use the celestial bull to punish Gilgamesh. When Anu tells him that the bull will not leave a single grain of wheat for humans on earth, the goddess assures him that the grain reserve stored in the granaries of Uruk City is sufficient to spoil the crop for seven consecutive years, and that it can keep them alive (14). In mythological stories, the relationship between humans and gods not only adds a sacred quality to food, but also reveals the mystical solidarity of humans with plants and animals. 
When people consumed the votive meal eaten in a sacred ceremony, they thought that a divine power consumed this meal at the same time. Offering food to the gods is seen as a common practice in mythology. In order to serve this purpose, the priests or nuns working in the temples were also assigned to provide food for such ceremonial feasts. 
In this sense, every god has a fondness for food. For example, lettuce is the favorite vegetable of the Egyptian god Set. In Hittite, Anatolian and Hellenic civilizations, offering wine, milk and honey to mystical ancestors and gods living in the other world is among the common practices.
Before an important initiative to be made in ancient times, food rituals were held in order to gain the support of the gods. In addition to the wealthy people who offered sacrifices to the gods, those who did not have that much economic power made requests from the gods by making buns in the form of bulls, cows or sheep. Additional meal ceremonies were also performed for the gods when cities were besieged by enemies or when famine broke out. 
Beer; It is the most mentioned food product in Mesopotamian, Egyptian and Hellenic mythologies. 
Beer is very common especially in Mesopotamian mythologies. For example, in Sumerian myths, the goddess Inanna intoxicates Enki with beer to steal divine knowledge. Wine is one of the most important liquids in Hittite and Ancient Hellenic culture. In the ritual ceremonies celebrated in December, goats were sacrificed in honor of the filling of the wine warehouses and the blood of the victim was sprinkled on the vine roots. It was believed that with these rituals, the god would be happy and the crop would be fruitful (15).
The foods that form the source of life and the ritual of eating have become an important ceremony even for ordinary people, as well as divine existence (16). However, in the divine dimension, the ceremonies cannot always be considered as a basic necessity. Eating rituals often constituted more than a diet in terms of both divine and daily life. 
The act of eating has evolved into a cultural aspect of life and leisure. It can even be defined as a way to reach a happy and rich life, often free from anxiety and fear (17). For this reason, meal rituals, as depicted in ancient texts, played an important role in the life of the gods. Within the cultural structure, food, like many other factors, soon became a measure of social stratification. The poor consumed different meals compared to the rich, and the lower social class could not even taste the aristocratic food (18). 
According to a Sumerian proverb: Let the poor die, not live. When he finds bread, he cannot find salt. When he finds salt, he cannot find bread. When he finds meat, he cannot find spices. When it finds spices, it does not find meat (19) can be given as an example here.
Goddesses and gods were eager to eat sweets, primarily donuts, as well as delicious food and drink. The sweet and smooth taste of the butter scone could neutralize and calm even a tough goddess like Inanna (20). Rarely, meat dishes were also included in the divine menu. According to mythological texts, if the gods and goddesses were to get a share of such a meal, they would prefer roasted meat to cooked or fried meat. 
Interestingly, goddesses seem to prefer much lighter meals than gods (21). Many similarities can be identified between the divine and earthly cuisine and eating habits in ancient textual sources. These include meals, the way banquets are organized, dishes and products considered particularly delicious, and the "social strata" of the divine society involved in such activities. 
In the preserved texts we find descriptions of the feasts and meals of the "great gods" rather than the "common" gods. The distinction between "ordinary" and "high society" appears to be acceptable neither in the human world nor in the divine world. These similarities are so great that it can be said that the divine cuisine is almost the same. However, differences are also observed in mythological texts, such as the absence of popular ingredients and dishes such as leeks, onions, fish and other items that make up common dishes (22).
3. Gastronomic Elements in Classical Mythology Sources
3.1. Ambrosia And Nectar
What food did the gods of Olympus eat in ancient mythology? They were powered by the Olympian gods Nectar and Ambrosia. These two words are often used interchangeably. It is sometimes said that nectar is drink and ambrosia is food. Sometimes the opposite is the case; Thus, ambrosia becomes drink and nectar becomes food. Despite the homologous nature of these divine substances, both nectar and ambrosia are known to instill longevity and even immortality in those who use them. 
They were agents of eternal life. In reality, nectar and ambrosia were really only consumed by the gods, and when mortals ate or drank it, they were contained within the gods' world. In Homer's Iliad, Thetis Patroclus is described to fill his nostrils with nectar as a way to transform him with power and life (23). 
One of the interesting points; 
It is also thought that the nectar of the Olympian gods came from the nostrils and salt inserted into the body during mummification in Egypt, as a way of preserving eternal life in the Egyptian tradition. The fact that wine barrels in antiquity should be consumed as soon as they are opened, otherwise they will spoil, also supports this idea. 
But there was one way to prolong the life of opened wine, and that was to salt it. Seen by the gods as a transforming agent given to mortals, wine was given life by natron or salts, which prevent wine from turning into vinegar. This fact is also thought to be a long-lasting life-giving product called nectar, a word borrowed from the Egyptian natron (24).
According to Drew Griffith in his book "Mummy Wheat", the word nectar actually meant the ability to "go beyond death" and it could also mean "song" (25). Given that song and dance were an important part of funeral rites in both Egyptian tradition and Greco-Roman mysteries, the song itself was a symbol or symbol that allowed one to move beyond death. 
Whatever the connection, nectar and ambrosia are always related to renewed life or eternal life and associated with ideas of death and Ancient Roman Civilization were heavily influenced by Hellenic mythology. Almost every Roman legend is ultimately derived from Hellenic mythology. The food of the gods is called ambrosia. Its nature is uncertain (some compare it to gold or honey), but it was used both as food and as a perfume. The gods always drank nectar, and it was described as the "red" color of Erythron (26). 
In ancient belief, food is the ultimate cause of sickness and death. The gods did not eat human food, did not grow old, and did not die. In the mythological story, Tantalus, the king of Lydia, the Olympian gods visited a human king who honored them with a royal dinner. However, this feast turns into such a troublesome situation for Tantalus that the gods of Olympus condemned Tantalus to be hungry and thirsty forever with food and water that he could not reach (26). 
But it has to be assumed that most of the food at that dreadful dinner was ordinary human food. In another legend, it is said that Zeus and Hermes gave ambrosia and nectar to their guests for the cabbage and lentils given to them in the house where they were invited to spend the night and have dinner (27).
In the epics of the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer, the poet from Smryna (İzmir), it is mentioned that the gods of Olympus were fed with nectar and ambrosia. Ambrosia, which also means immortality, is thought to be a honey consisting of different kinds of plants. It was believed that if mortal people taste the ambrosia, which is a kind of divine food, it provides them happiness, youth and sometimes immortality. 
Iksion, one of the legends called ambrosia in mythology, was punished by Zeus for not keeping his word when he was an important king in Thessaly, and he was sentenced to return forever by being tied to a wheel in fire. However, since Iksion drank ambrosia, it is not possible for him to escape his punishment by dying (28). 
Another information about Ambrosia is learned from the verses in Homer epics about Apollo, the god of sun and light;
“At that time, O Phoibos, the goddesses washed you with their holy hands in pure clear water, they wrapped you in a brand new swaddle, a thin, snow-white swaddle, then they wrapped gold ribbons around your head, her mother did not breastfeed Apollo with a golden sword, Themis goddess offered him nectar and he offered ambrosia like honey with his immortal hands”.
In Hesiod, he gave Demeter, the daughter of Kronos and Rheia, symbolizing wheat and crops, to Demophon, the son of Metaneira, the wife of Keleos, the king of Eleusis (29). Demeter also fed the child with ambrosia and nectar like a god. Persephone, the daughter of Demeter, was kidnapped underground by Hades and Persephone could not leave the underground because Hades made her eat pomegranates (Picture 1). 
In order to find a solution to this, Zeus decided that Persephone would spend part of the year with her mother, Demeter, especially during the flower and fruit time, and the remaining time, the winter months, with her husband Hades. Thus, abundance came to the soil again (30).
Gastronomy And Mythology1: Persophone and Demeter (31)
3.2. Wheat
In mythological legends related to wheat, Arkas, son of Callisto, one of the hunting daughters of Zeus and Artemis, became a very famous king. Giving his name to the region called Arcadia, the king taught his nation to plant wheat and knead bread (32). As the mother earth (Ge-Meter), Demeter was worshiped especially in the areas where wheat was cultivated in ancient times (30). 
Another legend is about Iasion. Iasion, son of Elektra and Zeus, met Demeter at the marriage ceremony of her brother Harmonia with Kadmos, and the goddess Demeter presented her with grains of wheat. Due to this feature, Iasion has become an important personality in the fields of wheat and bread (27).
3.3. Apple
At the beginning of the legends about the apple fruit, which has an important place in the legends, is Achilles, who is associated with the Epic of Troy and is an important character of this war. Achilles is the son of Peleus and Thetis. The marriage ceremony of Thetis and Peleus is celebrated in Thessaly, and all the gods are present at this ceremony. When Eris, the goddess of discord, was not invited to this wedding ceremony, she got angry and put a golden apple on the wedding table, which also constitutes the beginning of a story that will extend to the beauty contest between Aphrodite, Hera and Athena, and to the Trojan war with the election of Paris (33). 
For example, another myth about the apple concerns Atalante. Atalante was a very good runner and racer. It was impossible to get past him. Before a contest between Hippomenes and Atalante, Hippomenes put in his pocket three golden apples that he had taken from the temple of Aphrodite in Cyprus or from the gardens of the Girls of the West. After the race started, Hippomenes Atalante would throw one of the golden apples to the ground when he was about to pass him. While Atalante was collecting them, Hippomenes made the gap again, Atalante would fall behind (34).
Lydian King Tantalos, like other kings and gods from Anatolia, was against the Olympos Pantheon. Homer describes his punishment called Tantalus Torture in mythology with the following passage in Odyssey. In this passage, it is mentioned that although Tantalus had many fruits and berries on his head, just as he was about to reach them, a wind prevented them from reaching them;
“I saw Tantalus while he was suffering terrible tortures: He was standing in a lake, the water was rising up to his chin, but did he act to drink, he couldn't take a drop of the water, the old man was bending, bending, bending, the water was also pulling, pulling, disappearing. in the earth and a mud appeared at his feet, black, at that hour a god was drying the lake. 
Nuts were hanging in front of his head from the gnarled trees, pears, pomegranates, sparkling apples, figs with honey, plump olives, but when the old man stretched out his hands to pluck them, a wind came and threw them into the dark clouds” (35).
3.4. Cheese
Another product that is the subject of epics is Cheese. Along with Cheese, Cranberry Berry, Barley Flour and yellow Honey sometimes accompanied him, as in the story of the sorceress goddess Circe. Circe is one of the people who play a role in all the stories that Odysseus goes through, just like Kalypso. Circe is one of the important personalities who played a role not only in the Odyssey epic, but also in the legend of the Argonauts. 
In the Odyssey epic, Odysseus and his friends come to Aiaea, the island of Circe. Some of his men enter Circe's palace. Before turning them into pigs, Circe crushed cheese, yellow honey and barley flour and mixed them with Pramnos wine (26). One legend about cheese is that of Samiramis, King of Babylon. It was abandoned after Samiramis was born. Pigeons fed the abandoned baby with cheese and milk. For these reasons, Samiramis means "coming from pigeons" in the Syrian language (35).
3.5. Milk, Almond Tree and Horn of Fertility Cornucopia
The legend of Agdistis, which has survived to the present day by the ancient historian Pausanias, takes place in the ancient city of Pessinus, which is located near Ankara Sivrihisar in Anatolia today. Legend has it that Zeus, the god of gods, had a dream. Accordingly, it sheds all its seeds on the earth. From one of these seeds was born Agdistis, both male and female. According to the legend, the gods captured Agdistis, cut off the phallus and threw it into the ground, and an almond tree emerged from the place where it was thrown. 
Nana, the daughter of the river god Sangarios (Sakarya), plucks one of these almonds from the tree and hides it in her chest. Nana, who became pregnant from the almond she kept in her breast, gave birth to a son named Attis. Sangarios tells his daughter Nana to leave this child on the mountain. Baby Attis was so charming that the mountain dwellers fed him with goat's milk and raised him. Kybele and Agdistis fell in love with this young man who has grown and thrived over time. At the same time, King Midas of Phrygia intends to marry his daughter to Attis. 
Driven mad by all these hustle and bustle, Attis went mad and died by cutting off his phallus under a pine tree. He buried the goddess Kybele Attis, and according to legend, violets that emerged from their blood flowing to the ground surrounded the pine tree. In addition, an almond tree grew on his grave (36).
In the myth of the cornucopia, the horn of cornucopia filled with various fruits, his wife Rhea kidnapped her children from Kronos, who devoured them as soon as they were born, and commissioned Amaltheia to nanny for them. When Zeus, the god of gods, was born, Amaltheia kidnapped the child from Kronos, hid it in a cave on Mount Ida, and fed it with a goat's milk to grow there. 
In another myth, Amaltheia is the name of the goat that gave milk to Zeus. The god baby was so strong that he grabbed one of the horns of the goat that gave him milk, broke it, and gave it to the nyphas who nursed him, saying that they could fill the horn as they wished. The horn of abundance, filled with fruits, which was an important food item of the ancient period, emerged as a symbol of abundance. This symbol is especially depicted on ancient coins (27).
3.6. Wine
In a passage in the Bacchae Tragedy written by Euripides, a messenger who saw the Bacchae and tried to persuade King Pentheus, who was trying to uproot the beliefs that Dionysus, the god of wine, wanted to spread from the city of Thebes, told the king what he saw;
"My king, the god Dionysus, created a source of wine from the soil. When he scraped the ground with his finger, wine and milk were boiling in the ground. Honey was dripping from the branches of the vines.
When Dionysus, the god of wine, comes to Greece, he stays in Athens in the house of a ruler named Ikarios. As he hosted him, he gifted Icarios the finesse of winemaking with vine. Dionysus, who also fell in love with Ikarios' daughter Erigone, was with him and they had a son named Staphylos (Grape). One day, Dionysus gave Ikarios a bag filled with wine and asked him to invite all his neighbors to his house by organizing a feast and to have them taste the wines (Picture 2).
Gastronomy And MythologyPicture 2: Dionysus and Satyr (31)
The neighbors who came to the feast got drunk when they tasted the wine. As a result of suspecting that Ikarios wanted to kill them by poisoning them, they beat and killed Ikarios with sticks. When her daughter saw her father's death, she killed herself by hanging herself from a tree out of sadness. Seeing this, Dionysus was so angry that he sent an epidemic of madness to the entire city of Athens. 
Then all the girls in the city went crazy and hanged themselves. When the oracle of the god Apollo in Delphi told the people of the city that these deaths were related to Ikarios and his daughter Erigone, the Athenians organized an annual wine festival for Erigone to relieve the god's anger. This festival later became famous and started to be celebrated in Ancient Rome as another version (38). There is another similar legend based on the legend of Erigone in Ancient Rome. 
In this legend, while the god Saturnus was in Rome, he fell in love with the daughter of a farmer named Ikarios, named Entoria. Saturnus, who was with him, had four children named Ianus. He also donated vines and wine to Ikarios. However, Saturnus, who was angry with the villagers living in Rome who pushed this blessing with his hands and did not understand its value, sent a plague epidemic to the city. The Romans finally calmed the anger of the god by building a temple in the name of Saturnus on the Capitoline hill, the highest hill of the city (27).
Another legend is related to Eunomos, a young man who offered wine to Oineus, the king of Calydonia. One day, Eunomos accidentally spilled water on Heracles' feet while washing the hands of the demigod heroes Heracles (Hercules in Rome), who was a guest of the king's palace. Heracles got angry and slapped Eunomos. 
Heracles is so strong that even with a slap, he killed poor Eunomos on the spot. Heracles was so upset by what he had done that even though Eunomos' father said that he had forgiven Heracles, he took his wife and son and left Kalydonia and migrated to Trachis (33). The name of Oineus, King of Kalydonia, also means Wine, Oinos. 
Yet another legend mentions Ganymedes offering wine to the gods (Picture 3). Ganymedes offers wine to the gods as the most beautiful person among mortals. Ganymedes is a member of the royal family of the city of Troia and is descended from Dardanos (39). The story of Homer in the Iliad is told as follows;
"Tros was born from Erikhthonios, the king of the Trojans. Tros had three perfect sons: Ilos, Assarakos, Ganymedes, equal to the gods. Ganymedes was the most beautiful of mortal people, the gods kidnapped him to Olympos, so that he could offer wine to Zeus, they said, may he live among the gods with his beauty. " (23).
Gastronomy And MythologyPicture 3: Zeus and Ganymedes (31)
In the Iliad epic, it is mentioned that Hector's body, which was burned on wood, was put out by pouring wine in a passage about wine in the funeral ceremony of Hector, the son of Priam, the king of Troia. (23). In Homer's Odyssey Epic, in which the adventures of Odysseus, who tried to return to his country after the Trojan War, are told, it is mentioned that when the sun god Helios and Perseis daughter Kalypso sent Odysseus off from the island, he presented Odysseus with new clothes and a very fragrant red wine bag (35) .
It is mentioned that Odysseus stopped by the city called İsmaros in one of his adventures to return to his country after the Trojan War and that Odysseus took 12 rightfuls of Amaros Wine while leaving this city. This wine is so valuable that it can be drunk by adding twenty times of water to a bowl. It tastes as sweet as honey. In addition, Odyssesus made Cyclops Polyphemus drunk with this wine and blinded him by removing one eye (35).
In another legend about Heracles, the hero of heroes, Erymanthos, one of the 12 jobs of Heracles, was a guest of Pholos, one of the horsemen called Kentaur, whose body was partly horse and partly human, while hunting the wild boar. 
Pholos said that he could not offer wine to Heracles, who asked for wine from Pholos, because the wine was given to all centaurs by the god Dionysus and he did not dare to open it. When Heracles insisted, they opened their wineskins and started to drink. The other centaurs, the centaurs, saw this and attacked Heracles. Heracles defeated them all and became the owner of the wine (27).
In another legend mentioned by the mythologists of late antiquity, Dionysus fell in love with the river goddess Sangarios (Sakarya) and Nikaia, the daughter of Kybele. When God could not explain his love to the girl, he mixed wine in the river where Nikaia came to drink water. When the girl got drunk, she was able to express her love. In addition, Numa, who was an important king in Ancient Rome and is included in the foundation myth, has the power to create miracles, but especially to fill the tables with delicious wines and dishes, and to pour honey from the springs (27).
3.7. Grape
Staphylos, which also means a bunch of grapes, appears as a personality in the legends. One day, Staphylos, who was the shepherd of King Oinos, observed that some of the goats he was pasturing did not join the herd and could not stand still and jumped constantly. Realizing that it was a fruit eaten by goats, Staphylos told this to his king, Oinos. He squeezed this fruit and made wine in Oinos. 
The fruit (Grape) was named after Staphylos, and the wine was named after King Oinos. From this point of view, Oinos means wine in Ancient Hellenic (26).
Another explanation about grapes is that the god of wine, Dionysus, fell in love with Amphelos, whose name means grape vine. He presented the vine hanging from the elm branch to Amphelos. While Amphelos was going to climb the tree and collect the grapes, he lost his balance and fell from the tree and died. Dionysus also transformed him into a star in the sky to keep him alive forever (40).
3.8. Olives
The most famous of the legends about olives and olive cultivation, which is one of the most mentioned products in ancient mythology, is the one about the competition to become the patron god of the city of Athens. Athena and Poseidon entered the competition to win the title of protector of the city (Picture 4). In this competition, other Olympian gods served as jury members. 
Poseidon, the god of the sea, created a salty lake on the acropolis (upper city) of Athens. In another legend, he gave horses to the city as a gift. Athena gave the olive tree to the city as a gift. Olive oil produced from olives is an important product both as food and used in oil lamps made of clay, which is used as a lighting tool. The gods of Olympus decided that an olive tree would be more beneficial than a lake and chose Athena as the patron god of the city (33).
Gastronomy And MythologyPicture 4: Athena and Poseidon (31)
In the legend about Aristaios, who has no one else above him in agriculture and animal husbandry, especially in olive cultivation and beekeeping, Apollon fell in love with the granddaughter of Peneus, the river god of Thessaly, named Kyrene. Kyrene was also a nymph. Apollo took Kyrene and smuggled it to Libya. Aristaios was born from this union. A centaur (horseman) Chiron and Nymhas raised Aristaios in rural areas. For this reason, Aristaios had all the knowledge about animal husbandry and agriculture (26). 
Silphium, a very important plant in ancient times and stored in imperial vaults, was grown in the ancient city of Kyrene in Libya. There are also depictions on Cyrene coins.
The olive tree symbolized immortality in mythology. Homer describes the immortality of the olive with the following lines. “I belong to everyone and I don't belong to anyone, I was here before you came, and I will be here after you leave.” Olive is not only a gastronomic element, but also a symbol of fertility and abundance, health, justice and peace. 
The olive tree is seen as a sacred tree in the books of all monotheistic religions (41). In ancient Egypt, the olive tree dates back to ca. It is thought that it was cultivated in the Nile Delta in the first half of 2000. In addition to the depictions of olive oil making on the walls of the Saqqara Pyramid, the discovery of olive mills in archaeological excavations in Haifa supports this hypothesis (42). 
According to another legend, the goddess Isis taught the Egyptians how to grow olives and how to use them. It is also mentioned that in ancient Hellenic and Roman Civilizations, olive trees were grown in memory of the dead. Planting olive trees in the gardens of temples and considering all these trees sacred are among other important information for olives (41).
The events in the ancient myths were embodied in the philosophy of life of the period. All the people and events that affect people's lives have been tried to be transferred from generation to generation with inscriptions, ceramic vessels, mosaics and coins that can be considered both abstract and concrete. These transfers, which will be regarded as the pioneers of today's communication field, can be considered as advertising documents of those periods. 
In particular, the noble or aristocratic class used all these tools skillfully in order to show their work to the public and to ensure that they take a permanent place in the memory of the people. For example, in the Hittite era, the power of the empire on high relief blocks (orthostad) was explained to the public by the heroes in mythological scenes. It is 12 km from Konya's Ereğli district. away, within the borders of Halkapınar, the İvriz Relief has the distinction of being the first written agricultural monument in terms of civilization history and the first written relief rock monument in the history of the world. The relief depicts the Hittite King Warpalavas and the Hittite God Tarhundas. 
He is depicted to a greater extent than the king, holding bunches of grapes and ears of wheat, while the King is depicted in a smaller and praying state. In the hieroglyph located between the two figures: “I am Warpalawas, the sovereign and heroic Tuwana King; When I was a prince in the palace, I planted these vines, may Tarhundas give them abundance and abundance” is written. 
The monument depicts the god and the king together and conveys information about the grapes and wheat grown in the region. In all these imaginary reflections, mythological events and the heroes, gods and goddesses involved in these events explained the fertile products of the soil to the public, facilitating their spread and use. 
The depictions of wine, olive tree, wheat ear on a coin circulating in the hands of thousands of people; The gastronomic elements on the mosaics on the floors of the houses where meals were eaten, the bunch of grapes held by a god or goddess on ceramic pots, spread the tendency of people to these products and their use in their social lives. 
In today's popular culture, the promotion of gastronomic products can be considered as a form of this tradition. Today, a legendary sports player, cinema or theater actor and a famous politician holding a gastronomic drink or food in their hands have undertaken the mythological transmission mission of the ancient period. In this sense, the world of legends, called mythology, has helped to spread gastronomic products among societies and cultures by using gastronomic elements extensively in all events. 
At the same time, the products in these areas are documents that show the differences or developments in sustainable agricultural practices from history to the present. 
Shedding light on gastronomy and culinary arts of archaeological evidence (for example, determining traditional methods from mythology to the present, reflecting mythological elements or figures on foods and beverages or narrating these stories on a plate / glass and transferring these stories to the consumer) and types of tourism (agricultural tourism, gastronomic tourism, cultural tourism, museum activities, etc.), it is possible to contribute to the creation of different shooting places by revealing new trends.
1. Albustanlıoğlu, T. Documenting the Gastronomic History with Numismatics; Bee and Honey in Ancient Anatolia. FoodTime, 2021; July-August, Issue:45. 44-46.
2. Adhoc Magazine [Online] https://adhocdergi.com/ari-varsa-hayat-cicek-varsa-bal-var/ (Access Date 18 July 2021).
3. Ureten, H. Bee and Honey in Old Anatolia, History Studies International Journal of History, 2011; Volume 3/3. 363382.
4. Bulut, Reflections on the Origin of Lycian Honey in the Archive of S. Zenon. Cevat Başaran's 60th Birthday Essays for Cevat Başaran's 60th Birthday Occasion, V.Keleş,H,Kasapoğlu,E, Ergürer (Ed.).Ankara. Bilgin Publishing House.2019. 767-776.
5. Lenger, DS Bal in the Ancient Caria Region, E.Naskali, G., Altun, (Ed.). Acta Turcica III, 2011; 1.1.28-35.
6. Lawler, LB Bee Dances and the Sacred Bees. The Classical Weekly, 1954; Vol. 47, No. 7, 103-106.
7. Kabaagacli, S. C. (The Fisherman of Halicarnassus), Anatolian Legends, 12th Edition. Ankara: Bilgi Publishing House; 2017.
8. Altug, Ö. Galenos, Asclepion and Firsts in Medicine, Proceedings of the International Pergamon Symposium, 2011; Volume I. 404-416.
9. Hittite Monuments [Online] https://www.hittitemonuments.com/ivriz/ (Accessed 06 August 2021).
10. Akın, G. and Balıkçı E. Anatolia's Mysterious Empire, Nutrition and Culinary Culture in the Hittites, Journal of Tourism and Gastronomy Studies, 2018; 6/Special issue 3. 275-284, DOI: 10.21325/jotags.2018.254.
11. Gursoy, D. Deniz Gursoy's Gastronomy History. Istanbul: Capricorn Publishing. 2014.
12. Sumer Mythology [Online] https://www.scribd.com/document/329120144/Sumer-Myths (Accessed July 10, 2021).
13. Black, J., Cunningham, G., Rabson, E., et.al. The Literature of Ancient Sumer. London.Oxford UniversityPress.2006.
14. Botteto, J. The Epic of Gilgamesh - The Great Man Who Doesn't Want to Die, (Trans. Orhan SUDA), 2nd edition Istanbul. Yapı ve Kredi Publications (YKY).2006.
15. Black, J. veGreen, A. Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia : An Illustrated Dictionary. London.British Museum Press.1992
16. Brussow, H. The Quest for Food. A Natural History of Eating. New York: Springer Publish. 2007.
17. Steinkeller, P. Joys of Cooking in Ur III Babylonia.On the Third Dynasty of Ur Studies in Honor of Marcel Sigrist, M.Piotr (Ed.) Journal of Cuneiform Studies Supplemental Series 1. Boston: 2008. American Schools of Oriental Research.186.
18. Pinnock, F. Considerations on the 'Banquet Theme in the Figurative Art of Mesopotamia and Syria.Drinking in Ancient Societies. History and Culture of Drinks in the Ancient Near East, L. Milan (Ed.). History of the Ancient Near East/ Studies 6. Padova: 1994. Sargon.
19. ETCLS Translation [Online] http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.6.1.01#(Accessed 14 June 2021).
20. Potts, D. On Salt and Salt Gathering in Ancient Mesopotamia.Journal of the Economic and Social History of the
Orient 27, 1984. no. 3. 225−71.
21. Brunke, H. Essen in Sumer. Metrologie, Herstellung und Terminologie nach Zeugnis der Ur III-zeitlichen Wirtschaftsurkunden. Geschichtswissenschaften 26. München: Herbert Utz. 2008
22. Ellison, R. Methods of Food Preparation in Mesopotamia (c. 3000–600 BC).” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 1984. 27.1. 89−98.
23. Homer. in the Iliad. (Translated by Ahmet Cevat Emre). Istanbul: Varlık Publications. 1971.
24. Dardeniz, G. Was ancient Egypt the only supplier of natron? New research reveals major Anatolian deposits. anatolica 2015. 41,191-202.
25. Griffith, DR Mummy Wheat: Egyptian Influence on the Homeric View of the Afterlife and the Eleusinian Mysteries. Maryland: UPA Publisher. 2018.
26. Can, S. Classical Greek Mythology, Istanbul: İnkilap Kitapevi. 1994.
27. Erhat, A. Dictionary of Mythology, 6. Print.Istanbul. Remzi Bookstore. 1996
28. Colona, ​​P. The Myth of Ixion: An Astronomical Interpretation,Mediterranean Archeology and Archaeometry, 2016. Vol. 16, No. 4. 183-189.
29. Hesiod. Hesiod's Work and Sources, (Trans. Azra ERHAT-Sabahatin EYÜPOĞLU), Ankara: TTK (Turkish Historical Society) Publishing House. 1977.
30. Keller, ML Demeter and Persephone, Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion, 2nd ed., Vol 1. DA Leeming (Ed.). New York Heidelberg Dordrecht London: Springer.2014. 471-478.
31. Beazley Archive [Online] https://www.beazley.ox.ac.uk/(Accessed August 14, 2021).
32. Brooks, A. Landscapes of the Greek Myths, London. Aetos Press. 2014.
33. Cömert, B. Mythology and Iconography, Ankara: Deki Press. 2010.
34. Emet, E.ve Aslan, Z. Apple in Mythology, Ceramics and Projections in Painting, Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2019, 2 (1):99-106.
35. Homer. Odyssey, (Trans. Azra Erhat-A.Kadir), 21st Edition. Istanbul:Can Publications. 2008.
36. Albayrak, C. The Cult of Kybele-Attis in Anatolia, Unpublished Master's Thesis. Ankara. Gazi University SBE.2007.
37. Özcan G. “An Investigation on Dionysic Images of Women in Euripides' Play of “Bakhalar”. Ataturk University Journal of Women's Studies . 2019. 1(2):64-69.
38. Asomatou, A., Tselebis, A., Bratis, D. The act of suicide in greek mythology. Encephalos 53. 2016, 65 –75.
39. Fang, Y. Ganymede the Cup Bearer: Variations and Receptions of the Ganymede Myth. Berkeley Undergraduate Journal of Classics, 2018. 7(1).3-22.
40. Allen,SH Dionysiac Imagery in Coptic Textiles and Later Medieval Art, in: AS Bernardo and S. Levin (Ed.), The Classics in the Middle Ages. Papers of the Twentieth Annual Conference of the Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, Binghamton. 1990. 11–24.
41. Sarı, İ. Sacred Food Olive. Antalya: Net Media Publishing. 2016.
42. Kaplan, M. and Karaöz Arıhan, S. A Source of Healing from Antiquity to the Present: The Medical Use of Olive and Olive Oil. 2011. VIII. International Congress of Turkish Folk Culture. 21-24 November 2011. Izmir, Odemis.
As the head chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR, I see the source:
I sincerely  thank those "who contributed" for their academic studies titled "Gastronomy and Mythology - Current Trends in Gastronomy" and wish them success  in their professional lives   . It will definitely be considered as an example by those who need it in professional kitchens, related research and in the world of gastronomy.
*** You can contact me through my contact information for more information on the subjects specified by labeling, taking into account my professional background in the above article, and to get support for Restaurant ConsultingKitchen Consulting  in the titles within my Service Areas. ***
Turkish Cuisine Chefs, Turkish Chef, Restaurant Consultancy, Kitchen Consultancy.