• What is Refined Kitchen?
  • What is Refined Kitchen?
  • What is Refined Kitchen?
  • What is Refined Kitchen?
  • What is Refined Kitchen?
  • What is Refined Kitchen?

In the period from the 16th century to the 21st century, there have been significant and radical changes in the world. The social, economic, technological, cultural, philosophical and artistic changes experienced in this period also affected the cuisine, and it witnessed the birth..

The Birth of Refined Cuisine and the Effects of Innovative Culinary Trends Shaping Refined Cuisine on Food and Beverage Businesses...
Mustafa AKSOY
Emir Hilmi ÜNER
In the period from the 16th century to the 21st century, there have been significant and radical changes in the world. The social, economic, technological, cultural, philosophical and artistic changes experienced in this period also affected the cuisine, and it witnessed the birth of refined cuisine in Europe and its commercial implementation, development, and the influence or being affected by various emerging trends.
In this study, the emergence of "refined cuisine" (haute cuisine) in Europe, the processes of change over time, the important culinary trends that emerged in these processes and the historical development of the art of culinary from the Middle Ages to the 21st century are examined. In the study, besides the refined cuisine, Innovative/New Cuisine, Avant-garde Trend, New Global Cuisine, Molecular Gastronomy and Molecular Cuisine, Not by Not Cuisine and Digital Gastronomy trends are included.
In the period from the 16th century to the 21st century, there have been significant and radical changes in the world. The social, economic, technological, cultural, philosophical and artistic changes experienced in this period also affected the cuisine, and it witnessed the birth of refined cuisine in Europe and its commercial implementation, development, and the influence or being affected by various emerging trends.   
In this study, the emergence of "refined cuisine" (haute cuisine) in Europe, the processes of change over time, the important culinary trends that emerged in these processes and the historical development of the art of culinary from the Middle Ages to the 21st century are examined. In the study, besides the refined cuisine, Innovative Kitchens/New Cuisine, Avant-garde Trend, New Global Cuisine, Molecular Gastronomy and Molecular Cuisine, Not by Not Cuisine and Digital Gastronomy trends are included.   
1. Introduction 
Nutrition, as the most basic physiological need, has undoubtedly always been the most prioritized and determining factor in the struggle for survival of human beings on earth. Almost all of the developments that have shaped the world, such as tools developed for hunting, controlling fire, domestication of animals, the beginning of agriculture and settled life, and the agricultural revolution, are directly related to the need for nutrition. Technological, social, cultural, artistic and intellectual accumulation that mankind has created for thousands of years; By also influencing the phenomenon of nutrition, it has made food an aesthetic value beyond being a mere physical need. To summarize briefly, for today's people, food is a physiological need, a cultural phenomenon, a commercial product,  
Cooking is the first chemical process. The cooking revolution is the first scientific revolution. It is the discovery, through experimentation and observation, of biochemical changes that cause taste changes and facilitate digestion. As soon as mankind discovered the effect of fire on food, it also determined the future of the art of cooking. As soon as fire became controllable, it inevitably brought communities together and bound them together. Because keeping the flames under control means division of labor and shared effort. Cooking has increased its power by adding nutrition to the social attractiveness of fire (Armesto, 2007, p. 23). 
The Greeks were the first to consider cooking as one of the skills or arts of human life and take it seriously (Dalby and Grainger, 2001, p. 7). What was important at that time was the experience of discerning cooks and those with taste buds on where to find the best of everything (Bober, 2003, p. 136). 
In previous centuries, cooking and medical science worked together, just like the two branches of chemistry. Medicine and culinary knowledge were almost never separated from each other, and recipes along with medicines were included in a single manuscript. However, with the 1700's, doctors increasingly put their specialized scientific knowledge to the fore and separated from the culinary arts (Spang, 2007, p. 47).  
In the long historical journey of food, the period from the 16th century to the 21st century has witnessed extremely important developments and radical transformations. In parallel with the technological, social, political, philosophical and artistic changes that took place in this period, the cuisine and food developed continuously. However, it has been reshaped in accordance with the changing world conditions. In addition, this period was a time when refined cuisine (haute cuisine) was born in Europe and gained a commercial character by moving to public restaurants over time.    
In this study, the events that prepared the emergence of refined cuisine and the innovative kitchen trends that it affected were tried to be revealed by scanning the relevant literature. Because of the fact that these initial and subsequent currents are not included in a single source, it is aimed to present a base source to the researchers.    
2. Medieval: The Birth of European Cuisine 
The Middle Ages, which started with the collapse of the Roman Empire, which was the dominant power in the world until 476, was the period in which European cuisines were shaped. This period is described as the period of migrations in history. In the early Middle Ages, many communities such as Anglo-Saxons, Slavs, Bulgars, Avars, Huns, Vikings, Vandals and Cumans migrated to the continent. Immigration movements continued later on, and Jewish and Muslim groups were also included in the continent's population. 
Due to the intense immigration, crusades, and commercial relations with the East, European cuisines were significantly influenced by other cuisines and gained a selective quality. There has been an important cultural interaction process, especially thanks to the trade route stretching from Baghdad-Trabzon-Istanbul to Venice, and from there to the Alps via the Po River, to Germany and Northern France (Rao, Monin, and Durand, 2005).   
The Middle Ages, when hunger and famine were very common, was also a period in which the differences between social classes were experienced intensely. These strict boundaries between classes have also been reflected in the way of eating, resulting in the formation of different culinary cultures depending on the social status and income levels of the people. Some foods that are considered luxury foods, meat, etc. The consumption of animal products by non-noble classes is also prohibited. 
One of the most important features of the Middle Ages was the absolute dominance of the Church over every institution. This is no exception in nutrition. People's diet; strictly regulated by the Church according to age, sex, class, occupation, and social status. These regulations have determined many issues from the number of meals and the types of food that can be consumed to the way the meals are prepared and the amount of consumption (Scully, 2005, pp. 58-65).  
3. Refined Cuisine (Haute Cuisine) 
Like other European cuisines, French cuisine was shaped in the Middle Ages, which began with the fall of the Roman Empire. Until the middle of the 16th century, it is possible to describe the traditional French cuisine as an ordinary kitchen where a limited number of ingredients and cooking techniques were used. It can be said that the year 1533 was a turning point for French cuisine. 
French crown prince II. Henry's marriage to the Florentine Catherine de Medici and Catherine's bringing her own cook team to the French court, along with many artists and private servants, brought the Italian culinary culture to this country and radically changed the French palace cuisine. In this way, while the French cuisine is introduced to many new dishes and desserts; The use of relatively new foodstuffs such as mushrooms, pasta, artichokes, melons and watermelons has also become widespread. 
The Italian culture, which has changed the French cuisine significantly, has significantly affected the way of consumption and table manners as well as the content of the dishes. For example, the French, who ate their meals by hand until this date, started to use cutlery, and this habit, which was settled in the palace, was adopted by the public within a century (Clark, 1975). 
Catherin de Medici’den sonra Fransız saray mutfağında meydana gelen köklü dönüşüm, halk mutfağı ve saray mutfağı arasındaki ayrımın giderek belirginleşmesinde de etkili olmuştur. Avrupa’da, “haute cuisine” olarak adlandırılan ve halk mutfağının sadece zengin bir versiyonu olmakla kalmayıp, kullanılan malzemeler, pişirme teknikleri, sunum şekilleri gibi pek çok önemli noktada halk mutfağından köklü bir şekilde ayrılan “rafine mutfağın” oluşması ise 17. yüzyılın ortalarında Fransa’da gerçekleşmiştir. 
What is Refined Kitchen?
Two important factors played an important role in the development of the refined cuisine, which especially appealed to the palace surroundings and the aristocratic class. The first of these was XIV, the longest reigning king of France (72 years). It is Louise's fondness for the culinary arts and her respect for the culinary profession. XIV. Louise was the person who gave the most importance to the cuisine among all the kings of France and institutionalized the education in this field through the opening of culinary schools. 
XIV. The Louise era was a time when efforts to create a national and distinguished French cuisine were encouraged and rewarded at the highest level. So much so that, for the first time in this period, a chief was awarded the Légion d'honneur, the most important state decoration of France (Beaugé, 2012). 
Another important factor in the formation of the refined cuisine was the influence of François Pierre's book called “The French Chef” (Le Cuisinier Français) published in 1651 (under the pseudonym La Varenne). The most important feature of this book is that it revolutionized French cuisine and provided a guide for later books. François Pierre has rebuilt French cuisine by doing much more than simply putting together existing recipes. With this book, the techniques and rules of French cuisine were systematized for the first time. 
In addition to the many innovations it introduced, it was the beginning (turning point) of the process of French cuisine getting rid of the influence of Italian cuisine, which continued throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance, and gaining a unique and national identity. The results of the change that started in French cuisine with La Varenne's book “Le Cuisinier François” can be summarized as follows (Beaugé, 2012; Rebora, 2013, p. 4-5) 
• The use of herbs such as chervil, bay leaf, sage, tarragon and thyme has increased instead of exotic and strong spice varieties such as cinnamon, cumin, ginger, nutmeg, cardamom, and black cumin, which were used extensively throughout the Middle Ages. 
• Vegetables such as cauliflower, asparagus, peas and cucumbers, which were not included in the French cuisine before, have been used. 
• With the improvement of transportation facilities, fresh consumption of meat, fish and vegetables has become widespread. 
• Heavy sauces that completely suppress the taste of the food have been replaced by more balanced sauces aiming to achieve harmony in taste and appearance. 
• Cooking methods that bring out the taste of meat at the highest level have started to be preferred. 
• The tradition of using sweet and savory ingredients in the same dish or serving them at the same time has been abandoned to a large extent, and now they are served separately, first for salty and then for dessert. 
4. Nouvelle Cuisine: Innovative/New Cuisine 
Another great change movement that emerged in France and significantly affected the cuisines of other countries began in the 1730s. In this period, it is seen that many chefs and cookbook authors define themselves as "new" or "modern". Cookbook author Menon became the first writer to use this concept by calling the third edition of his book "Nouveau Traité De La Cuisine", published in 1739, as "nouvelle cuisine" (new cuisine) in 1742. This concept, which will later be used to characterize many different periods, expresses that the materials used in the kitchen, cooking and presentation methods differ radically. 
One of the most distinctive features of this new movement of change, which started in the first half of the 18th century, is the tendency to put food and nutrition on a scientific basis. In addition to the aesthetic value of taste and presentation, many factors such as the chemical properties of food, its effects on health, its functions in the body and digestion have begun to gain importance. Reducing the portions, reducing the number of varieties offered in a meal, preferring lighter foods, and bringing simpler presentations to the fore are also the trends seen in this period (Beaugé, 2012). 
The opening of the first restaurant in a modern sense by Boulanger in Paris in 1765 and its popularity in a short time set an example for many entrepreneurs and the number of restaurants operating in France in the 1820s exceeded 3000 (Ferguson, 1998). This important development in the history of gastronomy has also led to the emergence of food and restaurant criticism and its rapid gaining in importance. The birth and rapid development of restaurants and food critic have enabled talented and successful chefs to reach wider audiences, who previously served only in private kitchens belonging to the nobility and wealthy class. 
In this way, a new field of competition has emerged among the chefs, and this competition has become an element that encourages the efforts of the chefs to reach innovation and perfection. The deep-rooted and shocking effects of the 1789 French Revolution accelerated this trend. The abolition of the aristocratic class forced the chefs serving this class either to work in existing restaurants or to establish their own restaurants (Durand, Rao, & Monin, 2007). This process also enabled the refined cuisine, which had largely appealed to the aristocratic class, out of the monopoly of this class and moved to public restaurants. 
In the refined kitchen, which was shaped in accordance with the taste, preference and lifestyle of the aristocratic class in the pre-revolutionary period, there were mainly ostentatious banquets, laborious and exaggerated presentations, and high-cost meals. The commercialization of refined cuisine as a result of changing social, political and economic conditions has made a radical transformation inevitable (Ferguson, 1998; Clark, 1975). MarieAntoine Carême, who is considered one of the most important chefs of the world's culinary history, and her followers (students) had a great influence on the realization of this radical transformation and the redesign of the refined kitchen as a commercial product in line with the characteristics of the period. 
One of the most important results of this innovation movement spearheaded by Carême has been the replacement of flamboyant, high-cost, and repetitive meals consisting of large portions with simpler, elegant, economical and original and creative dishes consisting of smaller portions. In addition, the number of meals served in one meal has been reduced, and the kitchen has been made more systematic and in line with the principles of sanitation (Abrams, 2013; Deroy et al., 2014). 
Auguste Escoffier carried out the perfecting of the “Classic French cuisine”, the foundations of which were laid by Carême and his students, and making it fully suitable for industrial kitchens. Escoffier was the first to design modern menus by listing the dishes in the order in which they were served. Emphasizing that the sauce should not cover the taste of the food, but on the contrary should reveal the taste of the food, he classified the sauces as five basic sauces (Béchamel, Espanyol, Hollandez, Veloute, Tomato sauce) and derivative sauces. 
Following in the footsteps of Carême, she has developed simple and elegant dishes and presentations. One of Escoffier's most important contributions to the art of culinary is the implementation of the industrial kitchen organization, which is still used today. This new organizational structure designed and implemented by Escoffier can also be described as the application of Taylorism to industrial kitchens. Escoffier provided division of labor and specialization by dividing the kitchen into sections, and clearly defined duties, authorities and responsibilities by creating a hierarchy pyramid among kitchen workers. 
In this way, it increased productivity and minimized the waste of labor, time and material (Ganter, 2004; Beaugé, 2012). The main factor enabling Escoffier to implement such radical and important changes is its success in reflecting its systematic and scientific perspective to the kitchen. According to Escoffier, cooking is an art and will continue to be so, but at the same time it should be based on a scientific basis, and recipes and rules should not be left to chance (Durand, Rao and Monin, 2007). 
5. Effects of the Avant-Garde Movement on Refined Cuisine 
It is possible to say that the classical French cuisine reached its highest level with Escoffier and made its dominance accepted all over the world until the 1960s. It is seen that the most successful chefs during this period were those who best applied the rules and recipes created by Carême and Escoffier. From the point of view of the chefs, the aim has become to repeat what has already reached perfection, rather than to put forward the best. This situation has made the art of culinary a non-innovative, strict and unchangeable set of rules, and the cooks have become technicians who are constantly repeating themselves and far from creativity. 
However, changing social, economic and technological conditions have also been inevitable in this period, as in every period (Rao, Monin, & Durand, 2003). Between 1903, when Escoffier wrote his most important work, Le Guide Culinaire, and the 1960s, two world wars, very important technological developments and social transformations were experienced (Ganter, 2004). These extremely important changes and transformations had an impact on all artistic and intellectual fields such as politics, cinema, literature, theater and painting, and the avant-garde movement challenging the existing system, methods and rules spread rapidly all over the world (Rao, Monin and Durand, 2003). 
A great change movement that started in the 1960s and is sometimes called “neuvelle cuisine” or “new nouvelle cuisine” has begun to influence some innovative restaurants and chefs (Svejenova, Mazza, and Planellas, 2007; Hegarty, 2009). It is possible to say that this new movement of change, which is described as a challenge to “classiqe haute cuisine”, is the reflection of the avant-garde movement that develops rapidly in the social, political and artistic fields, in kitchens, culinary art and the art of cooking. 
For this reason, innovative movements that emerged especially since the late 1960s are often called avant-garde kitchen trends (Rao, Monin, & Durand, 2003).  
Over time, it is seen that the distinction between the classical cuisine of Carême and Escoffier and the avant-garde cuisine emerged and the leading chefs of the world were separated from each other as “traditionalists” and “innovators”. This distinction between the chefs is also reflected in the restaurant guides, one of the famous guides, "Michelin Guide", has become the defender of classical cuisine, and Gault & Millau has become the defender of the avant-garde trend (Svejenova, Mazza and Planellas, 2007). Gault & Millau, one of the founders of Henri Gault, who defines this new trend as nouvelle cuisine; Paul Bocuse lists the common features of innovative chefs such as Alain Chapel, Jean and Pierre Troisgros, Michel Guérard, Roger Vergé and Raymond Oliver as follows (Rao, Monin and Durand, 2003): 
What is Refined Kitchen?
• The overly complex methods in the cooking process have been abandoned. 
• The cooking time of most foods such as fish, seafood, game meats, red meats and green vegetables has been significantly reduced in order to preserve the natural flavors and flavors. Steam cooking method has also started to be used more for the same reason. 
• The freshest ingredients are preferred as much as possible. 
• Larger menus have been replaced by shorter menus. 
• The use of strong marinades in red and game meats has been discontinued.   
• Heavy sauces such as Espanyol and bechamel were abandoned, and instead of these, flavoring the dishes with fresh spices, quality butter, lemon juice and vinegar became common. 
• Local cuisine has replaced the classical cuisine as a source of inspiration for these innovative chefs.   
• New techniques and modern tools have been adopted and widely used.  
• More attention has been paid to the nutritional needs of consumers. 
• These highly creative chefs have successfully blended different ingredients to produce many new combinations. 6. New Global Cuisine 
The avant-garde movement, on the one hand, freed the chefs from the obligation to comply with the strict rules of the classical cuisine, on the other hand, took the cuisines beyond national borders. In the classical period, the main characteristics of restaurants and chefs were largely determined by the national cuisines they represented. In addition to the philosophical and mental transformation created by the libertarian avant-garde movement in the world in the process of universalization of cuisines beyond national borders, developments in the fields of communication and transportation had a great impact. 
While these developments have enabled more people to travel internationally and intercontinentally than ever before, they have also facilitated access to all kinds of information and materials. The rapid increase in the interaction between cultures has also been reflected in the field of gastronomy, and many methods, materials and recipes of different cuisines have begun to be used both in home kitchens and in professional kitchens (Rao, Monin and Durand, 2003; Scarpato, 2002, p. 64). 
Another factor that creates the phenomenon of global culture, global cuisine is the power and efficiency gained by countries such as the United States of America, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, which do not have a deep-rooted national culture, in the scientific, military, political and economic fields. The Second World War and the developments after it changed the balance of power between the countries, and the Eurocentric world order disappeared.  
In this period, the USA, by becoming the dominant power of the world, made significant progress towards making a cosmopolitan cultural structure that includes elements from many parts of the world such as Europe, South America, the Middle East and the Far East, instead of a single common national culture, into a dominant culture. This multicultural structure inevitably showed its effect in the kitchen as well, and a new cuisine emerged from the synthesis of different cuisines. 
The main feature of this trend, which is known by various names such as fusion cuisine, eclectic cuisine, intercultural cuisine, multicultural cuisine, and world cuisine, eliminates national borders, geographical and cultural distances, and combines methods, materials, cooking techniques and tastes from every corner of the world (region) in the same kitchen on the same plate. is to bring it together. It is possible to describe this new cuisine as the merging of the east and west, north and south of the world on the same plate (Scarpato and Daniele, 2003). It can be said that the effects of the avant-garde movement, which started in the late 1960s, continued until the 21st century and that many culinary trends were built on this basis.  
What is Refined Kitchen?
7. Molecular Gastronomy and Molecular Cuisine 
At the end of the 1980s, an extremely important development took place in terms of gastronomy history. "Molecular gastronomy" was established in 1988 as an independent scientific discipline as a result of the collaboration of Nobel Prize-winning physics professor Nicola Kurti and young chemist Herve This. The purpose of establishing molecular gastronomy is briefly summarized by Herve This as follows: To investigate the physical and chemical events that occur in the cooking process, which have not been sufficiently studied by science until that time. The two main reasons for the need for molecular gastronomy as an independent discipline are (This, 2009):  
1. While traditional food sciences focus on food as a material, the cooking process and the physical and chemical changes that occur in food during the cooking process are not adequately examined. 
2. In the scientific and technological field, it means keeping home and restaurant kitchens out of the working area while taking into account the needs of the ready-made food industry.  
The aims of molecular gastronomy were initially (This, 2006):   
1. To compile and investigate the truth of unproven traditional beliefs about kitchen and cooking, 
2. Examining the existing recipes in detail by modeling, 
3. Developing new products, cooking methods and tools, 
4. Developing new dishes by using the information obtained as a result of the studies mentioned in the first three items, 
5. Encouraging scientific studies by taking advantage of the attraction of food. 
As Herve This later admitted, the 3rd and 4th items mentioned here are not included in the "scientific" field of study, but are actually studies aiming to develop new techniques and methods for application. Therefore, it is a matter of technology, not science. Although this mistake made in the beginning was noticed in the 2000s and the study area and aims of this new scientific discipline were redefined, its effects had negative consequences that continue even today. 
The most important of these has been the mixing of the concepts of molecular gastronomy and molecular cuisine and using them interchangeably (This, 2009). As a scientific discipline, the aim of molecular gastronomy, like all other branches of science, is to reveal existing situations, events and phenomena, to investigate the reasons and processes behind them, and to produce reliable scientific knowledge. Molecular cuisine, on the other hand, can be defined as an innovative trend that uses this information and the techniques, methods, tools and materials produced as a result of this information (This, 2013a).   
At the end of the 1960s, the avant-garde movement, which took the whole world under its influence, created an intellectual and philosophical transformation by removing the existing restrictive rules and borders. Molecular gastronomy and molecular cuisine, on the other hand, have revolutionized the kitchens by offering chefs brand new materials, tools, methods and techniques that did not exist before.  
Some of the methods and techniques used in molecular cuisine are as follows (Ruiz, et al., 2013; Svejenova, Mazza, and Planellas, 2007): 
Cooking with Sous Vide (Under Vacuum) Technique:  
This technique is based on the principle of preventing the contact of the food with air by using a vacuum bag and a vacuum machine and cooking it at low temperature (63-72 C) for a relatively long time. This technique minimizes the liquid loss that occurs in cooked foods and ensures that more juicy and delicious products are obtained. 
Spheroidizing Liquids Technique:  
In this technique, liquid foods or juices and purees of solid foods are formed into spheres consisting of a flexible outer membrane liquid by using sodium alginate and calcium chloride. Its most well-known application is mock caviar made from fruit juice by Ferran Adria. 
In this technique, juices and purees of liquid foods or solid foods are turned into hot gel with the help of agar-agar (a natural substance obtained from seaweed). By using this technique, it is possible to obtain products with the appearance of spaghetti, tagliatelli or paperdella from different foods such as basil, parmesan, beetroot.   
What is Refined Kitchen?
In this technique, liquid foods or the juices of solid foods are made into foam with the help of natural lecithin and foaming machine and are generally used for decorations of meals, salads and desserts.   
Usage of Liquid Nitrogen:  
 Liquid nitrogen, which has a very rapid cooling feature, is used in the production of various products, especially ice cream.   
Rotary Evaporation:  
It is a technique of separating and condensing various compounds found in foods using a device called a "rotary evaporator".  
With the use of these new techniques in kitchens, innovative chefs such as Heston Blumenthal, Ferran Adria and Peter Gagnier, who are among the most important representatives of molecular cuisine, have created presentations and dishes that are more original and creative than ever before (Abrams, 2013).  
8. NbN Kitchen (Note By Note Cuisine)  
As a result of the studies led by Herve This, one of the founders of molecular gastronomy, a new method called NbN (note by note), which we can briefly define as “cooking using pure compounds”, has been developed. According to This, traditional dishes are usually made using some compounds in mixture and can be compared to music played with traditional instruments, while “NbN” is similar to acoustic music made using pure sound waves (notes). The name “note by note” (made with notes) given to this method was also preferred based on this analogy (Everts, 2012).  
This method is based on the separation of compounds found in plant and animal tissues and recombining them to form compounds that do not exist spontaneously in nature. In fact, this method is not completely new, many compounds such as acarides, amino acids, glycerides, pigments, peptides and vitamins obtained by this method from plant and animal tissues are already widely used in the food industry. What is new here is not the method itself, but its application in kitchens for the purpose of cooking. The possible advantages of the NbN method over traditional methods can be listed as follows (This, 2013a): 
• Pure compounds separated from plant and animal tissues can be recombined with different combinations to obtain new aromas and flavors that have never existed before.   
• Some compounds found in foods in the traditional nutrition system can cause diseases such as cancer, obesity, diabetes or lead to the progression of these diseases. In the NbN method, compounds in foods that cause diseases or that patients should not consume can be separated from foods. 
• Toxic and allergenic substances in foods can also cause dangerous results in terms of health. With this method, it is possible to purify foods from these substances and eliminate the risk of poisoning and allergic reactions. 
• Personalized menus can be developed, taking into account the metabolic characteristics and needs of individuals.  
The economic aspect of this new method is another important issue that needs to be discussed. One of the most important problems in cooking with traditional methods is wasted energy. In fact, the energy problem has never been fully considered in traditional kitchens. For this reason, it causes a lot of energy and material loss. In addition, approximately 30% of food is wasted due to reasons such as transportation, deterioration, decay and misuse. If this method can be expanded, this waste can be minimized.  
There are some question marks about the applicability of NbN cuisine, its effects on health, and its commercial results. Herve This states that these reservations stem from people's lack of knowledge about this method and their resistance to the new one. Although NbN is a very new method and has not yet been used commercially by any restaurant or chef, the first dish prepared entirely with the NbN method was introduced to the international media in Hong Kong on April 24, 2009 by the famous chef Pierre Gagnaire. 
Since 2010, a special NbN dinner is held every year at the Cordon Bleu cooking school in Paris. In addition, the first book about this method, “Noteby-Note Cooking: The Future of Food” was published by Herve This in 2014 (This, 2013b; This, 2014) 
The Birth of Refined Cuisine and Innovative Culinary Trends Shaping Refined Cuisine
9. Digital Gastronomy  
The digital revolution and the widespread use of digital technologies in almost all areas of life have left the world faced with a process of change more rapidly than it has ever been in human history. Recently, the effects of this process have been felt in the field of cookery and culinary arts. Today, electronic devices such as digitally controlled refrigerators, ovens and coffee machines are already widely used in home and restaurant kitchens. 
Three-dimensional printers show very successful results in chocolate, dessert and cake making and decorations. However, the fact that cooking requires a large number of different processes such as washing, sorting, cutting, chopping, mixing, cooking, decorating and being a very complex process limits the possibilities of using digital machines in the kitchen for the time being. 
The idea of ​​self-catering automatic/digital machines is of course not new and the design work of these machines has been going on for a long time. Even Nanotek Instruments Inc. His company received the first patent right for this type of machine in 2001, but neither the design phase could be moved to the production phase nor any prototypes could be produced. Although there are design studies by Phillips and Electrolux companies in this regard, it seems very difficult to implement these designs at the moment (Sun et al., 2015). 
Finally, MIT Media Lab. Within the project called “Cornucopia” (cornucopy), there are three three named The Virtuoso Mixer (virtuoso mixer), The Digital Fabricator (digital producer), The Robotic Chef (robotic chef), each of which can perform different functions (mixing, chopping, cooking, etc.). designed a digital machine. In these studies conducted by Amit Zoran and Marcelo Coelho, no physical model or prototype was developed (Zoran and Coelho, 2011). 
As a result of the studies carried out so far, although no product that has been widely used has been put forward and it has not been possible to pass from the design stage to the application and production stage, "digital gastronomy" has entered the literature and practice as a concept. It is possible to say that the kitchens of the future will be largely shaped by digital technologies and the technical, artistic and professional boundaries of cookery will be redefined under the leadership of creative and innovative chefs as in every period.  
10. Conclusion:  
In this study, Innovative/New Cuisine, Avant-garde Movement, New Global Cuisine, Molecular Gastronomy and Molecular Cuisine, Not by Not Cuisine and Digital Gastronomy movements that emerged after the birth of refined cuisine are included. In the European culinary culture, where six main trends have been experienced in a period of approximately 350 years, radical changes have occurred that also affected other cultures. 
The emergence of modern restaurants in the second half of the 18th century and the commercialization of Refined Kitchen and cuisine as a result of the political, social and economic developments have also led to the emergence of a sector with a size of approximately 2 trillion dollars in the 21st century. Especially since the beginning of the 19th century, competition and economic conditions in the sector have shaped the refined cuisine to a large extent, and the culinary trends that have emerged as a reflection of important developments in the world have also been the main factors determining the qualities of restaurants. This multi-faceted interaction has brought creativity and dynamism along, contributing to the continuous development of refined cuisine as a commercial product as well as the economic growth of the sector. 
Every new trend that emerged after the refined kitchen was significantly influenced by the previous ones. In fact, it is one of the issues that should be emphasized whether the change movements in the kitchens are carried out with a scientific basis or commercial concerns. Because it is seen that both concerns are experienced in the Nouvelle Cuisine movement, which comes after the Refined Cuisine movement. 
While subjects such as the chemical properties of food, its effects on health, its functions in the body and its digestion were handled with scientific concerns, it seems that the rules such as reducing the portions and bringing simpler presentations to the forefront, and perhaps most importantly, the application of Taylorism in restaurants, are handled with commercial concerns. This trend, which lasted until the 1960s, did not end with the emergence of innovative restaurants and chefs from the moment their contributions to the development of the culinary art came to a standstill. 
What is Refined Kitchen?
It has paved the way for restaurant businesses to compete as "traditional" and "innovative". The avant-garde movement encouraged both chefs and businesses to carry out scientific and artistic perspectives in the kitchen in parallel with the developments in the world. The following trends have approached culinary science and art with a technology-intensive perspective, and the kitchen has become global.  
Although digital gastronomy, which has become increasingly widespread in the 21st century, seems like a fantastic trend at first glance, considering the path it has taken since the emergence of molecular gastronomy, which was initially described as a fantasy; contains clues about future trends that need to be carefully considered. There is a need for studies to predict the possible consequences of both molecular gastronomy and digital gastronomy trends in terms of consumers and businesses. 
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As the head chef Ahmet ÖZDEMİR, I see the source:
To Mr. Mustafa AKSOY and Mr. I sincerely thank Emir Hilmi ÜNER for his related academic work and wish him success in his professional life. It will definitely be considered as an example by those who need it in the gastronomy and culinary community in professional kitchens.
The original text, which is accepted as a source, is as follows. Google translation was used for the necessary language change.
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