• What are the Cooking Techniques?
  • What are the Cooking Techniques?
  • What are the Cooking Techniques?
  • What are the Cooking Techniques?
  • What are the Cooking Techniques?
  • What are the Cooking Techniques?
  • What are the Cooking Techniques?
  • What are the Cooking Techniques?

Cooking methods in the culinary profession have gained different dimensions with the development of technology. In professional kitchens, meals are prepared with different cooking techniques. In 2021, much more than classical cooking techniques are used by the new generation..

What are the Cooking Techniques?What are the Cooking Techniques?
Coord. Executive Chef 
In professional kitchens, in the world of international gastronomy, in A la Carte Restaurants
What are Cooking Techniques & Cooking Methods?
As a Turkish cuisine chef who acts with the idea of ​​"Knowledge is beautiful and multiplies when shared", I prepared it for future Turkish cuisine chefs... 
I would like to state that I have personally registered the same definition as "Cooking Techniques" on the "Wikipedia" website on August 10, 2021.
Cooking methods in the culinary profession have gained different dimensions with the development of technology. In professional kitchens, meals are prepared with different cooking techniques. In 2021, much more than classical cooking techniques are used by the new generation of kitchen chefs. In today's kitchen types , cooking; It is cooked by keeping it in heat so that foods and foodstuffs can feel the best flavor on the palate. Cooking can be defined as the processing of food with ice, salt, lemon or vinegar-like products without heat.
A professional kitchen chef or cook knows which food ingredient is compatible with which food ingredient, and what kind of cooking method is applied, the best flavor will emerge. Different cooks can create delicious tastes by using different cooking methods with the same products. Although the cuisines of the countries in the world have their own cooking techniques, these cooking methods are mostly similar to each other.
Although Tandoori Cooking, which is one of the most classical cooking techniques in Asian countries, continues to be used, molecular gastronomy, fusion cuisine, refined cuisine and developing kitchen units offer much wider cooking techniques by professional kitchen chefs in developed countries. Among the cuisines using different cooking techniques, Turkish cuisine , French cuisine, Italian cuisine, Chinese cuisine, Japanese cuisine can be shown.
Cooking Techniques & Cooking Methods Used in Traditional Turkish and International Cuisine are as follows;
01 Bibliography
02 Blanching
03 Boiling (Bouilli – Boiling)
04 Cooking In The Tandoor
05 Cooking Without Boiling (Poche-Poaching-Poaching)
06 Cooking with Sauce on a Closed Grill (Barbeque)
07 Roasting
08 Braise-Braising-Breze
09 Dial
10 Cooking with Low Oil and Water (Saute-Sauteing-Saute)
11 Smoked Cooking
12 Frite-Deep Fry-Fat Frying
13 Shallow Poaching
14 Low Fat Cooking (Poelle-Shallow Fry)
15 Polishing, Glazing
16 Grilling (Grille-Grilling-Broiling)
17 Wood Oven Cooking
18 Stewing-Etuve
19 Steaming
20 Cuit Au Pressure-Pressure Cooking-Steaming
21 Roast
22 Kills (Wilting)
23 Cooking in Oil (Confit)
24 Cuit Au Four-Owen Baking
25 Glazing Vegetables
26 Gelification
27 Roast Cooked Vegetables with Basamel Sauce (Graten)
28 Simmer
29 Acid Reaction
30 Cooking with Salt (Curing)
31 Service with Smoke
32 Freeze Cooking (Anti Gridle)
33 Spheroidization
34 Microwave Cooking
35 Baking in Paper (In Papilote)
36 Vacuum Cooking (Sous Vide)
37 Baking
38 Sealing (Sear&Seal)
39 Fermentation
In cooking techniques (methods), besides these, a good cook should have a good grasp of the geography and nature of the material, and at the same time should know well which material should be cooked in the kitchen with which cooking technique. Example in 2022 World "Gastronomy Trends"; Oily fish are cooked on the grill, Glazing is applied so that the vegetables do not lose their color, steak types can be achieved with the Vacuum Cooking technique (Sous Vide) to the desired cooking dimensions (rare), medium cooked (medium), medium well, fully cooked ( Some of the cooking techniques mentioned are often used in luxury à la carte restaurants.
It is also known as shock boiling. Water is used 8-10 times the volume of the product to be boiled. A few minutes after the water boils, the product is removed from the boiling water. This method of boiling is used in meats and vegetables.
Cooking by Boiling (Bouilli – Boiling)
It is a cooking method that is mostly used in foods such as boiled lamb shank, ribs, chicken, and hard meats. According to the type of food, enough water is put into the pot to cover it. When the water boils, the bottom is turned down and the lid is closed and it is expected to cook.
Cooking in the Tandoor
It is a very common cooking method applied especially in Asian countries. Mostly, lamb, chicken meat (Tangri kebab, chicken tandoori tikka) and breads (butter naan, aloo paratha) are cooked on an iron kebab skewer.
Cooking Without Boiling (Poche-Poaching-Poşe)
It is the cooking of food with boiling but not boiling water. (When the water boils, the fire is turned down) The aim is to keep the shape of the food intact. Additional flavoring seasonings can be added to the water for seafood and eggs. Sample; Poultry, poached meat varieties, apple, pear, pumpkin, etc. This cooking technique is used a lot by diet cooks.
Cooking with Sauce on a Closed Grill (Barbeque)
It is a short and long cooking technique with different meat seasonings on a charcoal grill with a lid. The term "barbecue" is used for short-term cooked meats and the lid is not used (the meat to be cooked is in small pieces. Meatballs, Kebab, etc.) Meat to be cooked for a long time is in large pieces. First, the meat is seasoned with a brush and the lid of the barbecue grill is closed so that the smoke penetrates into the meat (mostly oak charcoal is used). Then the meat is wrapped in paper and cooked for 6-8 hours. Meats are checked at different intervals. This method is used a lot in the United States.
Roasting is a meat preservation method used especially in the cuisines of Islamic countries. Mostly, the meat of the animals slaughtered during the feast of sacrifice is cut into cubes and roasted in large cauldrons over low heat or wood fire for a long time (3-4 hours on average, depending on the amount of meat). In ancient Turks, game meat was cooked and stored by roasting.[5]
First Frying Then Boiling (Braise-Braising-Breze)
Pre-prepared sauces and spices and oil are used. It is a cooking method used for game and hard meats, sometimes wine can be used. After the selected product is roasted with additional ingredients in the pot, water and other prepared mixtures are added, the lid is closed, and it is cooked on low heat for a long time. Asian cuisine and (in Turkish cuisine; pot dishes, boiled lamb. In European cuisine; cooking vegetables and side dishes)
The wood fire, charcoal roasting technique is used in the majority of kitchens in the world. Two opposing rods are erected vertically to the right and left of the charcoal prepared on the stove or on the ground, which is used as a grill, with their ends -V-shaped to carry the load. Long skewers consisting of chickens strung on long iron skewers, whole lamb skewered or large pieces of meat strung on skewers are extended over two vertical rods. Long skewers or skewers carrying the type of meat to be cooked by hand or with a machine are regularly turned until the product is cooked. This is a long-term cooking method. The classical method of cooking by turning is mostly used outdoors. The turning technique, which is done in closed areas, is generally done by means of industrial machines.
Cooking with Low Oil and Water (Saute-Sauteing-Saute)
Sauteing technique is one of the most used cooking techniques in international cuisines. Especially in à la carte restaurants, many dishes are cooked with the saute technique, as it is prepared very quickly (8-12 minutes). Sample; meat sauté, mushroom filet mignon, vegetable sauté, shepherd's roast, etc. Sauteing is also flambé if desired. Mostly, pans are also made. First, oil and then the ingredients to be sauteed are added to the frying pan, which is heated on high heat. Sauteed food types contents; It can be made with meat, fish, chicken, vegetables, mixed vegetables with meat varieties, only meat and only vegetables. Tenderloin, ribeye and steak are mostly used because they are softer, especially in sautes where red meat will be used. Additional ready-made sauces and additional water may be used in some types of sauté.
Smoked Cooking (Smoke)
The preferred product is the technique of cooking with smoke. It is the way of preparing food by leaving it in the smoke for a long time at low temperature. For example; meat varieties, fish varieties, poultry, etc. Especially the choice of wood to be used in cooking is important. Because the aroma of that tree will permeate the product.
The most used trees in the smoking cooking technique; oak, maple, beech, apple and cherry. The most used kitchens; Russian cuisine, Chinese cuisine, Japanese cuisine. In Chinese cuisine, flavorings such as tea, rice and sugar are added to the burning wood to make the food smell better.
Cooking in Plenty of Oil (Frite-Deep Fry-Fat Frying)
In order to cook any food in the frying method, the oil should not exceed 160-180 degrees at most. This heat differs in varieties of meat, chicken, fish and vegetables. The most important factor is that the product to be fried is not watery. (If the product is watery, oil splashes around, it is dangerous) The frying basket should not be filled too much to maintain the frying temperature of the oil.
The most used foods in the technique of cooking in plenty of oil; french fries, meat-chicken and fish sinitsel, fried fish, breaded varieties etc. It is the most preferred method in à la carte restaurant kitchens and fast food restaurants. The most used kitchens; Indian cuisine, Chinese cuisine, Arabian cuisine. The most used equipment is the fryer, which is one of the cooking units. Considering other cooking methods, it is not a healthy cooking method (obesity).
Shallow Poaching
The Low Fire Cooking technique is generally used for foods that should not be deformed after cooking or for food products that need to be watered. The fire is fast until the water boils, but as soon as the water boils, the fire is turned down and the lid of the cooking pot is closed. sample; lamb shank, consumé, broth, roasting etc. The cooking time is related to the type of product to be cooked.
Cooking in Low Fat (Poelle-Shallow Fry)
Low Fat Cooking technique is generally used in à la carte restaurant kitchens. Hotel Kitchen Organization, Hotel Kitchen Organization, à la carte cooks are experienced in this field. In the cooking method where mostly liquid oils are used, enough oil to cover the bottom of the pot to be cooked and the product to be cooked are added. 
A medium fire will be sufficient, otherwise the cookware and the product inside will burn. At the same time, a cover must be used (to avoid oil splashing). In this cooking technique, which is also used in kitchens where there is no charcoal grill, portioned meats, fish, chicken, flea, gordon blue, etc. Meals can be cooked. The same process is applied in the sealing process of Meat Cooking techniques and in the hot pan.
Polishing, Glazing (Glaze)
What are the Cooking Techniques?Polishing, Glazing It is used in the preparation of vegetable garnishes used alongside main dishes in hotel kitchens in Kitchen varieties cooked with the "Glaze" technique. In the polishing process, additional materials such as water, wine, broth, butter, sugar are used. This technique is the process of giving flavor to the products that have been cooked together with a cooking process.
Grilling (Grille-Grilling-Broiling)
It is the technique of cooking mostly marinated meats on a charcoal grill (barbecue) or an electric or gas grill. The most important detail to be considered is that the meat varieties to be cooked should be softened by keeping them in seasoning for at least 4-5 hours beforehand. Meat varieties with two-way and 4-way cooking on the grill should be turned in 2-3 minutes depending on the strength of the heat. 
A la Carte Restaurant A la Carte Restaurants and Types of Cuisine Meals cooked in the method used most often in Restaurant Kitchens; grilled fish, chicken skewers, lamb skewers, steak varieties, meatballs, etc. The most important tools when cooking on the grill are the grill irons, wire brush and grill tongs. The Hotel Kitchen Organization Dietary cooks also use fat-free vegetables to cook for some patients.
Wood Oven Cooking
It is a cooking technique that is widely used in the cuisines of Asian countries and in Turkish cuisine culture. In Russian cuisine, French cuisine and Italian cuisine, there are gas or wood, wood-heated black ovens. All kinds of products cooked in electric, gas and coal stoves can also be cooked in the black oven. Since fire bricks are placed on the salt and glass layers on the floor of the black ovens, it has the feature of cooking from both the bottom and the ceiling. A product put in the black oven cooks more healthily and from the inside because it hits heat from all directions.
The fire usually burns on the right side of the black furnace. Products such as pita, lahmacun, meat bread, pizza, which need to be cooked immediately, are cooked a little in the middle, then brought closer to the fire and the top is browned (approximately the total time is 10-12 minutes). Other products in which the black oven is used in the preparation of both economical and healthier slow cooking; casseroles, lamb tandoori, lamb shank, beef ribs, and keskek. Depending on the experience of the master using the oven, many products can be cooked in black ovens. Kitchen Units Thanks to the developing technologies in kitchen units, mobile, gas-operated black oven types are also used in today's kitchen types.
Cooking in its own Juice (Stewing-Etuve)
In addition to the product to be cooked, only flavorings such as oil and tomatoes can be added. The product desired to be cooked is put in a cooking pot with oil and spices and roasted in a high fire. When its own juice comes out, the lid is closed. It is allowed to cook for a long time on low heat in a bottomed pot. It is a cooking technique used in summer and winter vegetables with a high water percentage and meat dishes with sauce. The same technique can be done in the oven.
Steaming (Steaming)
It is a cooking method used on fresh, lean meats, lean fish and vegetables. It is also used in some types of pasta in Chinese cuisine. It is also used in some types of pilaf (Iskilip stuffed) in Azerbaijani cuisine and Turkish cuisine. Steam cooking technique is the method of cooking food in special containers only with water steam without touching the water. Kitchen units in professional kitchens have conventional "combi-steamer" ovens that only produce steam. 
In the kitchen types where there are no ovens with special features, stainless steel containers are used in which a perforated (six-hole) base made of stainless steel is placed. Water is poured into the bottom part, the product to be cooked is placed in the basket, and after boiling, it is cooked by closing the lid. The food placed in the perforated tub is cooked by the passage of steam through the holes. Cooking time varies according to the type of product. This method, which is also used by hot diet cooks in the organization of hotel kitchens, is one of the healthiest cooking techniques. Steamed vegetables placed next to main courses in a la carte restaurants look fresher and their existing colors appear more vivid.
Cuit Au Pressure-Pressure Cooking-Steaming
Pressure cookers Small sizes are used in A la Carte Kitchens. Kitchen types are called steam boilers used in Industrial Kitchens and are large. More than 2/3 of the pot to be used should not be filled. In many businesses, people who will use these pots and cauldrons are given special kitchen training , because it is dangerous. Pressure cookers are used for stove fire, while large pressure boilers work with electricity or gas. If a normal boiled meat is to be cooked in an oven or any pot in 2 hours, it can also be cooked in pressure pots or cauldrons for 20-25 minutes. It is known to give a warning by sounding a whistle when there is too much pressure in the pressure cookers (Pressure cooker) used in the fire.
In general, it is the process of frying the food that has been previously cooked with other cooking methods in the oven. Roasting in the oven (in fan ovens) is done at a temperature of 230-250 degrees. Sample; Vegetable gratin, basamel sauce dishes, Veal Valentine and lamb elbesan are some of these foods. There are also dishes in which the cooking process takes place completely in the oven. In this method, some of the dishes that are only fried on the condition that the oven temperature is increased by cooking the product in the oven at lower temperatures; Chicken roti, lamb tandoori, roast duck and some stuffed olives are some of the dishes prepared using this technique.
Killing (Wilting)
It is a cooking technique mostly used by à la carte cooks in A la Carte Restaurants. It is the name given to reducing the volume of green leafy vegetables and cooking them halfway, as a result of frying them only with olive oil or butter in a pan over high heat for a short time. Most of the food cooked in this technique is used as a side dish to main meat dishes (spinach and vegetables).
Cooking in Oil (Confit)
Among the most used kitchens; Chinese cuisine, Pakistani cuisine, Indian cuisine and Tex-Mex cuisines come. It is especially used in à la carte kitchens and fast food kitchens in these cuisines. Since it is a fast cooking technique, the products are cooked in a very short time (10-14 minutes depending on the type of product). Some foods cooked in the Oil Cooking technique; French fries, schnitzel, fish, Confit, Breaded and covered with crusty sauce. The most important issue is that the products to be fried in oil do not contain water (it is dangerous to put watery foods in hot oil). During the frying of the products in oil, the oil should never be covered with a lid.
Baking (Cuit Au Four-Owen Baking)
It is a method in which different products are cooked with different techniques. Compared to the old ovens, the new fan and conventional ovens provide both wider options and healthier cooking. "Cooking techniques are similar to the methods used in the "Frying in the Oven" technique. According to the thickness and size of the food, aluminum foil or baking paper, greaseproof paper is put on it, and after the products are cooked, these foils or papers are taken and the product is fried on it. The heat, which is generally 180 degrees until the product is cooked, is increased to 200-220 degrees in the frying process. Hotel Kitchen Organization cake masters and Hotel Kitchen Organization in the patisserie kitchenbakers use steam in dough products (bread varieties, pastry, etc.). There is no need to turn the trays upside down as in the old system, because the fan system in the new ovens distributes the heat, ensuring that the product at the bottom of the oven and the product at the top are evenly cooked and browned.
Cooking by Glazing Vegetables
It is a half-cooking method, especially by the diet cooks of the Hotel Kitchen Organization and by the à la carte cooks of the Hotel Kitchen Organization by adding more flavor to the vegetables with additional additives. Dietary meals It is one of the cooking methods mostly used in the preparation of diet meals and vegetables served alongside main grilled meat or grilled chicken dishes.
It is a method used in molecular gastronomy. Different Chemical substance is the name given to the gelling of liquids in different ways by combining chemicals and mixtures. Some of the products used in this technique; methylcellulose, Agar Agar agar-agar, gellan, gelatin, carageenan, gum, pectin, etc. An example of the product is caviar production.
Roast Cooked Vegetables with Basamel Sauce (Gratin)
It is a cooking method that is mostly used in hotel kitchens and à la carte restaurants. It is used in all international cuisines. Béchamel sauce and basamel sauce are added to the vegetables that were previously half boiled and mixed. It is placed on trays with a thickness of approximately 3-4 fingers, and the cheddar cheese and breadcrumbs are thrown on it, and the oven is fried and fully cooked. Example: Vegetable gratin.
What are the Cooking Techniques?
Simmer (Simmer)
Also known as Slimmer. It is a method of cooking in any liquid (water, wine, vegetable juice, water with additives) at 93 degrees. Kitchen Units that perform this task can also be called boiling over low heat in kitchens where there are no kitchen units. In practice, it has similarities with the sous vide cooking technique.
Acid Reaction
It is the technique of cooking the product in a short time with food acids. This cooking method is used in meat varieties with low connective tissue such as seafood and fish (Salmon, sea bream, halibut). Cuisine varieties are the name given to the process of chopping the product to be cooked in à la carte kitchens and cooking it in liquids with high acidity such as lemon juice and vinegar for a certain period of time. Some of the most used kitchens are; Chinese cuisine, Japanese cuisine, Turkish cuisine and Italian cuisine.
Cooking with Salt (Curing)
It means drying. It is the name given to the cooking technique, which is mostly salted, leaving the water and drying of the red meats. Sample; bacon. It is mostly used in Russian cuisine, Turkish cuisine and Asian cuisine. It is also used in some seafood in international cuisines.
Service with Smoke
It is a cooking technique that allows the smoke from different wood chips to be kept in a closed container with the food for a certain time (3-5 minutes), allowing the smoke flavor to pass into the food. Sometimes this can be done by putting the material that will remove the smoke on a separate small plate and closing a glass cover in the à la carte restaurants. When the time comes, the glass cover is opened in front of the guest at the dinner table by the waiter or the cook. As the most used dishes; seafood can be grilled meat dishes, game dishes and chicken dishes. The trees used; cherry wood, Oak, oak wood, Almond, almond wood etc. In some dishes in Japanese and Chinese cuisine, this method is also tried with different flavors by burning green tea varieties, sugar and rice. This preference is usually made by the restaurant guest.
Freeze Cooking (Anti Gridle)
Kitchen types equipped with high technology are from hotel kitchens and kitchen types. Kitchen types are a cooking method made in the form of freezing the product used in a la carte kitchens. There is a very strong freezer unit under the flat steel grill and it gives its coldness to the grill. Sample; Fresh fruit mixed ice creams from flavored milk made on demand. Anti-gridle technique provides instant freezing of products that are placed or spilled on it.
It is a cooking technique used in molecular gastronomy. With different chemical additives, the inside of the food remains liquid, while the outside forms a gel-like crust. It is a cooking method in which small spheres and oval egg-like shapes are obtained in the cooking technique that varies according to the product used. This cooking technique is called "Spherification" in some cuisines. Additional materials used in cooking water; calcium Lactic acid, lactate, sodium alginate etc.
Microwave Cooking
It is a cooking method using radio waves produced by using electrical energy without any fire or gas. This method is most commonly used in home kitchens. The microwave oven starts cooking or heating in the desired program by revealing the water molecules in the food item placed in the microwave oven by shaking method.
The vibrating water molecules of the microwave create the desired heat. The food is completely cooked or warmed by the friction force, the heat generated by the water molecules through friction. Microwaves, which are the most common Kitchen Units, are used for many different purposes in kitchen types.
Baking on Paper (In Papilote)
It is a cooking technique used in sensitive food products. Fish or meat products are cooked by wrapping them in baking paper to prevent them from being damaged by high heat in the oven. Sometimes, flavorings such as garlic, fruit leaves and tomatoes are added to these baking papers to add flavor to the product. The cooking time of the product varies according to the type used and the preferred temperature. Sample; Fish in paper, sardines in vine leaves.
Cooking in Vacuum (Sous Vide)
In this cooking method (Sous Vide), also called vacuum cooking, the food is cooked in nylon bags at constant low temperature (57-60 °C) for a long time by vacuuming. The fact that the foods used with this cooking method do not lose water and oil in any way, reveal magnificent tastes. In à la carte restaurants, famous chefs use additional flavorings in vacuum bags.
Baking (Baking)
Cuisine types from professional kitchens are the cooking method used mostly in hotel kitchens and A la Carte Restaurants and à la carte restaurants. The method of cooking and frying half-cooked meat in the desired dimensions in ovens by wrapping it in specially made dough. Sample; veal wellington
Sealing (Sear&Seal)
It is the process of cooking mostly red meats in a pan with hot oil (it is preferred that the animal's own fat) is cooked for a short time, with the outer surfaces of them back to back. The reason for this is to ensure that the meat does not release its own juices during cooking in the pot (cooking techniques, roasting) or on the grill. The duration of the sealing process does not exceed 3-4 minutes depending on the size of the piece of meat.
I would like to state that I have personally registered the same definition as " Cooking Techniques " on the " Wikipedia " website on August 10, 2021 .
In the international gastronomy world in professional kitchens , Hotel Kitchen Organization related to Cooking Techniques in A la Carte Restaurants , "What are the Cooking Techniques" institutional organization in kitchen types, Ottoman palace cuisine and hierarchical order in the kitchen are some of the works of Has Chef Ahmet Özdemir in Wikipedia.
I would like to state that I have created 44 items related to international cuisines and Turkish cuisine on the "Wikipedia" website, and that I have edited 214 articles by entering additional information. 
Important note:
I am writing these articles so that  Turkish Culinary Culture and Turkish Cuisine  can come to better standards in Turkey and in the world  . Sharing my knowledge. Information is beautiful and multiplies as it is shared... You can copy it, you can also share it on social networks or other sites. But please do this by  citing the source  , do not share it like your own article...
Ahmet Ozdemir
Coord. Executive Chef 
International Restaurant and Cuisine Consultant
Ottoman and Turkish Cuisine World Volunteer Ambassador
*** You can contact me through my contact information for more information on the subjects specified by labeling, taking into account my professional background in the above article, and to get support for Restaurant ConsultingKitchen Consulting  in the titles within my Service Areas. ***
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The original text, which is accepted as a source, is as follows. Google translation was used for the necessary language change.